Abstract: Shangzhou District Chengguan town dialect known as conduct research from a linguistic point of view, five types: Diminutive form of sorting out the dialect overlapping class prefix "tiny and fine class suffix" children son, of Wazi and Ga sub, transposition and hybrid and pointed the Shangzhou dialects small, said means less use of additional affixes voice means sound variant.
Keywords: Shangluo dialect: Small, said: "sub" prefix
Document code: A Article ID :1674-0033 (2010) 01-0036-03
The the Shangzhou belonging to the Northern dialect area, but in the transition zone of the Qinchu, due to the large number of southern provinces residents move into the the Shangzhou dialect internal render "customer partnerships words" and "local, then" differences, thus Shangzhou territory dialect is more complex, and can be roughly divided into the the three dialects piece: the Dongxiang if (shahezi, Yang Wenyuhe, Zhang Village, Night Village and Montenegro, the Xixiang then (Chengguan Ma Street, Black Longkou Yang oblique and North Township, then ( Dajing, waist, Banqiao and North Kuanping to Chengguan, then as an example to describe the the the Shangzhou dialect Diminutive tone change. the defined the dialect sector called "do not form a unified understanding. Shiqi Sheng Wu Wei, Wang Ai-Ai that small called core meaning is, "said the small", Xiao-Nong Zhu initial righteousness and the core meaning of the little known is the "intimacy" This paper mainly studies the Shangzhou dialect DIMINUTIVES five basic form of a noun mainly involves some verbs, adjectives and less quantifier. said Diminutive mainly refers to the the noun table pinkie love, some adjectives table favorite, a short table of some verbs of certain quantifiers table less.
First, the overlap
Nouns (including kinship terms, such as Grandpa, Mom, Dad, the overlap is small and significance favorite part verbs, adjectives and quantifiers overlap noun that means a small sense.
(A noun overlap
Two monosyllabic nouns overlap constitute "AA", "small and minor" significance. Example: Bottle small Pinger bowl bowl bowl children, truck stroller tray Small children dolls Xiaowa, table table small table, Tanks small jug, books and small, all things to the image plane, like the small things, small balls kids play ball, hastily grass stool stool stool, when the overlap of the two terms refer to children a site, they have a "favorite, cordial and small" mean. example: foot feet, face, face, hand to hand, Zuizui, eye to eye, legs, legs and other Shangzhou dialect names with the word "AA" term of endearment role.: month, obviously, Yangyang, shiny, etc. In addition, individual nouns overlap Diminutive flower flowers general, head of the leadership ".
The Shangzhou dialect a special language phenomenon, is the overlap of the two-syllable noun modifying a noun or noun component, said small significance, the meaning of the image color. Example: doll onion shallot seedlings, child marriages both men and women age very small, laid down in marriage by their parents, baby celery celery, baby cabbage, Chinese cabbage, the baby cabbage head the grow up Potherb smaller baby face looks like a child's face, hairy [rriu35rriu21] baby Pan means a newborn child, ring ring ring ring like jujube looks like jujube, root cigarette different from the boxed smoke.
(B verb overlap
Shangzhou dialect verb overlap with nouns parts of speech, the small significance.: Cap Gail, circle circle hook hook children, pad pad pad children, children shovel shovel shovel.
(C adjectives overlap
Shangzhou dialect adjective overlap the following forms:
Two-syllable adjectives overlap constitute "AA"-style, said that small has the significance of the term. Example: the sharp tip of the rotten rotten refers to a small scar, some hard things the hard, Yan Yan plants slightly dehydrated, sour and acid-child slanting objects a little oblique, some bending of curved objects, the a gentle object's temperature some warm, YY objects a little crooked.
Overlapping two-syllable adjectives constitute "AA + children," said the small significance. Example: pointy sub smb, slanting child objects a little oblique, curved sub-objects some bending, Managing sub-objects the temperature some warm, YY sub objects a little crooked.
Overlapping two-syllable adjectives constitute "AA + children (style" (where the second A to reread for example: children clear (slightly clear, vain children (slightly white, blue child (the light blue, red Red child (light red long children (the somewhat long.
(D quantifiers overlap
Monosyllabic quantifiers overlap into the "AA \ AA sub \ AA children" become a noun, a little known role of these words: tuft, furrow, bundle, Da, string, point, section, heap, pile, pills, line, tone, swing wide furrow. quantifiers overlap into some monosyllabic "AA \ AA sub \ AA children after no small said.: side along.
Class prefix "tiny and fine
(A class prefix "tiny"
Shangzhou people to "small" called "tiny", and "large" relative child children called "tiny baby" or "tiny Aberdeen children, such as" this tiny baby really naive! "<< Guangyun Tai Yun >> "tiny, small appearance. << Zuo Zhao Gong seven >> Zheng Although there is no shy, suppression tiny child saying country, and III, the executive of the government handle." "tiny and broken" in Shangluo dialect pronounced the same, so "tiny" writing "broken".
"Tiny + noun or noun morpheme = noun" such as: a tiny table, small table desk, tiny stool small stool, a tiny pig pig doll, tiny chicken chicks baby, tiny cat baby kitten baby, tiny cow calf baby, tiny bottle Pinger, a tiny bowl small bowl, this tiny small children, tiny hole shallow hole, tiny needles are small and fine needle, tiny baby younger children, born near a dog or a relatively large dog, tiny Structure of Seven tiny sticks of fine branches children, tiny things less important things.
"Tiny + verb = noun 'example: tiny volumes the small volumes child, the tiny cover small Gail tiny circle small circle, tiny the hook small hook children, tiny pad small pad children, tiny shovel small shovel children.
Tiny + verb = quantifier "for example: tiny cut a small cut child tiny string a small bunch of children, tiny Volume small volumes child, tiny heap a small heap at.
In addition, the Shangzhou also the smallest children called "old broken" (old and young, "My family and old broken a couple of years friends." Diminutive body type, also known as "broken", "I do not eat the baby dry long, all-year-old friends or a broken pier children. "
(B) The class prefix "fine"
"Fine + noun" Shangzhou words sometimes also used to represent the meaning of "small and thin" and "big and coarse relative. Example: twigs, sand block sand or fine soil blocks soil, fine Wind small wind, carefully things cautious, rain, drizzle a small waist is very thin fine dog good bashing was the rabbit a dog.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
Class suffix "child, son, Wazi (children and Ga sub
(One class suffix "children"
Where the children decorated only children tail and child. The monosyllabic nouns children small representation of meaning, can constitute the "A + children"-style. Example: hole child shallow hole, the children, Pinger, jug, table children chair children, bowls children the horse, Cacalia, Gail small cap, white children, Fenger slits the small hole Yaner, spoon child children tsp children, this child little book, said the child's body some part of monosyllabic nouns children Phytocide said small mean, showing affection For example: Jiaoer, fair face, hands child, Zuier, Yaner, errands, etc..
As already discussed monosyllabic nouns (including the representation of the noun overlap into AA type little known role, coupled with the child and can be expressed to the meaning of the "favorite" constitute "AA + children" type. Example: bags children packet children, Qunqun, children refers specifically to the small foam children of the little girl's skirt, Momo child bubble children small bubbles, and leaves children, Xu Xu children, Sui Sui child, atrial children, cabinet cabinet child, boxes of children roads lead to children, all children, Taurus child small insects, Miao Miao children plant seedlings, Mama children children's toys, cage cage children alone children confines children, table table children chair chairs children, bottle Pinger, cans jug, so children Shui children vinegar water of children, spiced water of children and so on.
Many monosyllabic name quantifiers overlap into AA style and children, both small, said the role of another term of endearment role. Example: piles of children, the piece of the child, departments and regions, children, were left out, Dundun children, Box box child, Zhang children, Page child, Da Da, children and so on.
A far cry from the children of whether or not the meaning of some words. Example: Po blue baskets surface, drying the surface of the appliance, the larger diameter of about three feet and Po blue children Po blue, such as needlework Po the Blue children, some many Some children and so little.
In Shangzhou dialect orientation word of does not mean that small and favorite mean for example: the east coast of children the east, the south side of the south bank of children, west of the West Bank children, north of the north shore of children, Chennai shore child that side, Wu shore children that face, Shore A child which surface, the mountain caused shore child side of the mountain, the south bank of child road south, and so on.
(Second class suffix "sub"
The Shangzhou dialect "sub" << Ciyuan> received Diminutive Usage: "(II) suffix, such as a house, flag, marbles, release body of Shiming:" the Tongzi ....... child, Diminutive also. " Shangzhou dialect noun plus "child", can a person can also referring to things, but only monosyllabic nouns referring to things (including quantifiers overlap constitute "AA sub, most of which contain the meaning of" small "example: bags the subpackages children, Skirts specifically refers to the little girl's skirt, Momo sub fine foam upon the son Bubble Bubble, leaves leaves, Xu Xu child, Sui ears, piles of sub-room house, cabinet cupboard, box box, all roads sub everyone sub-piece film, the beef sub small insects, Miao Miao sub-plants the seedlings.
Some terms represents the minimum time after a noun plus "sub-sub-sub-constitute" noun + sub-sub-sub ", three" sub "pronunciation than a light, the last one" child "Note softly.
For example: the stone, the stone sub-sub-sub-minimum
Sand sand sub-sub-minimum,
Broken sub-sub-sub scolded children with language: "I put your broken sub-sub-sub."
(Three categories suffix "Wazi (children"
Can be added to some nouns said animal "Wazi (wanderers)", said the small and cute, cattle, for example: Wazi (wanderers, wool Wazi (the wanderers, Gouwa child (toddlers, pigs Wazi (wanderers, chicken Wazi (wanderers), rabbit Wazi (wanderers, monkey Wazi (wanderers cat Wazi (wanderers.
(The four categories suffix "Ga sub"
Shangzhou dialect verb plus "Ga child", said the "V-mean. Example: see Ga sub-look, says Ga sub, to listen to listen to sweep Ga sub Ga sub sweep eat Ga sub eat, drink Ga sub-drink, the taste Ga child try the trial Ga child try to end end Ga sub Amoy Ga sub Amoy dig dug Ga sub-plow Ga sub-plow, pouring Ga sub pouring picking Ga sub-picking about the amount of Ga sub Measure, hinges Ga sub hinge, closing Ga sub resumption, etc..
(A) overlap sandhi
General nouns and adjectives overlap, the tone change rule is as follows: after the overlap of the two-syllable noun or adjective A falling tone type to the Hinata tune, in other tune type inside the same tune. Foot to foot, Tajiri Tajiri, socks knife, tall, sour (2121: 35) the hand hand, Zuizui, face face, good, to say the least, soft (53 53:35), pee, Dudu, PowerPhone noodles , rotten, rotten, the Smelly (5555), a red, long, blue (3535).
(Two children, then modulation
Be children of the word is a flat tone, the children after reading Hinata tone, such as child-dong, Pinger, Cacalia, Gail, white children, spoon children; being children of the word is Shangsheng, Falling, children read tone of, such as children, jug, chairs children, horses, tables children bowl children, seam, feeling nervous, the other children.
AA-syllable children after reading Hinata tone, such as: tables tables children, pot pot children, bags, children, Tanks children, door gate child, wheel round children, Woods children.
The said in Shangzhou dialect four kinds Diminutive form is not a single, sometimes two or three at the same time use.
(A class prefix "tiny" + overlap
The class prefix'' tiny ', + overlap to represent small mean: tiny bowl bowl, tiny pot pot, broken bottles, tiny books, tiny pots, tiny jars.
(B overlap + class suffix "children"
Overlap + class suffix child represents small and favorite mean plus monosyllabic nouns in this structure, the formation of a special structure and special significance: the copies of envy meal insanity insanity children smoke, water of children face, box the box child powder, balls children meat, bottle Pinger wine.
(C nouns overlap + class suffix "sub"
Said the noun overlap + the class suffix subpresentation the smaller the significance of this part, see (b.
Shangzhou dialect before a noun plus some modifiers to indicate that the 'short distance, objects small "significance. Example: a two-step way, tooth grows a little way to describe a very short distance, rest on our laurels onions, old persimmon small size grow up and mature late persimmon, seven inches snake, some crop plants noun followed by'' seedlings (seedling 'small table, such as: onion seedling, garlic seeds, seedlings (seedling, eggplant seedlings (seedling corn Miao Miao, tomatoes Miao Miao, some said animal nouns, except followed baby Wazi (children in the form of the specific table small form, such as: the calves (child, foal mule foal, lamb sub.
The Shangzhou dialects belonging to the Northwest dialect film the Guanzhong dialects, it is mainly in the form of small, known five: overlapping, the additional class prefix, additional class suffix, transposition and mixed relative to other dialects of the Guanzhong dialect, Shangzhou dialect said said following characteristics: 1, off in most of these sites dialect child phenomenon, a small part of the dialect a little tail forms a syllable, but more Shangzhou District child or child Last word, and most said that small and favorite mean, it's obvious by the dialect was chosen overlap formula tail like nouns, verb plus "Ga sub" indicates that the action of a short, added certain terms "sub-sub-sub said minimum, these surrounding has a very close relationship of dialect contact and blend these emerged the dialect features Shangzhou .2, two-syllable nouns overlap modify nouns or noun ingredient, which is a highlight of the dialect Shangzhou short, Shangzhou dialect Diminutive use of additional of affixes and children of the main means of voice means less sound variant.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com