Papers Category:Literature And Art Papers
- Chinese Language Papers
Post Time:2012-7-29 11:00:00
Abstract: avoidance strategy is the psychological behavior of second language learners in the process of language use through interviews and observation methods, a preliminary study of avoidance strategy for Central Asian students in Chinese language learning process.
Paper Keywords: Central Asia, the students; avoidance strategy
CLC: H0 Document code: A Article ID :1009-0118 (2011-11-0-02
First, the research background The concept of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, strategy, learning strategies, communication strategies and social strategies.
Foreign communication strategy began in the 1970s, have developed rapidly in the 1980s. Tarone (1977:197) to Communication Strategies is divided into five main categories and several sub-categories: (1) avoidance (avoid the topic, to give up the content); (2) quoted (approximate, that is to use synonyms and other single structure; convoluted, that is, for example, or descriptive characteristics; coinage. according to the rules of the language to create a virtually non-existent word); (3) borrow their mother tongue (native language interpreter, language conversion); (4) help, such as questions; (5) to imitate sign language. Tarone's taxonomy covers the communication strategy basic types, the study of the communication strategy had a profound impact. Faerch & Kasper (1983a), Communication Strategies divided into two categories: the learner to bypass obstacles, avoiding the difficulties, he is evasive strategy; if the learner is to find ways to solve the problem, he is the achievement strategies. Ellis (1984) in the study pointed out: a large number of quoted and not evade learners better than a lot of learner performance be avoided because they can express more information; neither evade also not relayed learners perform better because they use the language more natural, more direct, more from a stylistic point of view accepted by people.
Second, the avoidance strategy in the form of
Central Asia, the primary seven class of students on the avoidance strategy used by the Chinese learning through observation and interviews have the following:
(On the topic of evading
I surveyed the class, I have given a number of topics, such as: family, shopping, recreational activities, study life, history, culture, tourism, political and military, students begin to learn Chinese the most talked about family, friends and study the topic of life, occasionally some will choose shopping and tourism, and no one to talk about the history, culture and military, the main reason is that students begin to learn Chinese language level is very low, the military and political terms is almost zero, so that they would be interested in avoid certain topics.
(Withdrawal of the two pairs of words
Chinese is the language of isolation to isolate the main features of the language is the lack of inflection, word order is very strict, can not just change the role of function words is very important, the grammatical relationships between words, in addition to word order, by function words to express so function words for both a focus for students is also the difficulty many Central Asian students in the use of function words to take evasive strategy. Feel empty word is too difficult to master, afraid of the wrong.
Chinese Function Words in a small number of modern Chinese, only about more than 700, but its high frequency of use, and a strong personality, the use of complex, errors of foreigners to learn Chinese often in function words, function words as far as possible avoid the use of .
Needs to be emphasized is that function words in the quantifier is the difficulty of learning Chinese is also a key Central Asian students in the process of learning Chinese fear of quantifiers with wrong to take evasive strategy, often on the quantifier, and beginners quantifier contact more fewer students not to use one of the reasons of the quantifier. The students begin to learn Chinese prefer more homely terms, while avoiding the use of significance, the use of more complex words.
Students to use when the expression of the target language, words are the most prominent and most frequent use of evasive because the choice of vocabulary use than especially in the vocabulary of more than 3,000 intermediate level (Grade level outline of Chinese proficiency vocabulary word 1000, Grade B word 2000), their choice of magnitude can be very different expression of the students tended to be simplified is still very widespread. few reason, first, by the limitations of the vocabulary available to mobilize the positive word in the mind's thesaurus; two psychological demand, the habit of using those simple, less error-prone words. Complex words are like the use of avoidance strategy. Particularly want to mention is that many beginners will avoid some verbs, instead of using body language.
This non-verbal method of communication, this is the language aids, when the students completely instead of its language, evasive tendencies.
(Withdrawal of the three pairs of characters
Pinyin or English students sent me text messages, almost no Chinese characters, even the use of Chinese characters, is also forwarded to someone else to write some auspicious words and sometimes chat will be used to draw contact and students, little of a few can draw one of a kind, can be avoided and write complex Chinese characters, and also avoid to say that the pronunciation of the things. send text messages without using Chinese characters and the phone's features, the phone does not have Chinese characters in the form of many students. but many students' work and writing are filled with spelling, some students can not adapt to the Chinese character that difficult Chinese characters, a little attention would be wrong, it will avoid using.
(Four pairs of forms of expression, avoid
Students learn to master the unique Chinese sentence to be difficult, so in the case of some freedom of choice, often avoiding the use of complex sentence, with a simple sentence such as passive sentences, "the" words such as sentence type, in teaching is taught as an important language points to training, but evident in the students' language use evasive psychological with dynamic particle "" sentences, the students also showed a tendency to avoid using no or alternative way to bypass the use of "words to express the results affect the correct expression.
In addition, the students almost without the associated words, which means that almost no complex sentence even if the use of complex sentences, at most "... so" "But / But" visible, relatively simple associated words and complex sentence forms more frequent, more complex semantic relationship is relatively less use.
Three, avoiding the phenomenon of why
Withdrawal phenomenon in second language learning process, applied linguistics theory of the same analysis, more prominent acquisition theory, error analysis theory and comparative analysis of the theory. Krashen (1982) Acquisition monitoring mode in the theory of this phenomenon are analyzed.
According to the monitoring mode, can stimulate the expression of second language acquisition, and to ensure fluent expression, while learning can only play a monitoring role, to amend the language skills already learned. To carry out effective monitoring, three conditions must be met, : plenty of time to focus on the accuracy of the forms of and understand grammar rules. these three conditions are necessary but not sufficient, that is, when all three conditions are met, learners may still not fully consciously learned grammar rules to monitor. conscious monitoring can only note and correct some errors. native language rules to meet the communication needs of second language learners' second language grammar rules, due to the difference between the native language rules and language rules, tend to cause errors and conscious monitoring is not always possible to correct such errors. If the rectification work is too complex to be completed immediately, the learner may be abandoned and the use of a simple expression of this is to avoid the causes of the phenomenon.
TheovanEls et al (1983) analysis of the limitations of error analysis, interpretation of some second language learning with an error analysis is very elusive, because these issues can not corpus-based study reflected a typical example of this is to avoid the phenomenon. due to the withdrawal of some of the vocabulary and structure will not cause errors, can only make the performance of these terms and structure, "and naturally can not use the error analysis explanation. According to their analysis, avoiding the phenomenon may have two reasons (TheovanEls, 1983:63): (1) the learner is not obvious that the difference between L1 and L2 (2) learners that L1 and L2 between a huge difference. Share the very difference between the free paper download center http://eng.hi138.com
L1 and L2 language learners will lead to avoiding the use of certain vocabulary and structure, because they suspect that the two languages between completely parallel to the syntactic structure and word structure, assuming that this corresponds to not exist, the phenomenon is known as the language does not trust., Els, and others also cited for the second factor to produce avoidance phenomenon the Schachter study of restrictive relative clauses, because there is a huge difference between Chinese, Japanese and English, Chinese and Japanese learners recognize that learning difficulties, thus avoiding the use of relative clauses. a lower error rate description they use relative clauses, no doubt, while the frequency of use is less is precisely the description of the structure is not sure.
Early comparative analysis assumes that the main obstacle to the interference of the mother tongue of the target language, second language acquisition and comparative analysis of the structure of the native language and target language to identify the differences between them, to determine the difficulty of learning the target language, which can predict the error in the learning process. In other words, the difference between the language is the cause of your error. With evade phenomenon gradually realized, the comparative analysis of the assumptions predicted the target language learning difficulties may not be in the wrong form of appear, but an evasive manner reflected in the learning process.
Relevant Teaching Strategies for the avoidance strategy
For the avoidance strategy in the students' learning, we should adopt appropriate teaching responses:
(A correct understanding of evading
Students using avoidance strategy, both positive and also have a negative meaning, but language learning point of view, the negative significance far greater than the positive aspects of the positive significance on many occasions, students use the avoidance strategy both possible to achieve ideal results may also implement some or all of communicative purposes. negative sense, if the students long-term avoidance strategy, to renounce the use of the language of expression that should be used, the Chinese language proficiency of students is difficult to develop and improve language output. Therefore, teachers make it clear to the students the positive and negative effects of the avoidance strategy, pay attention to cultivating the students' language learning concept.
(B correctly deal with the error Application error is natural, inevitable.
In the teaching process, teachers should correct view of the language of the students committed errors, and try to avoid harsh and blunt correction. To this end, teachers must first distinguish between the type of error , in order to strengthen targeted to correct the error, followed by attention to correcting the timing. sentence drills, for example, students 'errors should immediately be corrected, in order to strengthen students' impression of the correct form of language in the classroom communication process, especially during the language, you should not at any time to correct errors, so as not to create tension, to interrupt the students' thinking. Finally, select the appropriate correction, master of error correction techniques, for example, can give students some kind of implication, suggesting that students aware of the error and correct the error. Also, when students do oral practice, teachers do not face repeatedly pointed out the error, it will interrupt the students' ideas, so that students feel nervous and awkward, so use the avoidance strategy, it should be in the student complete the task and then pointed out to them errors.
(C expand the language input Language need to use students to receive a lot of linguistic information and hardened to retain stored in the brain.
The Krashen input assumptions (Inputhypothesis,) stressed the requirements of the intelligibility of the language input materials and the full amount of language materials can help students consolidate their language knowledge, and strengthen the language skills, encourage them freely in the use of words, sentences and other linguistic means to mobilize stored learning was transformed into the use requires a large number of accumulation. language materials accumulated limited, communication inevitably encounter difficulties, communication is difficult to proceed.
Chinese language classroom learning process, students often have many opportunities to practice, such as between students and teachers exchanges between students, classroom debates, panel discussions, some students are very cautious in these activities, often relatively conservative and passive strategies, or not bold, active, free to speak Chinese, and put themselves in the passive situation of the activities, or to avoid the fan on the simple, he did not grasp the knowledge, not daring to use. in the usual teaching and training, good at creating a relaxed and harmonious learning environment, encourage the students the courage to speak, positive statements, to mobilize students to use the enthusiasm of the new words, new phrases, new sentence, to help students overcome psychological barriers.
(Five to implement set formal guide
Teachers not only should be revised language on the error, but also to guide students in the use of the language more in line with the stage of the standard. Students to complete the expression, is likely to rise to the more complex and accurate language is a timely reminder that the revised. V.
Avoidance strategy as a communicative strategy, it can help students overcome the language barrier encountered due to the lack of language skills, but if you use the avoidance strategy, it will have a negative impact on the students' learning process, leading to some errors form of language in the language use of "curing" Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language, to take the various forms of restrictions on students to use the avoidance strategy to encourage students across the language barrier, step by step to improve the ability to use language. Share Free paper Download Center http://eng.hi138.com