From Chopsticks Japanese Culture

Abstract: This paper feeding through this tool to analyze Japanese chopsticks culture. Japan and China belong to the Chinese cultural circle and chopsticks Circle. Introduced to Japan from China after chopsticks diet gained popularity in life and develop and produce a unique chopsticks culture chopsticks length and shape has been transformed, with China the use of bamboo chopsticks are different, many wooden chopsticks in Japan, shorter, thick tail tip, to better adapt to the Japanese diet and more cold, Fencan system features. Japanese chopsticks also And because users differ, a children's special chopsticks, adults-only chopsticks, chopsticks special guests, also men and women chopsticks. utility and convenience chopsticks chopsticks chopsticks produced are due to the Japanese that the soul will remain in use after the above, can not let others defiled his soul leaving his face catastrophe in the use of chopsticks as many as dozens of taboos, which in addition to indecent behavior, but some also have a relationship and funerals.

Keywords: chopsticks, chopsticks cultural circles, soul, taboos, Japanese culture, titles of papers in Japanese chopsticks called "chopsticks." In accordance with the cultural history >> << chopsticks Full records, Japan's first official use of chopsticks in Sui Pei Shiqing mission's visit to Japan palace banquet. Sui envoy Prince Shotoku listened Ono sister for a description of the Sui Dynasty palace banquet, decided to use Chinese etiquette hospitality Chinese missions, "chopsticks food system" in this introduction to Japan. With the Japanese cultural development, to the Nara period (710-784, with Tangfeng Sheng OK, chopsticks into ordinary Japanese family, "Don chopsticks" in the Japanese diet gained popularity and development.

1. Chopsticks Circle for food if the meal the way as a benchmark, the world can be divided into three parts: the hands-accounted for 40 percent, with chopsticks and a knife and fork for each three percent. Chopsticks Circle, including China, Vietnam, Korea and Japan etc., which happens to coincide with Chinese cultural circle and with other countries combined with chopsticks spoon different, the Japanese only use chopsticks, including when to drink miso soup Japanese cuisine that allow direct contact with your mouth to drink the soup bowl, and in Chinese soup when you use the "re nn ge" (spoon, due to the shape withered lotus named.

Japanese "chopsticks" The motto reads and Japanese Kanji "side", "bridge" the same as the Japanese identity Confucian culture, "chopsticks" basically followed the Chinese philosophy. "End" refers to a material chopsticks made of bamboo or wood is only a partial, but also Chopsticks can be used to indicate the shape of the "first square foot circle", the "heaven" and "earth" as a single entity, the performance of people on earth gave food thanksgiving character "side" have dignified, correct meaning, it is also required to take chopsticks manners to be dignified. bowl of food and mouth between the need for a "bridge" to eat. Visible, "chopsticks" in Japanese pronunciation training in reading is very clever and exquisite. celebration called using "too chopsticks" ( soft と ば expands) the word chopsticks, chopsticks middle of this muster, said a use by the gods, the other end by the people to use chopsticks played a role of a bridge, reflects the unity of the Japanese people's religious ideas of God.

Although it is not the Japanese invented chopsticks word nation, but in 1975 will be on August 4 as "chopsticks Full Day" because Japanese "chopsticks" read as "wa (8 expands (4)." Chopsticks every year festival, housewife We have to buy new chopsticks, burning old chopsticks to promote the proper use of chopsticks, chopsticks for human meals thanks to the contribution of the Japanese research shows that chopsticks clever use of leverage, people eat with their dexterity, you can train the brain to make it flexible, people use chopsticks to take food, there are more than 80 joints and 50 muscles in motion, and with the brain related.

Tada Michitaro chopsticks as "Advanced Tools", "carefully examine fork, you will find a fork in fact extends longitudinally from the human finger, that is a human finger fork extension." "In contrast, must be holding two chopsticks small stick to operate, if not add operation, the tool can not play its role. "chopsticks many useful features that can pick, dial, turn, grilled, picking, fishing, poke, pinch, whether cooking is fried, fried , boiling, roasting, frying, grilling, or whether the object is a wire, sheets, strip, D, pill, blocks, sheets together as long as the flexible rotation telescopic provoke, all can be achieved. "finger dexterity when operating from this point of view, might be able to say is the most advanced tools chopsticks, fork anyway at this point are not dominant. "

Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
2. Absorption and transformation of Japanese bamboo chopsticks chopsticks and China compared to many wooden, slightly shorter, pointed thick tail, because many raw food diet, such as sashimi, Japanese chopsticks conical tip into a high pitched, more convenient to use the Chinese people in a lot of people around the table to eat, use long chopsticks can easily clip to distant dishes, you can also someone else to take their food, while the Japanese meal, have a meal in front of each person, so the Japanese chopsticks do not need that long.

Japanese chopsticks and because users differ, a children's special chopsticks, chopsticks adults only, as well as special guests chopsticks and even also men and women, male female ratio chopsticks chopsticks thick and long, couple jobs, too, men than female big, so it looks women eat less, you can show the elegant woman.

Chopsticks are used when cooking "food chopsticks" and "real fish chopsticks" than eating with chopsticks long, about three to four centimeters in order to prevent odor, to put a plate with vegetables when "food chopsticks", cutting and placing chicken, fish with "real fish chopsticks", this scene in the ancient picture can also be seen from the charcoal brazier used when taking metal chopsticks called "fire chopsticks (ひ ば expands" (tongs.

Directly with their own chopsticks to take food from the dish is called "straight chopsticks (じ ka ば expands." Eating sashimi platter or pot time if not equipped with a "take ri chopsticks" (Public chopsticks, the Japanese request to the waiter, Or put their chopsticks upside down, with his mouth does not touch the other end of the gripping food. "over the top" in the Japanese also prepared a "take ri dish" (small plates, the food first with "take ri chopsticks" folder to "take ri dish "before eating in front of the occasion, if drunk with chopsticks forget which side to take food from the market in the folder, very considerate hospitality side will not tell inverted chopsticks, to display its kind and considerate.

3 convenient chopsticks invented in the Meiji three years (1897 until the Japanese meal has its own "dining table", similar to the current "bantam table", on which stood a good variety of meals and dishes Although this tradition has changed, but not disappeared. now Japanese family, the members have their own dishes, kids will say their parents chopsticks "unclean" and refused to use, although most parents and some dishes did not belong to a person for education, but in the traditional Japanese children grow up in families heart, still there is a sense of special dishes are not allowed to touch others, while for Western pass over the coffee cups and curry dishes and a knife and fork, but few people care whether someone used before.

Appear in folk rituals multi chopsticks bamboo with clean wood or steel, are regarded as gods attached thing. Throughout Japan still remained parted at the door throw the bowl customs, it is because people do not want to stay in his soul above, dishes carrying the emotional heart of the Japanese also contributed to the "cut ri chopsticks (wa ri ば expands" (convenient chopsticks invented in ancient Japan, people will go out with their own chopsticks, because eating out can not stand it when people used chopsticks chopsticks facilitate the Edo period (1603-1867 Late with "Pareto soba" (two made into flour and buckwheat soba eighty percent of the selling in the streets and appeared. disposable chopsticks after the use is not will be somebody else, but then people will still break in chopsticks thrown away after eating face because people believe that their souls will stay in the used chopsticks, casually discarded give yourself courted disaster, there are still people After eating lunch at the chopsticks readily broken.
4 Although the Japanese do not use chopsticks to eat sushi with chopsticks just as gripping and eating tool, but is hands-eat sushi Shique. Originally Sushi Edo street stalls stood eating fast food as sold when hungry pick-up can be eaten, but it seems a lot of trouble using chopsticks now in Japan, in particular about eating sushi sushi hand just so simple, but also in accordance with the direction of sushi fish swimming. tactile sensation is an important meal, From the perspective of tactile hand meal is the best. tongues get sushi makes sense to become moved. while flipping sushi with chopsticks dipped in soy sauce sandwich, sushi loose due to this effect can not be achieved.

5 for purposes other than eating the Japanese use chopsticks there are dozens of taboos, these indecent actions as "too Kei chopsticks (ki ら Kei ば expands." Japanese customs that death was from "this side" reach "the other side", the use of "bone chopsticks (co boots van Shin" pick up after cremation bones, this chopstick length or material to different friends with two people use chopsticks to the deceased's bones from the ashes of picking out into ashes tank, or a person with chopsticks Biography to another person, and then by the man into the tank. chopsticks in this practice to assume the deceased reached the "other side" of the bridge. Therefore, in the Japanese view, dining for two people to pass food with chopsticks, or others to use two different length or texture chopsticks is unlucky.

6 Conclusion Japan is a good study of the nation, in the absorption of Chinese culture at the same time with its own national characteristics combined with the corresponding transformation, we are living through this extremely ordinary chopsticks tableware can get a glimpse of Japan's unique culture.

References:

[1] Tada Michitaro book. Wang Liying translation. Japanese culture around [M]. Nanjing: Nanjing University Press, 2008.

[2] Qingxiang. Japanese chopsticks and Culture - A Discussion with Chinese chopsticks cultural comparison [J]. Luoyang: PLA University of Foreign Languages, 2009 (5.

[3] Wang Xiuwen. Spoon を cast げ ru [J]. Dalian: Japanese knowledge, 2004 (9.

[4] Isshiki Hachiro. Full chopsticks Cultural History: World Full chopsticks? Japan Full chopsticks [M]. Tokyo: Ochanomizu Full water study, 1998.

[5] Zhang Huirong. Chinese culture and Japanese chopsticks [J]. Nanchang: Agricultural Archaeology, 2009 (3 Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

Ancient Literature Papers