Analysis of the U.S. war in Iraq Preliminary Study of the use of force

Abstract After the Cold War, the U.S. became the world's only superpower, and its foreign policy decisions made by any of the international community have a great impact, especially in the use of force and other related foreign policy decisions. Accurate grasp of U.S. foreign policy in the meaning and use of the use of force to study the mechanism of decision-making mechanisms is a prerequisite. Any use of force represents a direct investment in troops, including the follow-up investigation, cleaning up the task, even in peacetime joint military exercises. In this paper, the war in Iraq as the perspective of American foreign policy for the use of force.

Keywords paper using the U.S. war in Iraq by force the use of force policy

One, meaning the use of force and special

The use of force is the force parties to the conflict arising from the exercise of another state of facts, which includes all acts of force or military coercive measures. The use of force can be divided into indirect and direct two ways. Richard Haass (Richard N.Hass) that the indirect use of force refers to the state 'to provide training, weapons, equipment and intelligence, etc., to give military aid to the other party, which has the potential to receive assistance for their own party the purpose of direct use of force. '  Bi means direct use of force beyond the implementation of national personally 'normal training or pre-arrangement' military action. In this sense, the war is not only the national use of force and the use of force is a last resort.

The use of force has the following characteristics: First, the main broad, in addition to the main body of the use of force outside the country, but also non-state entities, such as a country of a regional, ethnic, religious and insurgent groups, etc.; secondly, is not a legal concept, the use of force is only a state of facts, acts of force against the side once constituted the use of force; Third, the level of violence is low, not all use of force constitutes a war, hostilities or acts of force only up to a certain level or to a certain level it constitutes a war. Fourth, in various forms, including both the potential use of force, but also the actual use of force.

Second, the U.S. use of force operating mechanism

U.S. foreign military use mainly adopt the following three ways: First, in order to participate in the UN collective security action of force. After World War II, the US-led establishment of the United Nations. However, the United Nations can not function properly, it did not wait to play the role of maintaining international peace and security, the Soviet Union has been the Council's voting mechanism as a stage to confront the international community into the Cold War. During the Cold War a special background, an innovative collective security mechanism - 'Control of conflicts non-mandatory measures' came into being, namely the United Nations peacekeeping operations. But the United Nations peacekeeping operations 'golden age' should be retroactive to the Cold War, the Cold War, 'activate' the Council's powers principle of unanimity, peacekeeping has become the most significant and important action.  vertical wide participation of the United States not only in the United Nations in Zaire, Cambodia, Liberia and other countries in peacekeeping operations, but also actively promote the implementation of United Nations humanitarian operations in Somalia and other countries.

Second, the leadership involved in NATO's military operations, or organizational temporary 'informal alliance' to take action. After the Cold War, the United States actively advocated regional organizations bear responsibility for maintaining regional peace, mainly in its NATO actions. Compared with the United Nations, NATO has obvious advantages: geographic proximity, the same language and culture, and has conducted many members of the Harmonized System of unified action, a strong post-war peace-building and funds.  half-grown beans to reduce global obligations assumed by the United States after the Cold War the United States for NATO's attention unabated. In the Balkans, the United States relies on the main NATO military action.

Yet NATO is still a collective security mechanism in the United Nations and the United States will produce disagreement one o'clock action difficult issues. Therefore, when the existing international mechanisms can not meet their needs, the United States would organize a temporary 'informal alliance' to take action. In this case, often initiated by the United States and serve as temporary 'leadership', while seeking the support of other countries, the formation of a 'temporary sheriff and armed groups' special mode.  abundance of such military action by convening from like-minded countries, excluding countries of varying political views can be effective and efficient organization and coordination of military operations, rapid completion of a given task, in the current international system under considerable advantage. The formation of the United States in the Iraq war 'coalition of the willing' belongs to this type.

Third, mainly initiated and implemented by the United States military operations, including joint participation or individual countries, but not in any global, regional organizations and groups of countries as the basis. As the world's only superpower, in some cases, both the United States act alone the willingness and ability, even if unable to obtain the support of the international community would take military action. Such action does not have a fixed or temporary National Alliance characteristics, for example, in 1998, United Kingdom on Iraq, codenamed 'Desert Fox' military strike. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

Authorize military action from the U.S. point of view can be divided into two kinds: first, to get the Security Council explicitly authorized the use of force. Council's primary responsibility is in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations to maintain international peace and security, 'the Charter' on page 24 can be made to grant UN Security Council action on the use of force binding resolution 25 provides for Security Council resolutions legally binding on all Member States force. 39 also provides that the Council should first determine any 'threat to the peace, breaches of the peace, or act of aggression' exists, and then according to the provisions of Chapter VII of the act to take military action. United States as a political, economic and military strength are the dominant powers in accordance with UN Security Council authorization waged several wars since World War II, such as the 1950 Korean War, the Gulf War in 1998 that Iraq 'Desert Storm' military action.

Second, by virtue of the Security Council authorized the use of force implied. Some countries have not been expressly authorized by the Security Council to use force, so they would actively seek the Council's implied authorization. These countries will normally a resolution in the Security Council condemned in the State's conduct constituted a threat to the peace, or use some of the formulaic wording implied authorization as a Council, for example, 'to take all necessary means' to 'restore peace and security in the region 'Wait, apparently this line of reasoning is unfounded. U.S. cites Council impliedly authorized military action, such as the Iraqi weapons inspection crisis and the 'Desert Fox' military action (1998), Iraq 'free military operation' (2003).

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