On the utilitarian technical values

Abstract technical values ​​refers to people's views on the technical merits of a summary nature of technical value, as well as practice in the formation of the awareness of the value of technology, which affects the development of technical values. The technology as predatory human nature, means and tools to gain wealth, technology, provided the conditions of human wealth accumulation, and to develop technologies utilitarian values. It is the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution with the product, focusing on the economic value of human values, instrumental rationality, ignoring technical value diversity, natural values ​​and value rationality. Although it promotes social and economic development and technological progress, but it dissolves human subjectivity, destroyed the harmony between man and nature, cause people to lose their value.

Paper Keywords utilitarian technical values ​​and technological progress and social development

First, the technical meaning of values

Values ​​are the essence of the value of the general summary of the basic ideas about value, is a basic summary of the relationship between various types of value, is the value of the highest form of consciousness. It is unique to humans tendentious evaluation, recognizing the standard of human activities in the orientation of a standard. Once people establish a certain value, it will be reflected in the activities of some kind of predisposing characteristics, and through the creation of value in order to achieve the ideal value.

People in the technical values ​​are based on the knowledge of technology, in practice, the value of the formed stable ABOUT understanding.

Human Nature significantly affect the technical values. In the technology primitive ancient times, when the conditions determine the whole of nature as a vague, general, and the overall chaos of nature. People ideal goal or the relationship between man and nature view, is to go in harmony with nature. In practice, because the ancient primitive humans rely on simple techniques to obtain the nature of production and the necessary means of subsistence. So, whether it is a natural development, consciously or unconsciously, or unintentional damage, misuse, destruction, and will not produce more significant in nature and their social impact.

Modern mechanistic view of nature put the whole of nature as an automatic operation according to certain laws of machines, people simply through experiments and analyzes carried out to explore the natural world, the key to grasp the law, they can get the required production from the nature of subsistence . The birth of modern technologies and applications in production, and promote the accumulation of human wealth, people are tantamount to technology as a means of plundering the natural and tools, and effects for centuries formed the technical values ​​of utilitarianism.

Second, the formation of values ​​and utilitarian technical rationality and limitations

(A) the formation of values ​​and utilitarian technical rationality of human civilization has existed at the beginning of the human technical values, along with the technical activities of human progress, deepening and expanding and move towards a systematic, better educated. From the Stone Age, the Bronze Age until the era of industrial machinery, and gradually formed a technology to conquer nature, to protect itself and the production of material wealth and how to effectively use technology such as a kind of technical effectiveness values.

European Renaissance laid the basis for the formation of values ​​utilitarian technology. Reformation and Renaissance, not only from the scientific theology of shackles, the liberation of the European idea, but also for the whole community to value technology provides a cultural, ideological and scientific atmosphere, become a breeding ground utilitarian technical values hotbed. It set off a scientific revolution, as science and technology provides interactive conditions, but also for the product of the industrial revolution broke build strength. Merton analysis of 17th century British society technology practical value, he said: 'More importantly, almost all scientists believe their tireless efforts will lead to a practical result,' 'scientists not only for technical efficiency, while also considers reasonable means of production to fit the ultimate goal of economic efficiency. ' These values ​​permeate the technical practicability and integration of scientific knowledge and culture, and cultural development of technology has had a profound impact on the result to the rational form of heavy tools, empirical and empirical values, is utilitarian technical values. Vladimir Bacon clearly expresses these values: 'For a variety of scientific progress and the growth of philosophy, it should follow the same rules in order to judge the fruit of doctrine; however hypothesized that this system does not produce fruit, we should be declare it worthless, especially when it not only does not produce olives and grapes and other fruits but with debate, controversy when the thistles, we should make such a declaration. 'This perspective emphasizes the application of science and technology extrinsic value.' technical point of view with this method, we determined that it is valuable because it is used as a tool to achieve other purposes, and these end in itself has intrinsic value. ' 'The goal itself has intrinsic value,' said that these intended for the benefit of society and the individual, with the hope of moral and humanitarian backgrounds. 'This view is essentially an implementation of the technology as a means to an end.' So, utilitarianism technical values ​​have been working with anthropocentric and instrumentalist view together.

(Two) the limitations of a utilitarian technical values. Neglected natural values, emphasizing the technical values ​​of human values ​​in order to utilitarian understanding of nature is of no value, no purpose, only the mercy of others. People not only in nature, the natural world and living on top of everything is just people to achieve their purpose tools and instruments, which itself has no value. For example, someone with an ax felled another person, he will be considered abhorrent act unanimously condemned by public opinion. However, if someone waving ax down a tree, people will think this is normal. Because the tree has always been a tool used by man, its value lies in its ability to be human use. In this concept of domination, for their own interests, the human with the technical means plunder natural wantonly trampled nature, causes environmental crisis and ecological imbalance. But we forget that the world is a biological community of mankind in this community is just one.

(2) neglect technical value diversity, emphasizing the economic value of a single technical value diversity, can be divided into formal political, economic, military, cultural and many other values. However, since the industrial revolution brought about by the technology giant leap in productivity, so that people only see their economic value, technology brings material wealth and rapid economic growth, but they ignore other aspects of value, especially ecological value . Only emphasized the economic value of a single, in exchange for the so-called GDP growth, but at the expense of the ecological environment for the price.

3 ignore value rationality, emphasizing the instrumental rationality of human technology is valuable, practical means to meet human needs. Technology is the value in terms of its nature and object scale body scale unification, is the unity of purpose with regularity, but also instrumental rationality and value rationality of unity. However, with the rapid development of science and technology, technological progress revolution fundamentally changed human thought patterns, making utilitarian technical values ​​appeared to technical tools of rational values-led worship. Such technical values ​​simply utilitarian Useful equivalent technical value, only emphasizes the purpose of technical means and technologies instrumental, its emphasis on technology, production efficiency and economic functions, ignoring the intrinsic value and technical value of technology on human rationality guiding role. Technical activities starting from the value of the subject needs, through values, value conscious, value creation, to realize the value and worth of material generation process. Technical value targets are not always rational, appropriate and legitimate, but often will construct a non-legitimate, non-rationality value targets. Therefore, we must be instrumental rationality and value rationality organically combined.

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Third, the utilitarian values ​​of the social impact of technology

Utilitarianism technical values ​​for promoting social and economic development and technological progress has played a huge positive effect, however, because it is the realization of economic benefits as the center, take the natural predatory development, young people of the scale, weight scale, on consumption value, economic value over the pursuit inspired utilitarian and hedonistic man, lost the ultimate body care, devoid of taste and spiritual life consciousness, which dissolves human subjectivity, destroyed the harmony between man and nature, led people lost their value.

(A) break the harmony between man and nature to technical values ​​utilitarian principle of maximizing economic benefits, ignoring the nature of other values, only pay attention to the economic value of nature, that nature is only a tool to meet human needs, obtain, use and conquer object. In the technical sense of utilitarianism, the trees are no longer the beautiful natural scenery, is no longer a dense forest, is no longer full of magic and fun of the green kingdom, but by changing the trees to the chairs of human goods, all creatures exists for the benefit of mankind, are just a useful tool of the object exists, so the formation of natural slavery, to dominate nature, acts dominate nature philosophy. In these utilitarian values ​​under the sway of human plundering of natural resources, deterioration of the relationship between man and nature, serious damage to the ecological balance. Utilitarianism technical values ​​undermine the balance of the ecosystem, causing serious environmental pollution, endangering the sustainability of the development of human beings, to economic and social development, causing huge loss of human activity gradually making itself difficult to continue to live.

Ecosystems to maintain homeostasis, in that it has a certain self-regulating capacity within a certain range to maintain its ecological balance and stability. However, the ability to regulate within ecosystems is limited, once the external interference exceeds this limit, this regulation will be reduced or even disappear. Development and utilization of human nature and a full range of pollution, far beyond the nature itself of the self-purification capacity and ability to regenerate, making desertification, resource depletion, acid rain, smog drama plus, loss of biodiversity, water scarcity, air pollution, etc. and so on. Engels said: 'We should not be too intoxicated with the victory of nature. For each such victory nature takes its revenge on us.'
(Two) digestion of the subjectivity of human technological progress has brought progress of human society, and gradually established its dominance in modern society. Modern machines from production to bring people from the mind, the body's complex separating out, he was not required in the use of mental and physical health. Who became a part of the machine, people become more and more mechanized, workers in the creation of products does not play any role. Industrial civilization completely put people trapped in the machine system on top of the factory system is established, people will never become a rusty machine parts, undermining human existence calm and harmony, consume a person's life and passion of youth . Whistle blew, people must begin to work; assembly lines turned from the side, workers must keep up its speed; rail according to strict departure time, people must obey; mass media produce a mono-culture, mass production generated a standardized product, the loss of human autonomy, and even the linkages between people have been objectified and mechanized. People have been integrated into the product based on rational principles and build up self-regulatory nature of mechanized system, in this system, the technology is no longer a tool serving others, in turn, become govern themselves, oppression own alien force, this force makes subordinate to it, deprived of human freedom. Technology has become an appendage of people, loss of subjectivity and initiative.

(Three) cause people to lose their value of technology to give people healthy and happy life provides a prerequisite for human development to create a solid material foundation, but does not represent the spirit of material needs met. People's needs are many multi-level, contains both spiritual and material consumption spending harmony, but also reflects the relationship between man and nature, interpersonal harmony, this harmony is a good quality of life and quality of life. But utilitarianism technical values ​​so that people get great material needs met, have lost their spiritual home. Because of its role in promoting economic growth, but also to stimulate the human pursuit of wealth, to think that money can buy everything, it seems that the purpose of life is the pursuit of money, including happiness. This concept has helped people to enjoyment and satisfaction materialism as the greatest happiness and meaning, the loss of their own autonomy and self-confidence, become dependent, worship technology slaves. Society was involved in materialism, consumerism, hedonism storms. People become money, commodities slaves. Seek sensory stimulation, chase instinct, shootings, drug abuse, violence and other social nuisance also showing a trend intensified and younger age. Substances created by people who in turn dominate, enslave people, driven people, people in the mad chase, irrational, and even human nature leads to moral turpitude. The purpose of human survival and development of the material gradually being fanatical pursuit of shelter, and even become the ultimate pursuit of this substance, the only purpose. Finally, the people's spiritual needs, the value and meaning of gradually neglected, resulting in a man's own value lost.

Clearly, though utilitarian technical values ​​for the promotion of technical progress and the development of human society has played a positive role, but with the human pursuit of utilitarian value of unlimited, its negative effect is gradually strengthened. In the relationship between man and nature, one-sided emphasis on human rights of nature, thus ignoring the obligations of the natural person; in the relationship between people and technology, excessive pursuit of technology utilitarian value, thus ignoring the humanitarian value technique. So, building a harmonious society must abandon utilitarianism technical values, re-establish the correct technical values.

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