Papers Category:Fiscal Levy Papers
- National Debt Research Papers
Post Time:2011-12-24 10:30:00
Net write papers: January 14, 2011, the State Council was held in Beijing National Science and Technology Awards Conference, the National Food Authority Research Institute and other units of study to complete the 'grain reserve 'Quad' technology research and development and integration innovation 'results obtained National Science and Technology Progress Award, which is China's grain industry, the national scientific and technological progress over the past decade to obtain the highest honor the results based on Grain computer control, mechanical ventilation, circulation phosphine fumigation of grain storage cooler temperature combination of four organic grain, and other technology applications at the core of the new technology, new technology integration, including the application of high-tech breakthrough of Grain intelligent detection analysis, intelligent control of ventilation, carbon dioxide atmosphere grain storage techniques and efficient grain cooling machines, low-dose Phosphine fumigation machine circulation, efficient dryer, special handling equipment and a number of patented cleaning products.
Beginning in 1998, as a major food distribution technology changes, these results at the national grain storage building on a large scale application, to ensure national food security has played a major role, completely changed the grain storage management and technology behind the passive situation to raise the overall level of food distribution facilities, the construction of China's grain circulation and storage technology has reached international advanced level.
First, the Treasury building a database integrated innovation gave birth to (a) to change the backward state of the Grain 'Four in One' basic technology research and development goals before 1998 after the founding of China's food supply is a shortage of long-term, relatively small number of grain reserves, the storage facilities demand is not high, less investment in infrastructure construction, building standards is very low, less equipment, facilities, food protection technology is relatively backward. a considerable part of the warehouse is modeled on the 1950 grain storage building in the former Soviet Union and Soviet-style warehouse simple WAREHOUSE, obsolete facilities simple, to ensure that food is not only sun, rain, heat, insulation, airtight windows and doors, flooring and other moisture conditions are very poor due to backward technology food security, grain storage security depends mainly on manual labor hard to guarantee. grain temperature forecasting by artificial warehousing inspection, a long time, the effect is poor, pest control done by hand Jincang dosage, work has some risk, but large amount of drugs, insecticide is not complete, people rely on food entering and leaving the back shoulder operations, labor strength, low efficiency, high cost, serious loss of food, so when most of our grain storage conditions of the original warehouse facilities and technology can not meet the safe storage of the central grain reserves, the requirements of good quality, science and technology research and development of new grain storage Application security system for establishing grain reserves needed to overcome the problem.
(B) the construction of three batches of grain storage bond investments as 'Four in One' technology development and provide a rare opportunity for large-scale application in response to the second half of 1997 Asian financial crisis, the development of national food security system, build a strong sustained the basis of healthy development and social stability, the State Council in June 1998 decided to issue bonds for construction, including grain storage, including infrastructure in six areas of the State Treasury arranged a total of three batches of grain storage construction projects. a arranged 17.2 billion yuan in 1998, the construction of 25 billion kg storage capacity of national-scale grain storage. Second, the 1999 and 2000, the State Council decided to invest 15 billion yuan to build two 10 billion kg, respectively, the scale storage capacity of national grain storage. three 2002 and 2003 re-arranged 2.1 billion yuan investment for the complete set of food storage facilities and feature enhancements. granary building of three batches of bonds it had invested $ 34.3 billion, the construction of grain storage project 1114, the construction of various types of special projects 1936. a total storage capacity of 51.05 billion kilograms into reserves, which is the history of our country's largest storage capacity to concentrate on building a grain storage, grain storage and effective storage capacity to enable the country to reach 260 billion kilograms end of 2005 a record level.
Major construction project bond granary LARGE WAREHOUSE, silo and silo-based and other positions, to achieve the promotion of modern warehouse-type innovation, improve the conditions of grain storage facilities, a major leap forward which is the dominant position LARGE WAREHOUSE type, accounting for the new storage capacity of 83% from the 21 m span warehouse to 72 m, grain bulk grain loading height is generally 6 m, single-chamber capacity up to 500 million kilograms, is the old WAREHOUSE 2 to 3 times, 5 times the Soviet-style warehouse. silo storage capacity accounted for 10% of the new, is a small footprint, single-chamber large capacity, high degree of mechanization of the new warehouse-type, which can meet the needs of transit and storage.
LARGE WAREHOUSE and as a grain storage silo, due to a single storage capacity, high-piled food, grain storage cycle is long, and the supporting equipment requirements, the existing storage technology, process equipment and operating methods are not suited to grain storage and security and efficient operational requirements, to promote R & D need to overcome this end, the former State Grain Reserve for technology research institutes, research organizations, scientists and technicians to overcome difficulties, and soon form a scientific research, 'Four' should be shipped grain storage technology research and development to promote born .2010 annual National Science and Technology Progress Award first prize winner of the National Food Authority and other relevant research vice president Wu Zidan researchers is the industry's outstanding research team on behalf of, there are many unsung heroes for the promotion of new technologies to make grain storage a contribution.
'Four' tall grain storage technology solve the shallow flat warehouse and grain storage warehouse park facing the grain heap complex, serious heat transfer, easy to condensation, mildew and easy heat, easy to spread pests, insecticide fumigation is not complete and Grain quality and rapid aging problem. In short, the construction of three batches of grain storage bond investments adhere to science and technology, the 'Four in One' grain storage technology R & D results as a solution to a new barn after the completion of the main support of safe grain storage, to ensure project investment results, to ensure the safety of grain storage and grain storage and efficient operations, improved grain storage management and scientific and technological content, while government bonds and the use of grain storage building from the project management and many other proposed technological innovation, research and development applications, new requirements , provides a broad experimental space integration, to promote the 'Four in One' grain storage technology R & D integration, advanced technical achievements in the food industry a wide range of applications, which greatly improved the construction of China's grain storage and grain storage technology.
Second, the conversion application achieved remarkable results is the vitality of scientific and technological achievements into applications for the success of the 'Four in One' grain storage technology to practical productive forces, the National Food Authority attaches great importance to 'Four' state investment in the construction of grain storage technology promote the use of grain storage project, focusing their efforts on a common map design technology integration, improve the standards and test real storage facilities construction and renovation of the large scale application of work and achieved remarkable results.
(A) adopt a common map design, the full application of 'Four' grain storage technology, three batches of treasury bonds in 1998 grain storage construction project started at the beginning, the former State Planning Commission and the State Grain Reserve is selected the construction of grain storage warehouse type and grain storage technology, specially commissioned Trade Engineering Design Institute, Zhengzhou Research Institute, Research and Design Institute of Wuxi, Zhengzhou Grain and Oil Food Engineering Architectural Design Institute and other units, in summing up our experience in the construction of grain storage based on the construction of fully learn from the advanced experience and grain storage technology, the preparation of a variety of warehouse-type universal design drawings. Please Zhengzhou Grain College, Zhengzhou Institute of Architectural Design with storage of food grain and oil-purpose map designed to develop a unified technical requirements for safe grain storage process. In 1998 the first preparation <> and < > and promote the use of, in 2000 and 2001 and gradually perfect the design was revised Atlas The set of common national figure in 2004 was awarded the gold medal of the seventh standard design excellence, 2009 issued by China Survey and Design Association, the 60th anniversary of the 'significant effect on the standard design of the project' award.
National Food Authority also issued a <>,<< 200 billion kilograms of grain storage WAREHOUSE general state construction drawing design optimization technology provides a unified national grain storage construction projects >>,<< preparation and approval of the preliminary design Interim Measures>> and other regulatory documents. granary building first time in history safe grain storage, operating equipment, information management, quality monitoring and other technical and implementation of fully integrated grain storage building, completely solve the previous existing grain storage building and completed using the 'mismatch' problem. During the construction of libraries, the National Food Authority organized a number of Grain and control, fumigation circulation, mechanical ventilation, grain cooling machines, dryers, suction equipment, food machines, and other similar public bidding, organized three large granaries Equipment Exhibition and promoting scientific research and the organic integration of equipment, grain storage facilities to the quality and technical level has been significantly improved, greatly reducing the country with the international advanced level. batches of grain storage bond depots built by the project are all equipped with the 'four one 'grain storage systems, with a total of 1169 sets of food inspection system, circulation system 1118 sets of fumigation, purchasing computer 6213 sets, 645 sets of grain cooling machines.
(B) through large-scale real storage test, and continuously improve the 'Four in One' grain storage technology, 'Four in One' Grain is a grain storage building technology to promote the use and management of a major change. To promote the early days, four new technologies Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
research results only in a few libraries have done a number of individual test points, yet in different parts of the country, under different conditions of production test systems, technical standards, operating procedures still need improve grain storage management and technical personnel need training. To this end, the National Food Authority set up technical advisory group of experts in food storage and mechanical ventilation, grain cooling, circulation fumigation, grain and other special situation detection technology group, from 1999 to 2000 at the country's 13 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), 21 depots, conducted a two-year production test, to obtain valuable scientific test data, the preparation (Amendment) of the < >, <>, 'Grain Grain mechanical ventilation control system >>,<< technical regulations >>,<< circulation phosphine fumigation of grain storage equipment >>,<< phosphine Technical Specification for grain fumigation circulation >>,<< Cooler Technical Specification for low-temperature grain storage>> and many other technical regulations and standards with the production test, the National Food Authority published the <> 30 period, good stewardship of the new grain storage work summarizes the production of test results, the preparation of the <> and four multi-media teaching materials, technical training courses held in storage, has nearly a granary for the National Training more than 10,000 technicians, as the 'Four in One' promote the use of grain storage technology laid the foundation of human resources.
(C) 'Eleventh Five-Year' period to continue to promote the use of 'Four' technology, the national grain storage technology has improved continuously, 'Eleventh Five-Year' period, the National Food Bureau, 'Four in One' as a grain storage technology to protect stored grain safety The key technology for the application, the promotion of scientific and technological achievements. First, to further improve standards of food and grain storage construction specifications, keep the new technologies and new achievements in national or industry standards, promote the transformation of a strong application, and second, through the preparation and implementation of food logistics, grain storage facilities and other special programs, highlighting the state aid investment focus, to guide enterprises in the food logistics, grain storage building, maintenance and reconstruction projects in the active use of 'Four in One' grain storage technology, the third is to use ' Four in One 'Grain storage technology as the central grain reserves on behalf of the prerequisite qualification of enterprises, clear standards and requirements, strict examination, as of last year, identified 1906 central grain reserves on behalf of all eligible companies using the technology fourth, the use of 'Four in One' grain storage technology into the grain storage business an important part of the standardized management assessment, standardized management of the national 326 advanced technological equipment, management has improved significantly.
Through the above measures, the 'Eleventh Five-Year' period, both the investment arrangements of the central grain storage construction projects, modern logistics projects, or local governments and enterprises to invest in provincial cities and counties in central grain storage and grain storage building, and maintenance depots reconstruction project, is used by the 'Four in One' grain storage technology.
As of the end of 2009, the effective storage capacity of the national grain storage applications, 'Four in One' the proportion of new technology has been greatly improved over the end of 2005, integrated application of technology more than 40%. There were 129 million tons storage capacity of the warehouse is equipped with specialized circulation fumigation equipment, 40% of the total storage capacity: 176 million tons storage capacity of the warehouse temperature measurement system equipped with a computer, 54% of the total storage capacity; 244 million tons storage capacity equipped with mechanical ventilation, 75% of the total storage capacity, southern food libraries were equipped with 1029 sets of grain cooling machines, basically hot and humid regions to meet the needs of low-temperature grain storage.
'Four in One' grain storage grain storage technologies in use in the country has achieved tremendous economic and social good: First, to ensure the safe storage of food, reducing the amount of grain loss. Grain Grain electronic detection achieved changes in the dynamic regulation, to take appropriate technical measures for the timely provide a reliable basis to mechanical ventilation, low-temperature cooling, fumigation and other measures to prevent the circulation of grain insects, mold, rodents occurs, control of moisture reduction, reducing the amount of food loss second is to ensure food quality, increased resistance to storage of food. to low oxygen and physical control techniques, supplemented by the necessary low-dose, non-residual chemical fumigation, reducing drug contamination to achieve a green , safe grain storage. tests showed: after three years of grain storage and grain quality of the new year, no difference between the safe and reliable health indicators In 2009 the results of national food stockpile inventory, a central grain reserves in stale rice has been complete elimination, grain storage losses from '15' 4% of the initial to the current 1%, reflecting the freshness of the food should be kept from the previous target rate of 70% to 99%. The third is to enhance the food distribution facilities building and warehouse management. granary project construction and 'Four' promote the use of a combination of grain storage technology, training and exercise of an engineering design, technical development, testing and storage grain storage warehouse business management team, significantly enhanced the grain flow of mechanization and automation level, completely changed the face behind the food storage.
Third, the level of innovation and development to enhance the construction of endless innovation and development, according to <> and food science and technology development planning requirements, 'second five' technology to continue to play a supporting role, and vigorously promote grain storage facilities technological innovation and transformation.
(A) build a platform for scientific and technological achievements through the development and implementation of food distribution facilities planning and construction standards for food, continue to do new technologies, new materials, new warehouse type building of new equipment in grain storage, grain logistics and market system construction, maintenance and reconstruction of grain storage, grain storage and other farmers on the achievements of major projects, especially to highlight the guiding role of state investment subsidies, investment in the project design and arrangement in the priority support energy saving, green safe grain storage facilities and new technologies the application.
(B) the development and application of new technologies to enhance grain storage first is to strengthen the green grain storage technology research and development applications in accordance with the requirements of environmental protection, the application of information, biology, materials and other high-tech achievements transform the traditional grain storage and logistics facilities, to promote low-carbon technologies, the development of green grain storage. The second is to strengthen energy conservation R & D applications. Study the different ecological zones applicable to grain storage warehouse-type and insulation technology, anti-radiation screening granary excellent thermal insulation materials and application demonstration. Grain of different ecological zones of different kinds of grain drying mode best to promote energy-efficient, low-growing pieces of food drying processes and equipment. The third is to strengthen intelligence grain storage research and development of information technology applications. To carry out intelligent granary building, food information to create the macro-control platform, the integration of grain reserves management information and monitoring.
(C) the technology research and development efforts to promote food logistics applications with the 'grain north south' modern grain logistics system, efforts to improve food technology research and application of modern logistics, strengthen logistics park, logistics center and bulk grain trains, ships, motor transport in the the integration of key technologies and innovation and integration, developing new storage type, new processes, new materials design and development, to promote bulk, bulk unloading, bulk storage, bulk transportation, 'scattered' distribution technology, research to establish a national food logistics and distribution, trading and management information platform, optimize and improve the food chain logistics industry, for food and healthy development of modern logistics to provide strong scientific and technological support.
(D) improve the grain storage construction and technical standards with food distribution facilities and standardized management of grain storage business activities, continue to adhere to science and technology, science and technology play a supporting role, to strengthen research and innovation and combination of production practices, sum up the food project construction experience and technical achievements, and constantly improve the grain storage construction standards and technical norms. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com