[Abstract] SMEs have become China's economic and social development to promote an important force, but the current development of SMEs in China, there are still many constraints, such as financial and tax policies, there are still supply shortage. Thus, based on fiscal support for SMEs policy issue, this paper mainly for the U.S., EU, Japan and Taiwan and other developed countries (regions) of the fiscal policy to support SMEs in a comparative analysis, in order to build and improve on our SME support system can have implications for taxation and reference, thus contributing to China's SMEs to achieve healthy, sustainable and rapid development.
[Keywords] SMEs, fiscal support, international comparisons
Currently, SMEs in promoting economic development, increase employment, promote innovation, gave birth to industry, to maintain fair market competition and social stability has played an important role in post-crisis era, with the investment environment and the export environment has worsened, survival and development of SMEs in China experienced an unprecedented challenge, therefore, how to increase fiscal support for SMEs to effectively alleviate the plight of SME financing and promoting the healthy development of SMEs, in front of us is a major problem to be solved .
First, developed countries (areas of fiscal policy to support SMEs
1. - General policy
Developed countries (regions of SMEs in their value-added tax accounts for about 40% .5% in the case of implementing a progressive tax system, the tax burden on SMEs than before to reduce the number, but also increase the value of its 300 / 0 so, the burden is still heavy. To further reduce the tax burden, countries (regions adopted a series of measures, such as lower tax rates, tax breaks, raise taxes and increase the threshold rate of depreciation of fixed assets below the United States, Japan and South Korea for example, a brief overview of the tax incentives.
In order to reduce the tax burden for SMEs, the U.S. Congress in 1981 passed the <<Economic Recovery Act>>, will be closely related with SME reduced by 25% personal income tax, capital gains tax cut to 20% in 1997, promulgated the < <reduce the tax burden on law ', and further clarify the government's intention to reduce the tax burden for SMEs, according to this method, small and medium enterprises in the next decade will be billions of dollars in tax breaks ... (P120).
Japan supports the development of SMEs tax incentives include: reducing the corporate tax rate of small and medium corporation, such as capital l billion yen in the common law into the corporate tax rate was 37.5 010, while the capital of ￥ 100 million The two parts of small and medium corporate annual income tax, that is, 800 million yen by 28% tax rate, more than 800 million yen in part by 37.5% tax rate. of a public nature of the medium and small corporate the company's annual income is taxed at 27% of small and medium corporate debt reserve special treatment, such as Japan requires an annual percentage of debt accumulated by the debt reserve for bad debt write-downs that year of income next year, while small and medium enterprises in the sub- was not all closeout, 16% can be extracted as the accumulation of business and technology advancement to promote the implementation of the tax system, the special treatment of fixed assets, such as business associations, such as hospitals or clinics owned fixed assets and in particular environmental protection facilities fixed assets, fixed assets exempt from tax. In addition, Japan in the consumer, acquiring real estate, business succession, and promote research and development, environmental protection, energy conservation, waste utilization has also taken a series of preferential tax regimes (P117 -118).
South Korean small and medium enterprises through tax incentives to support technology innovation and development, in general, direct support and indirect support in two ways, which reduced taxes, net income and net of tax and other main way of direct support, such as <<rent subtraction>> Article 15 provides, founder of income tax and corporation tax for SMEs to implement exemptions and three by two, which began three years tax exemption, the following two years halved. 'shorter subtraction>> Article 19, from SMEs to technology in the domestic transfer deducted in full income, net of transfer to foreign countries 50% (P314).
2. Selective policy
Developed countries (regions selective for SMEs to implement the general policy
(1) support for new enterprises, and encourage the development of SMEs in the backward areas. Practice shows that small and medium enterprises in increasing employment, technological innovation, promoting economic growth and meet the changing needs of life has played a very important role. To this end, developed countries (regions of the new or expanded investment support for SMEs given the large, small and medium enterprises of the backward areas of the implementation of special policies and measures, such as Germany's new small and medium enterprises in backward areas to give free pay sales tax for five years, the consumption of the new SME end of the movable property investment exempt from 500 / 0 income tax concessions for SMEs to invest in the internal part of retained funds exempt from property taxes, investment in eastern Germany's small and medium enterprises with total investment amount of 15 ~ 23% Yin financial subsidies provided South Korea, and in the rural fishing village outside the capital and the capital region's new technology-intensive small and medium enterprises created, respectively, reduction of 6 and 4 years part of the income tax and tax legal status of taxes, and relief 2 years to obtain the business use property, local taxes, part of the registration tax, income tax of 50%, while reduction 5-year career with the property of the local tax portion of the property tax, aggregate land tax of 50% [4l (P271 .)
(2) of the support staff to absorb employment, ie the number of small and medium enterprises to provide jobs and give the corresponding financial subsidies, such as the British government to help the unemployed find jobs themselves, encouraging them to set up small and medium enterprises, development of employment subsidy scheme for SMEs , provides for self-opening of the unemployed, subsidies for ￡ 40 a week. By the mid-1980s, more than 30,000 SMEs have been subsidized, and helped 66,000 unemployed people reemployed. In Germany, SMEs who founded the unemployed, to give 20,000 marks funding, funding per recruit an unemployed then 20,000 marks' P269).
(3) development of human resources support. Hire talented people to support SMEs and strengthen the training of staff, developed countries (regions to develop a corresponding specific policy across all government departments such as the German-run apprentice training for local SMEs, employees of SMEs to update their knowledge or to change the vocational education training center funds generally come from government grants, small and medium enterprises for their employees only to bear part of the cost of training the German Government to help SMEs to the nearest large enterprises training their own staff and to provide the necessary financial subsidies, according to statistics, Germany in 1994 were 65,000 training workshops, staff training for the 73 million small and medium enterprises, government subsidies for training expenses for the 147 million marks (P270) .Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
(4) support for research and development projects.Developed countries (regional government funded research and development of SMEs is mainly set up a special government fund the development of SMEs through technical innovation and development programs that meet the requirements of small and medium enterprises to give special subsidies, such as the United States, 'Small Business Innovation Research Program' requires years of research and development funds of more than $ 100 million federal government agencies, according to a certain percentage set aside special funds for the financing of innovative SMEs, research, research and development funds in the 20 million to 100 million U.S. dollars between the federal government each year research projects to identify and target for SMEs. To promote the modernization of equipment of SMEs, in general, depreciation on Japanese added a special depreciation (such as investment in equipment over the past five years the average, the first year depreciation 30qo. For enterprises to enhance technical capacity and purchase or lease of machinery and equipment, in its first year, or to give 300 / 0 of the special depreciation, taxes or exempt from .1985 in 7010, Japan has introduced a technical basis to strengthen the tax system for SMEs to provide small and medium enterprises into the tax system applicable to the annual test of the total cost of 6% from corporate tax or income tax deduction, but the deduction can not exceed the applicable tax year corporate tax or income tax 15% (P313-314) o
(5) support the restructuring of small and medium enterprises, such as Taiwan, to facilitate a smooth upgrade industry in the 1990s introduced the <<Statute for Upgrading Industries>> instead of <<Encouragement of Investment>>, for some in the industry to upgrade the functional given a detailed investment tax incentives, such as the company's research and development of new products, improve production technology, improve the provision of services to improve manufacturing process technology and the expenses incurred, in 150 / 0 within the limits of a 20% tax credit business income tax (P125).
(6) of the SME export support in developed countries (regions in order to encourage exports, the development of SMEs and export subsidies, export tax rebate policy, although the direct export subsidies by more and more restrictions, but the national (regional government support exports gradually become complex and subtle ways, such as South Korea to promote SME exports, exports to support SMEs to develop a long-term program, which provides small and medium enterprises in 2002, the share in total exports increased from the previous year 42% to 50 010 head of small and medium enterprises SME Department in each province, the city set up to support SMEs export center, responsible for providing consulting services to help enterprises to obtain ISO and other international certification relevant government departments selected 10,000 small and medium 50,000 kinds of products business on the Internet to establish a 'SME' page, to domestic and international publicity, and led the organization to discuss SMEs and trade dealers to expand trade opportunities for businesses (P172).
(7) the situation is more difficult for the SMEs in government procurement contracts to enable SMEs in the national economy and society play a full part in some aspects, some countries (regions through the granting of selective government procurement to support the development of SMEs, However, sometimes through government procurement expertise to support some of the difficult situation of SMEs, such as the U.S. federal government procurement contracts for SMEs occupy a certain proportion, in 2000 the proportion of 23q00 2000 In May, Clinton signed a special order , asked the federal government to take practical measures to government procurement contracts available to women at least 5% of the founder of SMEs (ie enterprises owned by one or more women share more than 51% of the enterprises (P156 -157) o
(8) bankruptcy relief for SMEs policy, such as France, apart from giving loans to SMEs normal operation, but also too heavy for the debt, bankrupt small and medium enterprises set up special loans for reinvestment, Japan implemented a system to strengthen SMEs 'operate in a stable credit system measures', such as by the Finance Corporation for SMEs to lack of funds but promising to provide low-interest loans to SMEs, the establishment of mutual funds, so as to prevent the credit crunch caused by the bankruptcy of small and medium enterprises and structural closure order to prevent chain collapse SMEs, the SME Finance Corporation and the National Finance Corporation will provide cash flow more difficult for SMEs to provide low-interest loans related to business failures due to financial difficulties of SMEs exist to provide emergency low-interest loans, etc.) (P167).
(9) natural disaster to provide special loans to SMEs, such as the United States to victims of natural disasters, natural disasters, SME loans for those who operate in good condition, in the more serious natural disasters, loss of small and medium enterprises in the United States for their provide special assistance to help them re-create the business in Japan, suffered natural disasters and the need to rebuild the small and medium enterprises will be SME Finance Corporation, the National Finance Corporation and the combination of the central treasury of Commerce and Industry provided 10 million yen or less low-interest loans 3 (P167).
Second, the Enlightenment
Developed countries (fiscal policy to support SMEs in most areas has gone from a laissez-faire to the protection and then to promote these three stages because of countries (regions) in the market economy model, the market system, the degree of development, stages of economic development and historical and cultural areas such as differences, resulting in their fiscal support system for SMEs are different, but its ultimate aim is basically the same, that efforts to create economic and social development for small and medium enterprises operating mechanism, to provide SMEs with financial assistance and tax relief funds to help SMEs change in the market economy disadvantage. In general, fiscal and taxation policies for SMEs to follow the following two main ideas that government intervention in free competition of ideas and thinking. to the United States as the representative of developed countries (regions is a typical 'small government, big market ', which introduced free market economic system, its market-based allocation of resources, government intervention in business operations is limited, so they follow the fiscal policy is the idea of ??free competition, while Japan, South Korea etc. promote the national (regional economic development, government intervention in business operations more, the implementation of strong government intervention in the market economy system, in fiscal policy, so they follow the idea of ??government intervention, while our country both from the region or from the culture other terms, with Japan and South Korea are very similar, therefore, China may consider borrowing from (regions), especially in small and medium enterprises in Japan and South Korea's successful experience in fiscal and taxation policies, combined with the actual situation of China's SME development, suitable for China's SMEs to develop fiscal policies, such as high-tech SMEs to further reduce income tax rates and small-scale taxpayers of value-added tax rate, so that as many eligible small and medium enterprises can enjoy the low rates of care. Also, promptly clean up and unreasonable charges for SMEs, and large businesses to enjoy the national treatment, and even super-national treatment. SMEs actively coordinating relevant departments to departments of government procurement, government procurement to SMEs refine tilt Shishi way to ensure that government procurement policy that favors the small and medium enterprises can be implemented, and so on.
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