Abstract: Employment problems and fiscal policy are closely linked.
Papers Category:Fiscal Levy Papers
- China Fiscal Policy
Post Time:2011-12-24 21:33:00
Relative to other policy instruments, the fiscal policy to solve the employment problem of the role of more direct and obvious, the mature market economies, fiscal policies in different periods have different emphasis, For our present stage, to ease the employment pressure, maintaining social development and reform and stability, fiscal policy in promoting economic growth, the need to further promote employment growth. Generally speaking, to improve the financial system, enhance macro-control, through tax reform, expanding employment channels, optimize the structure of employment, and improve funding mechanisms, increase capital investment, regulate the social security fund management, strengthen social security benefits, and thus the efficiency of society as a whole play, to achieve full employment.
Keywords: fiscal policy recommendations for a perfect system, strengthen the policy control the party's congress report, to 'deepen fiscal and financial system reform and improve macro-control system.' Deepen fiscal and tax reform, improve the system, strengthen macro- control, requires a sound vertical protection, overall horizontal span, strengthen macro-control at the same time, specification and to ensure that micro-management concept implemented mainly through the public expenditure policy, to take total control and structural adjustment, from the horizontal and vertical aspects of the different economic interests of the main distribution of income to adjust. vertical, through the improvement of pro-poor policies, the implementation of special inter-governmental transfer payments, intensify efforts to support poverty-stricken areas, and promote economic development in poor areas, the progressive realization of fair distribution among regions. In order to further adjust and optimize the expenditure structure, urban and rural disadvantaged groups to establish a sound social security system to protect the public finance services in the horizontal, through the improvement of wage policy, social security policies, employment policies, for different industries, different economic sectors, social classes, etc. micro-economic actors and social transfer payments to residents of the implementation. offside and the absence of public finance functions exist, the government taking on too much, spending far too large, beyond the reasonable scope of government responsibility and financial capacity. to continue to expand the coverage of the reform, efforts to promote the county budget units included in the scope of financial and treasury centralized payment in efforts to expand the scope of direct payments the same time, through technical means to ensure that funds earmarked to improve capital efficiency.
Multilevel nature of the Government's fiscal policy and relatively independent of economic interests, the regulation of the formation of a multi-level system can be divided into macro, meso and micro three levels. Fiscal policy through macro-control is the state budget, tax rates affect the macro- total economy, the impact of total social supply and demand. fiscal policy in the concept of management, mainly through financial investment expenditure, transfer expenditure, etc., adjust the industrial structure, regional economic structure, issues of equity, coordinated development and other issues. fiscal policy Implementation refers to the micro-through financial subsidies, transfer payments form part of the personal income of residents and enterprises.
Second, the use tax policy to expand employment channels, optimize the structure of employment to use tax policy to regulate the industrial structure, vigorously develop the tertiary industry, create more jobs, with the continuous economic development and international competition intensifies, further optimize the industrial structure promote the development of tertiary industry, thereby increasing jobs and opportunities with the developed countries, the tertiary industry employing more than 75% of total employment compared to the proportion of employees in the tertiary industry was only guilty of .4%, the development of space is huge. the main way is through fiscal policy measures the government can encourage the development of tertiary industry, increase the share of tertiary industry output and employment share, thereby enhancing the employment elasticity of economic growth, while also face internal structure of the tertiary industry irrational reality, efforts to adjust the internal structure of the tertiary industry, all sectors within the industry to achieve balanced development of coordination, and should focus on the development of emerging scientific and technological progress related industries such as consulting, information technology services industry, and various and employment capacity, and economic development and living closely related industries. While the use of tax policy, coordination of regional economic development and reduce structural unemployment.
Through the use of tax policy to affect regional differences in investment direction to prevent further exacerbate structural unemployment caused by such as to give the backward areas in some important industrial sectors and enterprises to invest preferential credits or accelerated depreciation, capital accumulation to improve the ability to provide more jobs: the mining industry, mining industry, the more use of natural resources, while the central and western regions to absorb more labor in key industries, to give relief resources tax, increases the project value-added tax benefits, reduce their tax burden. the main functional areas in our country planning requirements and the layout of the industrial structure between regions and adjusted to consider the development of the southeast coastal areas face the bottleneck of the transfer of labor-intensive industries to the Midwest, especially the central region, the formation of different areas of comparative advantage and rational distribution of industry structure.
Increase efforts to support small businesses, to fully learn from foreign experience, the way of tax relief or financial funds for the establishment of small business fund, or by way of financial subsidies to support the development of SMEs, to expand employment channels. Support SMEs, the development of labor-intensive industries and services and attract more workers to jobs is essential, especially in the case of a serious shortage of internal and external needs, the more so, even out of the predicament right now, can not ignore this problem in China as a populous country, is still in the initial stage of industrialization, there is no professional training of a large number of migrant workers, in a period of time, this part of the staff has a strong employment demand and labor-intensive enterprises to absorb employment of migrant workers is the main one of the channels. to give full play to the advantage of our abundant human resources, development of labor-intensive industries, to maximize the absorption of their employment. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
Third, expand financing channels, increase financial input quite a long time to face the future employment and social security funds in China needs a huge contradiction, the existing financial concentration unbearable, we must broaden the study of new funding sources, through budgetary and extra- various channels and actively raise funds for employment and reemployment, and actively adjust the scope of the unemployment insurance fund expenditures, increase their share of funds to promote the employment share of full unemployment insurance to protect life and promote the employment double function, the conditions available in the circumstances, the introduction of social security tax to establish a social security tax as the main, financial assistance and social contributions and other multi-channel fund-raising mechanism for re-employment while employment continued to increase financial support for re-employment capital investments. China is a developing country, the employment pressure, Social Security is not perfect .2008 By the end of the number of 12 400 participated in unemployment insurance people, participated in basic pension insurance, the number of five to 24 307 million .2008 1.3696 trillion yuan social security fund income and expenditure 992.5 billion yuan. China's employment and social security the proportion of total expenditure is 12%, while developed countries are generally accounted for about 30% of financial expenditure. China's public finance investment with the assume the duties of employment and social security are incompatible. long-term future, China will face employment and social a huge gap in the contradiction between security funds should reduce general and 'offside' expenditure, employment and social security account for the financial expenditure increased 20 percent to about clever, while employment and social security funds to broaden the financing channels, in addition to countries through financial grants to establish a reserve fund, the market approach should be taken to secure the reduction of some state-owned shares and the sale, transfer part of the verge of a loss of state-owned enterprise assets, substantial accumulation of funds through the issuance of social welfare lottery, or have been, the introduction of the consumption tax and personal income tax and inheritance tax will be imposed, set aside a certain percentage of property tax, dedicated to the Supplementary Fund. diversification to increase employment and social security funding, will be placed in a variety of different sources of funds in the budget, improving financing mechanisms, to ensure that employment and stable source of social security funds.
Fourth, the birth of industrial innovation support platform of fiscal policy from the current situation, despite the country's industrial innovation support platform has a certain development, but China's widespread industrial innovation platform supporting innovation ability, lack of R & D investment and other issues . industrial innovation support platform innovation capability depends on the incentive effects of fiscal policy to guide the sound development of industrial innovation support platform to promote the effective increase employment levels, industrial innovation support platform is the starting point and main objectives in support of industrial innovation platform for innovation process, fiscal policy plays an important role in fiscal policy through a number of relevant departments affect the process of innovation and innovative elements of the act, through a variety of ways to affect industrial innovation support platform innovation, fiscal policy is an important industrial cluster innovation systems fulcrum is system of innovation. From a macro perspective, fiscal policy determines the orientation of the movements in the scale of employment if the expansionary fiscal policy will stimulate economic growth and promote the national income increases, thereby creating jobs, expanding total employment: If you take tight fiscal policy, will reduce consumer demand and steady economic growth, thereby shrinking total employment should be pointed out that fiscal policy by promoting technical progress, the scale of employment will have different effects on the one hand, the short term, technological progress will affect the employment elasticity of economic growth, and ultimately have a negative impact on labor demand: the other hand, from the medium to long term, technological advances will promote sustainable economic development and rapid growth of national income, and the role of impact by accelerating investment demand and labor demand, thus increasing the scale of employment have a positive effect.
From concept level, fiscal policy, labor-intensive and capital-intensive support for different scale changes will determine the size of employment if the expenditure into labor-intensive industries, workers will be increased by the income effect in consumer demand, thereby stimulating To meet consumer demand for the production of new industries and service sector development, resulting in a higher demand for labor: If expenditure into capital-intensive industries, the effect is far less labor-intensive industries into the employment effects of a significant addition, if the tax cuts on labor-intensive industries, will have a strong employment expansion effect: If tax cuts on capital-intensive industries, will have a strong crowding out effect and weak income effect of a limited role in promoting the employment scale.
From the micro level, the role of fiscal policy in the different situations of the individual, but also on the scale of employment produce different results. For an individual, if people with lower levels of income tax cuts will have a strong income effect and consumption effect , which would indirectly expand the scale of employment: if people with higher levels of income tax cuts will have a weaker effect of income and consumption effects, and thus have limited impact on the employment scale the same time, fiscal policy in the employment security policy can be expanded from labor demand, improve the quality of labor supply and labor demand and supply of communication and information play a role, resulting in a more direct, positive effect of employment expansion for enterprises, financial expenses and tax breaks to encourage investments for production effects and obstacles effects causing changes in the total demand of labor. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com