Papers Category:Fiscal Levy Papers
- China Financial Research
Post Time:2011-12-25 12:15:00
[Abstract] lack of financial investment is seriously restricting the development of higher education, higher education finance policy paper from the analysis of the problems put forward in the context of limited financial allocation, how the state, society, schools, businesses, students an opportunity to combine improve the education finance system from start to push forward the remedial measures to alleviate the shortage of higher education finance issues.
[Keywords] education finance, remedial, measures
1 status of higher education is defined as quasi-public goods, government supply and market supply products and services of higher education to provide two ways. With college enrollment, government investment in higher education are increasing, but our general education expenditure share in the national economy and the world is still a reasonable level relative to a certain distance, the shortage of funds has become the largest development pressure in rural compulsory education, as currently the focus of investment in education, the state will be difficult to separate the more money into universities, colleges and universities on how to make financial remedies, many raise funds to ease the development of higher education in the financial shortfall, will be worthy of our attention and study.
2 China's higher education financial policy shortcomings
2.1 The financial funding of education in general less than the total of China's serious shortage of funds, investment in education has not achieved the target of 4%, a poor country with large investment in education, the actual gap is still huge demand for the same time, state spending on education has gradually inclined to the primary In 2009 the government work report clearly stated: In 2009, education spending is expected to 198.062 billion yuan, the specific allocation, more inclined to compulsory education the cost of teachers and students in higher education funding is still mainly rely on state financial investment system, the country's overall lack of investment in education funding, must greatly restrict higher education, many colleges and universities is the inevitable result of insufficient funds.
2.2 Regional differences are significant funding, unbalanced investment in higher education system into the 'management' reform the funding of higher education funding the administrative relationship of the schools were graded by the central and local burden of the new funding system has help mobilize the enthusiasm of local investment in education, but because of China's regional economic development is uneven, so that the total amount of all regions and incremental investment in education has a significant difference, regional development imbalances one hand, investment in underdeveloped areas of higher education limited the development of higher education, on the other hand, the flow of graduates from developed areas of employment after graduation, leading to investment in less developed regions can not be recycled, thus affecting the incentive to invest in underdeveloped areas of education and investment capacity. and thus an impact on higher education The main reason of development and equity -.
Countries lack the necessary education and balance the financial mechanism, in China's central and local governments share the financial investment in education is the average ratio of 37:63 ratio of the irrational, the regional imbalance in the development of education, especially in central and western regions, the university's significant financial allocations enough so that regional differences even more prominent.
2.3 Financial allocation system and method is unreasonable and inefficient to adopt a comprehensive university funding are currently fixed + special subsidy funding model, which is based on the number and types of students to develop the cost of student training as training standards, is input-based funding model, which funding model is only concerned about the scale of education, will inevitably result in conditions of hard competition regardless of their own university enrollment targets, expanding their enrollment at the expense of others the same time, schools did not fully consider the actual differences between the disciplines and professions, tuition fee approved by the department of price, not to the local schools, educational focus and effectiveness of the factors to be considered as a reference, the lack of effective control, inefficient use of funds, can not do both fairness and efficiency.
2.4 is not unified financial authority and powers of higher education, the budget lacks legitimacy in our present, educational administrative departments in charge of education, finance department is responsible for the funding of education, the government department responsible for education, infrastructure investment plan, resulting in a long time education budget separation of powers and financial authority in the state in the summary budget, education funding is the second state budget allocation is the same level by a certain percentage of revenue in the cut out one, did not consider higher education, career development plan, the actual demand and actual output Education department of higher education can not be effective line management and control of macro right, so hard to reflect both the preparation of the calculation of total funding needs of higher education, can not be limited funds for reasonable and equitable distribution of funding will inevitably lead to the demand and supply unbalanced.
3 fiscal remedies inadequate investment in higher education finance has its deep roots in history and realities, to increase financial allocation is the most direct solution, but economic development requires a very long process, not real-time to support the government's input. To solve the Gao Xiao lack of financial investment, not only to the issue of financial investment in the reform, more importantly, is to rely on a multi-faceted remedial measures, the development Bing effective use of scarce educational resources of society, the formation of an organic system, the funding gap for higher education Baituo wide selection path.
3.1 the main body of the main beneficiaries of higher education include: state, society, students, schools and employers. The spirit of 'who benefits, who share' principle, the main beneficiaries are required to bear the corresponding costs of education. ① the final state is the education income, their share of the cost of education, mainly through financial allocations to compensate for the corresponding cost of education, ② society will also be beneficiaries of the knowledge economy, the share of the cost of education is mainly through taxes, donations, etc. to reflect, ③ students and students The family is the direct beneficiaries of higher education should be in the form of tuition fees to compensate for the cost of education, ④ schools, schools face the survival and development, to enhance its research and development capabilities and social services should be based on scientific research, services and other income extract part of the training for the students.
3.2 Financial remedy implementation implementation of financial remedy selection, to ensure the financial input of funds, so that the main parties to form a complementary organic system has a positive meaning. Financial remedies study is inadequate investment in the premise of financial allocations , according to the nature of higher education and economic development stage, financial allocations should be based, other remedial measures, supplemented by the organic combination. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
3.2.1 financial funding (1) the improvement of legislation, to protect education funding. Legislation will directly affect the effect of higher education finance tools. First, by using the legal system to ensure the overall growth of government funding for education, increase the protection of government spending on education efforts to ensure that national financial education expenditure to GDP ratio of 4%, the second is investment in education through legislation on the structure and approach should also be make the appropriate adjustments and changes to improve the central and local sub-projects, pro-rata share of the funding mechanism, clearly strengthen the central government's macro-control functions of the local universities and local governments for the direct management functions and the third is also a clear basis for further and higher education the proportion of education funding to ensure the simultaneous development.
(2) the introduction of performance and competition, the establishment of multi-parameter approach the funding of higher education is currently the main government funding for universities to take the investment funding mechanism, and its essence is a kind of compensation mechanism for input costs, comparison, performance funding mechanism is output indicators to allocate resources to the funding approach. The main features of the performance funding allocation of funds and the government to universities linked to the quality of education, so that the allocation mechanism is more simple, fair, transparent and independent, to promote the effective utilization of university resources to improve, promote the quality of competition among universities. China's education funding should be inclined to output or performance-oriented, multi-parameter combination of expenditure on higher education funding model, the introduction of social intermediary organizations to actively participate in the evaluation and supervision. The establishment of human, material and financial resource utilization efficiency, graduates on the labor market and the adaptation of social and economic development due to cable and other factors as funding, design a variety of parameters to quantify reasonable funding formula, and periodically adjusted, in the agency's assessment and supervision, to make education funding more equitable, fair and transparent. (3) the establishment of the financial funding of higher education agency.
At present, China's higher education funding mechanism is a government 'leadership' rather than government funding under the 'guidance' of the independent, largely belonging to the government's direct mode of operation. learn from the successful experience of foreign countries, the establishment of an independent financial intermediary sector funding. Funds are not allocated directly to schools, conducted by independent agency operation, the results of the assessment and funding linked to the establishment of a open, fair allocation procedures and accept questions and supervision so that they can reduce the burden on government benefits macro-management of government departments.
(4) improve the higher education financial transfer payment system, and sound fiscal transfer payment system of higher education balanced regional differences in public higher education resources, financial resources to compensate for weak areas where higher education needs of public resources is to support the economic development of underdeveloped areas of higher education important measures, but also balance the distribution of public education resources important way of transfer payments designed scientific formula, gradually increase through the payment of transfer between regions of equal educational opportunities within the region and reduce the degree of difference between equality of educational opportunity, the compensation of higher education in disadvantaged areas net outflow of investment cost of education not only to achieve a variety of vertical from central to local forms of transfer payments, while the economically developed regions of central and western regions of the counterpart support the feasibility of such horizontal transfers.
3.2.2 remedies (1) improve the scientific development of the charging mechanism tuition fees, students pay tuition, take part of the cost of education, in essence, students and parents share the cost of higher education in the form of higher education funding, tuition and fees has become colleges and universities the largest source of outside revenue. tuition standards according to the 'interests', 'ability to pay ',''/ fairness and efficiency' and 'social' principle, scientific standards to determine the fees the same time, government Higher pricing policy should have certain rights, by giving due emphasis on colleges and universities, reduced autonomy, so that students will not only ensure that school because of financial difficulties, and it helps increase revenue funding for colleges and universities to reduce the burden of college expenses. (2) improve student student loan system, to establish an effective system of loan repayment.
Operability of their processes, mainly from lenders to choose a rational and reasonable to develop loan recovery period, select the ideal way of security, to take practical repayment methods, such as 'percentage of income payment' monthly fee, etc. At the same time make the repayment of loans related to reduction of related policy development, to encourage students to early repayment, while engaged in the hard work of supporting the professional development of relevant benefits terms and conditions. and establish a sound social insurance system and the personal credit system for the recovery of student loans to provide strong institutional support.
(3) explore the enterprise support system, enterprises are the biggest beneficiaries of higher education, higher education, personnel training and the knowledge and ability to provide research services to universities and technical advice, are transformed into a huge economic interests, all the businesses and other employers, just to pay taxes, to share the cost of education by the government, and no basis for the employer to accept the size and number of college graduates to share the cost of education in practice, should encourage the establishment of enterprises targeted scholarships, grants, funded by the enterprise and by orientation in students signed an agreement requiring them to direct business services after graduation to a certain number of years, this approach not only part of the students successfully complete their education, have a stable work whereabouts, but also enable enterprises to target training to the personnel, financial enterprises to participate in education The most effective way to remedy.
(4) to strengthen the school-enterprise cooperation, to make up for lack of funds, strengthen school-enterprise cooperation, the research results into productive forces, formed by industry to education funding its 'blood-function', so as to bring financial benefits of universities to broaden the financing channels of college another source. the use of university science and technology advantage, talent advantage, financial advantage, the scientific and technological achievements into economic benefits for the school's operating costs have great support, such as the current school-enterprise cooperation has been successful, 'Bao mode', and opened in the implementation and outsourcing services, etc., conform to the practice of diverse school system, and expand enrollment, according to market mechanisms for the development of higher education to raise additional development funds will help further enhance the university's school activity, expansion of teaching resources. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com