[Abstract] This paper analyzes China's reform and opening up highway construction investment and financing problems, construction of a sound investment and financing system of highway several countermeasures.
[Keywords] road construction; investment and financing system; thinking
'Eleventh Five-Year' period is the rapid development of China's highways, increased investment of time in the <<National Economic and Social Development Five-Year Plan>>, the required mileage to 230 million km, five additional 380,000 km; highway reached 65,000 km, the new 24,000 km. to accomplish this task, you need tens of thousands of billions of substantial investment.
Since reform and opening, road investment and financing system is adapted to the socialist market economy, it contributed to the rapid development of China's highway construction. Complete the 'five' the arduous task of road development, road still needs to continue to promote investment and financing system reform , to raise more funds for construction, therefore, seriously consider, review, improve road investment and financing system for road construction fully implement the scientific concept of development, to achieve faster and better development of great significance.
First, China's highway construction investment and financing system review
Early days, the central and local road construction division is responsible for the central government responsible for national planning and construction of trunk roads, local government is responsible for the regional road planning and construction. In 1958, the central government decided, in addition to defense investment in highway construction funds the central government still outside, the other road construction and management of all to the local, central government is no longer listed in the basic construction of highway construction projects, and replaced by the local government planning arrangements.
Under the planned economy system, the main single investment in highway construction, the government is the only investors, but the heavy central government investment in highway construction mission to the local, the local government due to limited financial resources, is difficult to come up with sufficient funds to develop highway. Road construction lagging behind in economic development has become a bottleneck restricting the development of national economy. Shipping difficult, hard drive, capacity and transportation requirements will be more striking.
After the reforms, with the urgent need for economic development, all levels of government to solve the bottleneck problem in a prominent road position, road investment and financing system reform began In 1984, the State Department to allow the vehicle loan or financing road toll collection (ie 'road loans, loan fees') issued a decision .1997 'Highway Law>> to the legal form of government fees and repayment roads, domestic and foreign economic organizations and investment in toll roads toll road to make a clear assignment of requirements.
These reforms, which greatly aroused the enthusiasm of all levels of government initiative to speed up highway construction, local in practice created a lot of effective investment and financing of roads, summed up in roughly the following categories: 1 Transportation departments at all levels to do with project owners, road loans, loan fees .
2 by all levels of government raise funds to build toll road .3. The use of bank loans to foreign governments and road .4 Encourage various domestic and international economic investment in highway construction organizations, including stock, BOT methods 0.5. sale of existing toll roads operate all or part of the right to re-enter the new road construction, rolling development .6 Select the economic prospects of a good highway, clear property rights, set up Co., Ltd., shares issued to the society, in the financial market financing.
Highway investment and financing system reform, a strong impetus to the rapid development of highway construction is in this new system, our highways from scratch, quickly reached 41,000 kilometers, ranking second in the world, the pace of development makes the world wonder According to Ministry statistics, '15' Transportation in China during the fixed assets investment totaled 2.23 trillion yuan, more than 51 years ago after the founding of the total investment to complete. road passenger and cargo traffic, respectively, accounted for 92% of integrated transport and 72% of the national economy to achieve rapid development of a strong support.
Practice has proved that China's highway construction, reform and opening up highway road construction investment and financing system in line with the development of economic laws, in line with China's national conditions, the experience of reform should be fully affirmed.
Second, problems in highway construction
Majority of the people and the community in full recognition of China's highway construction has made great achievements in recent years for road construction problems also make some comments, mainly toll roads, toll stations too, adding to transportation costs. Of this problem, we must pay close attention. At present, China has built a toll road about 15 million kilometers, accounting for the world's total 70% of the toll road.
Reasons for this situation, lack of financial resources at all levels of government is the root cause, but in actuality, there are also properties of the road awareness of discrepancies in economics. 1 Highway is the foundation industry, is essentially public goods, most of the roads by the government provided free of charge.
Huge demand for highway construction funds, the government can not meet the financial, economic and social development and the development of the people on the road calls for urgent, local the use of 'road loans, loan fees' policy, speed up development, the formation of a larger number of toll roads, which is China as a developing country, accelerating the road development in the emerging situation. Links to Research papers Download
2 from the economic laws, due to the existence of differential benefits of roads, construction of toll roads is consistent with moderate economic laws and the principle of fairness road of the United States, France, Italy, Spain and other developed countries, there are a number of toll roads, but the developed countries to build toll roads, the roads tend to be more emphasis on the differential benefits, claims to provide a parallel with the toll roads are not toll roads for road users to select, the user can choose to pay based on the cost of road tolls in exchange for increased traffic, reduce operating costs, shorten the transport distance and save time, reduce traffic congestion and other road-use efficiency, or to bear the cost of inconvenience in exchange for free passage on the road right to our country in the planning, construction of toll roads, the road did not fully consider the differential efficiency, there are often more toll road parallel phenomenon, so that people everywhere have the feeling of toll road.
3 With the rapid development of highways, people's understanding of the highway has changed the reform and opening up, a serious shortage of road, generally low technical level, many secondary roads for the completion of one inspired by the two people Road toll taken for granted now criss-crossing the highway, highway road as the embodiment of the differential effectiveness of highway toll, it is psychologically acceptable, but many secondary roads in the minds of most people is no longer the year of high level road, it still charges you had a question.
These problems have been caused by high-level decision-making departments attach great importance to the State Council promulgated in 2004 <<Toll Road Management Regulations>> clear that the development adhere to non-toll road highway main, the proper development of toll roads. Faced with these problems and circumstances, we must further improve Highway investment and financing system, in order to fundamentally solve the problem, in order to achieve rapid and sound development of China's highway construction.
Third, some suggestions
State <<Toll Road Management Regulations>> on the toll road were clearly defined: continuous mileage of 30 km highway, a highway mileage of 50 kilometers or more consecutive, secondary roads in central and western regions mileage of 60 km or more continuous.
The author believes that this provision is in line with the actual stage of highway development, road development is in line with economic laws, but due to the current highway investment and financing system in China there are still some shortcomings, especially general public nature of government investment in roads is not enough, all levels of government and transportation authorities, in practice there are still many difficulties this end, investment and financing for the perfect road reform proposals are as follows:
1 The State should assume financial responsibility for the investment general national highway a long time, not to the general state of basic national road construction investment, mainly implemented by local government investment, which is caused by more general national highway toll stations the main reason now, with the rapid economic development of national financial resources greatly enhanced, the central government for the next general national highway construction and expansion should bear the primary responsibility for the investment, in order to avoid the new toll stations. (2) local governments should increase the financial capital investment in highway construction.
In accordance with <<Highway Code>> requirements, major provincial government investment by the provincial, county and municipal, county government investment, county, township and village levels in the township Road, Village Road, the main investment now, government at all levels of the serious shortage of investment in highway construction, local road construction depends mainly on road maintenance, and road maintenance should be the name suggests the main road maintenance funds, not funds for construction. government at all levels starting from the concept of public finances, should increase spending on road construction. maintenance fee for the public welfare as the development of national taxes levied by law, must be strictly collection, not diverted, and it is not an industry for the development and relief, Otherwise, it will benefit society as a whole losses.
3 on the highway, a highway and secondary roads in central and western regions, still adhere to investment diversification, owners of multi-layered project, financing a variety of reform, increase funding and accelerate the pace of construction.
4 As the highway with a huge external economic characteristics, all levels of government to continue to land policy, tax policy and other benefits given to road construction. 5 to straighten out the toll stations.
's Toll roads have been built, once expired, to stop the charges. For the general parallel with the highway road, the road to full use of the differential effectiveness of the principle, in the future should not be the construction of toll roads, for the people provide people with choice.
6 from the support of a new socialist countryside construction point of view, the central government, provincial government should continue to increase support for rural road construction, but the grass-roots government is the main construction and management of rural roads, to get rid of, etc., rely on, to thinking, positive funding to fully mobilize the peasants' enthusiasm to build a better home, to speed up rural road construction. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com