Abstract In this paper, analysis of the financial situation of the structure, content, key indicators and should pay attention to explore the issue of how best to write business analysis of the financial situation in order to carry out management's financial projections, decision-making.
Financial analysis is based on corporate financial reporting and other relevant information as the main basis of the enterprise's financial position and operating results to evaluate and analyze, to reflect the process of enterprises in the operation and development trend of the advantages and disadvantages, so as to improve the enterprise's financial management and optimization of the economic decision-making provides important financial information. Analysis of the financial situation of both the financial activities that have been completed a summary of financial projections is the premise of the financial management of the cycle plays a role of linking role. As the company continued to develop and gradually to meet international requirements, enterprises will face new opportunities and challenges, therefore, strengthen the financial position of analytical work, an accurate evaluation and analysis company's financial situation, explore the potential to improve the lack of and continuously improve the competitiveness of enterprises is very important.
1, the financial situation of the main structure analysis report
(A) the report title
The title is the financial situation of the most refined analysis of the broad, it not only accurately reflect the theme of the analysis, but also to language simple, eye-catching. As the Financial Analysis Report is different, its title, there is no uniform standard and fixed pattern, should be based on an analysis of the specific content of the. Such as "financial statements of a brief analysis of the month," "an annual consolidated financial analysis report", "asset efficiency analysis" and so on.
(B) basic information
Integrated enterprise that is summed up the situation, so that users of financial reports to the financial position analysis shows that there is an umbrella understanding. The main business areas such as enterprise and other business conditions and so on, as well as business operations and financial status are introduced. That part of the requirement of written expression appropriate and accurate data reference. A description of the economic indicators can be used when the absolute numbers to compare the number and the number of composite indicators. With particular attention to the operation of the current business focus on important matters to be alone to reflect.
(C) a comprehensive analysis of
Comprehensive analysis is carried out operation of the business analysis and research problems in the description of the simultaneous analysis of the problem to find the causes and the crux of the problem in order to achieve the purpose of solving the problem. Financial analysis must be well-founded, to refine the indicators decomposition, we must be good at using tables, icons, highlight the content of expression analysis. Analysis of the problem must be good at seizing the present point, multi-business focus and reflect the often neglected issues.
(D) Overall assessment
Make a financial statement and analysis for the operation, financial condition, earnings performance, it should be fair from a financial point of view, objective evaluation and prediction. The positive and negative evaluations from two aspects, the evaluation can either be a separate section, you can also evaluate the content of interludes in the narrative and analysis section.
(E) the proposed work
That financial staff in the operation, and investment decision-making analysis of the formation of opinions and views, especially for problems in operation of the proposed recommendations for improvements. It is noteworthy that the financial analysis of the recommendations made in the report can not be too abstract, but to specific, focusing on the actual operation, the recommendations should be practical.
Second, the financial situation analysis report's main indicator
(A) business index analysis
Mainly to explain the basic situation of enterprises, the current production business of the completion of major economic indicators such as production, sales volume, sales amount and the actual completion of such increase or decrease in value year on year. Calculations to reflect the capacity of enterprise development, financial evaluation of the status of indicators: sales growth, capital accumulation rates, total assets growth rate, three-year average growth rate of capital; three-year average growth rate of sales. These indicators and criteria indicators and compared with a year earlier, the value increase or decrease the value of the calculation, and from the following aspects of production and operation analysis of the performance achieved and existing problems and reasons: First, the impact of changes in the business environment, the main analysis of enterprise production and management internal and external conditions change; Second, adjustments to the scope and impact of business; three other businesses are required to disclose the circumstances and issues and so on. To find out the main factors and explains the main reason for enterprises to obtain what results, indicating problems in business what are the reasons and difficulties to enable enterprises to clearly define the future direction of development.
(B) the profit and loss index analysis
For the income statement reflected in the number of current and planned number of actual profits and the actual number of comparison a year earlier, analyzing the situation and the increase or decrease in the value of the profit achieved. Current profit (loss) is the total amount, than the plan and the year-ago changes in the amount and rate of change; analysis of current composition of the actual total profits, including: main business profit, other business profits, operating income and expenditure and so on with the planned increase or decrease in the number and the year-ago level and the rate of change is.
Calculating ROE, return on total assets, the main operating profit margin, cost margin analysis of indicators such as profitability, and use standard values, compared with a year earlier, the value of increase or decrease the value of the calculation.
3. According to analysis and calculation of results, analysis and evaluation of the strength of corporate profitability, and from the main business year on year increase or decrease the amount of income the impact of cost increases or reductions year on year impact of other business profits, business income, net and other factors the impact of its current profitability level, find the cause of profitability enhancement (weakening) reasons.
(C) Analysis of financial targets
Through the proportion of capital structure analysis and the current balance sheet, income statement and other statements of the purpose formed in proportion to the industry ratio and the proportion of a year earlier, the project compared to growth analysis and structural analysis will be combined to determine the projects constitutes a proportion of rationality, scientific.
For the operation of enterprise assets ability to analyze, evaluate the efficiency of enterprise asset management. Its evaluation indicators include: total asset turnover, mobile asset turnover, fixed asset turnover, inventory turnover, accounts receivable turnover. Such as through the accounts receivable turnover analysis of corporate accounts receivable can be drawn for the pace of realization and management of high and low efficiency. If the turnover rate indicates that: collection speed, aging short, asset liquidity, short-term liquidity strong, and can reduce the collection costs and bad debt losses. At the same time with accounts receivable turnover period compared with the corporate credit, you can also evaluate the creditworthiness of the third party processing unit to adjust the original credit terms, work out (the transfer p. 64) (No. 62 on the next page) the corresponding collection policy. Analysis of the situation of fixed assets turnover, you can tell whether it is reasonable utilization of fixed assets, fixed assets, the structure is appropriate.
3, the calculation of the solvency of enterprises, the main indicators are: quick ratio, current ratio, asset-liability ratio, equity ratio and so on.
Indicators of change difference analysis, the current indicators calculated results with the standard value and the value of comparison a year earlier to find large or unusual changes in indicators as a key analytical object, revealing the operation of the problems and causes. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
(D) increasing the value of state-owned assets index analysis
Measure of increasing the value of state-owned body of indicators of state-owned capital appreciation rates, through the analysis of the indicators can fully realize the protection of state-owned assets, can promptly and effectively discover the phenomenon of erosion of state-owned assets, reflecting the preservation of invested capital of the country and growth of.
保值增值率generally believed that the higher the capital of that company's capital preservation as possible. When the保值增值率100% of the hedge, more than 100% of the value-added, if less than 100% indicates that the state-owned capital impairment, indicating state-owned assets have been eroded, loss, loss, etc., there is no realization of capital preservation.
3. According to preserving and increasing the value of state-owned capital to achieve the degree of analysis of its causes, especially on capital preservation should not achieved a high degree of attention to find loopholes, and study countermeasures.
3, writing the financial situation of enterprises should pay attention to the problem analysis report
(A) To highlight the key bogey generalities
Analysis of the problem lies in exposing the financial situation, find reasons to make recommendations.
Therefore, analysis of content should be highlighted the focus of current financial situation, seize the nature of the problem, identify the impact of current indicators of the main factors of change, focusing on changes in a larger analysis of indicators of subjective and objective reasons. So as to objectively and correctly evaluate, analyze the current financial situation of enterprises, enterprise development, trend projections, which targeted proposals and recommend corrective measures.
(B) To in-depth analysis, kick the tires bogey.
We know that, often hidden behind the surface of a good indicator of individual serious shortcomings, gaps and risks, which requires us to not be fooled by appearances, but also not the sake of discussion, but to be good at in-depth investigation and study, are good at capturing the process of development and change of things accidental phenomenon essential law, take a pragmatic approach to overcome the "preconceived" ideas. Wealth of detailed information available through the repeated scrutiny, prove, Qucuqujing, Quweicunzhen order to arrive at the financial situation of the enterprise objective and fair assessment. For example, only the index contrast caliber, it is necessary in-depth investigation and verification, conversion of its valuation, standards, time, composition, content, and is comparable, there is no comparison between the comparable indicators can only be bent twisted true colors of things, may even mislead users of the report.
(C) To user-friendly, bogey is too professional
The preparation of financial analysis reports, should be well aware of the report read, mainly targeted at enterprises and the higher authorities. Analysis of the financial situation was mainly serve to improve economic management within the enterprise, improving the quality of economic operation, for the leadership when the staff, so that the people out family property. Therefore, analysis of the financial situation of the professional should try to dilute the flavor, use less jargon, multi-purpose large vocabulary, be straightforward, concise, easy to understand.
(D) To adhere to regular analysis and routine analysis of the principle of combining
Annual, quarterly, and monthly analysis is important, but with the financial decision-making information timely and continuous improvement requirements to require companies to promptly analyze daily financial position, profitability, asset management capabilities and the future development of enterprises, and even require real-time analysis of the financial situation, therefore, in the importance of regular analysis of the same time, the same should also attach importance to routine analysis.
(E) To uphold the statements of analysis and thematic analysis of the principle of combining
State of the business mainly from the three statements of financial analysis to proceed on the phases of the economic indicators, business analysis, preparation of the financial situation. From the results point of view, hardly exhaustive, the actual role is limited. In practice, work, financial analysis and reading the object is often a lack of communication, lack of targeted mainly engaged in matters of thematic analysis. Thus, corporate financial analysis should focus on leadership and the cadres and workers are most concerned about the hot issues and practical work encountered new problems to start passing on the leadership of decision-useful information to truly play the role of staff.
Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.