Languages and Cultures of thinking on translation analysis

The language is basically a cultural and social products, and to understand that it should from the point of view of culture and society. Cultural differences between English and Chinese languages ​​in the semantic level, the conversion of a huge obstacle, the difference is first expressed as the values ​​of the different Chinese culture is a culture, emphasizing the theory of value "of the societies; English culture supremacy of multiculturalism, respect for personal values. "In addition to the values ​​of differences, English-Chinese cultural differences are also closely related to the two national geographical location and social environment, climatic conditions and customs.

A geographical environment caused by cultural differences

The culture is regional, special geographical environment and climate are often characterized by the culture of the region and lay the mark. Chinese and English, very different because of geographical, climatic conditions of the giant difference also gave birth to each other relative to other cultures.

England is an island nation located in the western hemisphere, north temperate, maritime climate, its nation to create a language stained with the geographical features. Like our well-known idioms spend money like water, make water on all at sea, etc. that have won them. On the contrary, the Chinese nation, the ancestral home of the continent of Asia, its culture naturally inevitably affected by the above-mentioned "big spenders" is an example, In addition there are "ashen", "soil-soil eyebrow eye", "facing the loess back the air," the list goes on.

As for the different climate incurred by the example of the cultural differences is also cite numerous single "wind", "westerly" point of view, the two cultures differ materially from Shelley's "Ode to the West" (Ode to the West, the Wind is the right spring celebrating Charles Dickens said: "How many winter days have I seen him, standing blue-nosed in the snow and east wind!" << David Copperfield >> This is also an excellent example. However, the "East Wind" in Chinese to overcome the "west" is a spring breeze is warm messenger. "West Wind" is the autumn, that bleak autumn. the words of Ma Zhiyuan Road, westerly, Shouma, but also with Ma song "Zuixiang, Dongfeng wake Pear Dream", also illustrates this point, the songwriters in the mood naturally exotic people hard to understand.

Two, the differences caused by the local customs

English and Chinese cultural differences caused by the customs reflected in the animal vocabulary phrases Englishman fond of horses, horse riding, horse racing as its customs, the British are typical of the "horse culture" English horse, extremely rich, such as talk horse (bragging), get on one's high horse (arrogance, horse and horse (neck and neck, however, China is a traditional agricultural country, generations of cattle farming life Chinese hoarding a symbol of a large number of cattle culture "cow is a" hard-working, diligent, and willing ox bow "is embodied in this complex. On the contrary in English, Malay instead, the old ox in the Chinese translation into English it became "a willing horse.

Not only that, some of said color vocabulary in English and Chinese precipitation of the culture of different feelings. "Red" in Chinese, contains a strong compliment color, "Rounds" is a successful and rich, happy and auspicious. In contrast, "red" is often Westerners think of bloodshed, war, terror, anger and danger, and contains a strong negative connotation.

Along with the process of translation of scientific theories in the West since the 1960s, China since the late 1980s, translation studies showing a rapid development momentum. At the same time, with the economic and cultural impact of globalization, Translation Studies Translation to show the school to flourish face.

In China, the translation of the object field is artificial division of the "non-literature" and "literature". "Non-fiction" refers to the general practicality of style, such as political, economic, technological, financial, trade, tourism, sports, of which the most important to "Translation", "Literary Translation" is the parallel translation with the Translation category and methodology followed arose "non-literature research and literature." non- literary translation is considered to be a technical activity, medium-and long-term dominant position in the activity of translation, at the same time, we can not deny, literary translation dominates this area of ​​research in translation studies, has been the focus of attention .

Since the 1980s, the tide of cultural studies, translation history and culture of research and more attention, language and culture of thinking of Chinese and Western translation difference in performance was very prominent, based on the sensitivity of the context, tone, subtle and extensive use a variety of rhetorical concerns, translation and cultural factors to be considered.

The language is not only a tool of expression and communication of human thoughts and feelings, and is an integral part of culture, is the carrier of culture. Language to truly reflect a country, a nation's eco-geographical, political, economic, material culture, religious beliefs, customs, etc. different languages ​​determine the different ethnic groups different way of thinking, behavior and language. However, personality and common language coexist and both Humboldt once said: "Comparison of Language Studies is an accurate exploration of the language differences can be said that, looking for differences to achieve unity, one of which must be of particular concern is the connotation of the sound shape of language, words, sports and other forms of spiritual culture in real terms.

Essence of translation is the one language into another language, its purpose is all the information of the original language input in the target language to achieve maximum equivalent effect. Both English and Chinese belong to the Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan language, different characteristics of the language, and determines the respective word formation and meaning to the expression of very different, in order to express exactly the original content, and application of various techniques in the process of translation is necessary.

Sometimes, in order to make the text more in line with the expression of Chinese customs and laws, faithful to the original premise of the choice of words, increasing the word is omitted, the appropriate parts of speech to be converted, in order to make the translation fluent and natural, of course, translation is not a pure language itself. conversion, it has a variety of social and cultural relations. Every nation has its own social and cultural characteristics, the culture is to enable people to unite as a whole for a common set of shared meaning, beliefs and values, its specific spatial and temporal scales , so some of the words are said and anti sentences and idioms in translation should take into account their respective characteristics.

In the Chinese culture and history, there are many brilliant achievements of the foreign scholars aspire, they believe that the extensive and profound Chinese culture, colorful, and its long history, thus creating the idea of ​​manner and language organizations on the importance of parataxis and perception, to distinguish it from Western thinking the parataxis weight on the differences and rational. Chinese parataxis without recourse to the means of the convergence of the lexical grammar, the logical relationship of word and sentence connotations alone or with the help of context, semantic and pragmatic factors, will be able to constitute a coherent discourse This feature is embodied in the ancient Chinese literature, the English word sentence in the language form of the idiom articles whole, and ultimately, vocabulary syntax dominant convergence.

Germany thought leaders advocated by Habermas Theory of Communicative Action to the understanding and communication in modern society the highest goal that translation studies should become a basic training for the practice of human interaction, starting from the point of view of others, establish a host-guest rooms an effective link exchanges from different cultural backgrounds, and even the same context, exchanges are necessary, so that you can change the one-way mode of thinking in real life, the establishment of a new understanding of the host-guest model. Share the free papers Download Center
the conventional thinking of the Chinese people pay attention to nature and man, the personal laws of nature, all things are prepared by me, the sense of participation a strong performance in the language more "human" for the subject. rational analysis in the West emphasis on the subject and object separate and distinct from the main language, so sometimes the "main body, sometimes to the object-based language, as the case may be, but more is holding an objective look at attitude to things in the main language and an objective, dispassionate analysis and description, which leads to differences in English and Chinese texts subject, thematic, or center of gravity.

Fundamentally, and Western re-integrated with the re-analysis of the habit of thinking of performance. Chinese people like the spiral expansion, first declared the importance of the theme, and then repeatedly discussed and emphasized, and finally return to the topic, Westerners like linear logical thinking, is to express the central meaning, which commenced, or layers of deduction or itemized statement following the statement naturally leads to the front of the one with time, place, event notification, the discourse The habits of the Chinese people express "We will in what time and where to do something, the expression of the Westerners is the event + location + time.

For example, Chinese people used to say: tomorrow morning to see my aunt, 7:00 in the courtyard door collection. Western expression is: We will meet at the courtyard gate at 7 O'clock tomorrow a morning in order to visit our aunt.

The translation is interpretation of two different language and characters, the total two aspects of language translator and was the translator will need to do some deep research, to see how differences in the Chinese and foreign language. These differences There are grammar, rhetoric, habits, and performance practices.

Such as: construction of the English heavy sentence, the English sentence, in particular, long sentences and more Westerners are accustomed to using the "redundant" structure of the long sentence, during the translation, should take care of.

In a sense, accurate and fluent expression is in understanding the basis of the original translation activities through in-depth logical analysis and reasoning, and constantly breaking the original meaning or the mandatory aspects of the syntactic structure of the original essence of the specification, fluent target language Holography. Since this translation is not mechanical reproductions of the original, it often requires the creative work, that is, language arts and expression of art reflect the proper handling in order to understand the translation method as well as for the original wording, sentence structure, narrative, and other issues "caused by" literal "and" paraphrase "alienation" and "naturalized" in the practice of translation can not but use what kind of translation is alienation or fully naturalized, if in the process of translation, the two complement each other, then you will receive an unexpected effect.

Western aesthetics has a long history and many fine academic tradition, especially in recent decades, the rapid development and increasing influence on the translation of literary translation is in progress, can not ignore the works of aesthetic value, not rigidly adhere to surface structure and morphology, does not focus on the abilities of the translated language quality and aesthetic characteristics of modern translation for the translation of the inherent representing different cultural systems held by different aesthetic theories and ways of thinking, and even different countries and nations, make a judgment on the aesthetic value and to explore the aesthetic nature and law.

Comparative Literature in Translation Studies is not limited to the understanding and expression of certain linguistic phenomena, not comment on their advantages and disadvantages, but the translation of literary works and accepted as a fait accompli, not only to their general sense of value judgments, but also On this basis, to commence the investigation and analysis of literary exchange, influence, acceptance, dissemination, and other issues.

Study of literary translation, translation theory, you can expand the new point of view, the new method is no longer simply to evaluate the translation products is superior, but to all types of translation products as an aesthetic object, from an aesthetic point of view, appreciation, taste, compared to , analysis, aesthetic factors and value of literature and its translation product contains the most vividly reveal, so that readers in the study of literary translation work at the same time, to fully appreciate the aesthetic value of the original and translated.

Translation practice and skill translation is a highly practical knowledge, can we truly need long-term painstaking efforts Xuedao Shou. The formation of the translation capabilities of the translator can not learn the theoretical knowledge, strengthen skills training alone, but need to tie solid real bilingual skills and translation practice.

No matter what translation, inevitably Strip communication purposes. Era of increasing speed in the increasingly prosperous international cultural exchanges in various fields of China and the international standards, Translation can be a better development, noting the the differences of Chinese and Western language and culture of thinking sex at the same time, must break the limit of translation studies, geography, subject, genre, form a cross-disciplinary, multiple complementary pattern, and strengthen exchanges in the field of translation studies, across different traditions and systems, two-way between the Chinese and Western translation theory system complementarity, drawing mutual penetration, in order to achieve a blend of Chinese and Western translation and symbiotic.


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[2] Xiong Kai Xu translation naturalization and alienation [J]. Southwest University for Nationalities, 2005 (8) :342-345.

[3] Zhao Aiguo Outline of language and culture learning [M]. Heilongjiang People's Publishing House ,2006:28 -41. Share Free paper Download Center

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