Analysis of college English writing Chinese English Analysis of the causes and characteristics and countermeasures

Paper Keywords: Chinese-style English College English migration

Abstract: 'Chinese-style English,' College English writing is a common phenomenon, the article analyzes the 'Chinese style English' is the main cause of the negative transfer of Chinese, citing the 'Chinese-style English,' some of the features, Finally deal with 'Chinese-style English' approach.
I. Introduction
Each semester in college English language proficiency test conducted, the writing part is not working well the student composition which is full of 'Chinese-style English.' Even the English students to write an essay is not satisfactory as College English teachers, we have an obligation to identify the causes of student errors, and correct student errors. Many Chinese and foreign scholars by comparison, the structural features of both languages, found in second language acquisition, the acquisition of Chinese learners of English different native language and English, it is subject to the interference of learner language and its culture.

Second, the 'Chinese style English' is defined as

Some scholars believe that 'Chinese English' is a departure from standard English, oral or written expression is not authentic English, English does not meet the rules and habits, that's ways of thinking, way of expression and choice of words, and with all Chinese-style and it is dead translated, hard to translate, word for word translation of the results with the Ocean Drive Bang The difference is that Chinese-style English is not the norm, sometimes obscure, and even prone to misunderstanding, so language learners should They put an end to the output of the language 'Chinese English', stick with standard English. Levin, said: 'China is a Chinese-style English, English language learners and users due to the interference and influence, rigidly applied English rules and habits, appear in English communication sub-standard English or non-English, English culture and customs of the deformity. This English, English-speaking countries who often can not understand or is not acceptable. '

Third, the 'Chinese style English' causes

Language transfer is writing important cognitive factors more English and Chinese language, Chinese belongs to Sino-Tibetan language, are ideographic system, the English are Indo-European, part of letter writing system. English as a second language in many ways there are differences with the Chinese, for example, in language structure, rhetoric, has a different learning strategies, writing in the English way of thinking among the Chinese will inevitably be reflected, which is the negative transfer of Chinese, Chinese-style English, the above mentioned negative transfer of Chinese is a typical representative of Chinese in the English language acquisition in a complex and important role to play when learning to write English papers, they are more or less there is a certain pressure, so they will be thinking about writing the details in the brain arouse the Chinese system resources, sometimes word for word from the Chinese learners will be translated into English, that this is the correct language, and sometimes they tend to use their native language to think and solve communication problems that arise when Chinese students writing in English when writing , inter-language migration is reflected in different levels, such as vocabulary, syntax and sentence structure, etc. in their transition to English language learning in the formation and in writing that often appear in non-standard dialects are spoken by the mother tongue interference formed. interlingual migration between pervasive in foreign language learning process is undisputed. learners in learning English is limited to the regular classroom teachers, guidance, while the Chinese are in their daily lives exposure to the language all the time.

Learners in learning English, they have completely mastered the language at this stage, the learners ability to use English is still progress in the process when the Chinese learners of English writing English sentences, they want to adapt the rules of English because the two languages, there are some differences in the system, they can not yet learned their knowledge of English to express their ideas accurately, although there are many English words and phrases appear in their brain, they are still accustomed to thinking in Chinese. when they encounter them in unfamiliar circumstances I do not know how to express in English, they put the language in which they are familiar with the knowledge to borrow and transplant them into the target language. In addition, English language learners know much about the culture of English-speaking countries, on the little is known about differences in their English language learning is a major obstacle. In addition, a limited vocabulary hindered their English expression. The face of lack of necessary knowledge of English learners rely on the language from Chinese to English migration to compensate for their own inter-defects with the learner's cognitive maturity and mastery of English and Chinese languages, learners will want to write lengthy articles to express their views, they will not be considered to avoid the unfamiliar knowledge of strategy, and tend to learn in writing the new knowledge, such an effort to increase the number of learners of English writing skills, but also to other Some deviation from the standard native learners of English.

Fourth, the 'Chinese style English' feature

1 sense of overlap

English learners in the learning and communication in English, the sake of simplicity, always remember the word, while ignoring the words of the match, so they build out the following sentence:

(1Under the cover of the old house roof, everything becomes unusually depressed.

(2Under the old house roof, everything becomes unusually depressed.
'Roof' is the top floor coverings, and 'cover' are also covered means, with the 'roof' of the significance of overlap occurred, so 'cover' is an unnecessary word. Learners know the 'roof' of the meaning, but ignore the significance of its meaning. The following example also the meaning of the overlap occurred:
(1) You don't study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an impractical illusion!
(2) You don't study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an illusion!
From the Oxford Advanced Dictionary, we can find out 'illusion' is a misconception. The term includes the qualifier has the meaning referred to on behalf of, and therefore slightly off qualifiers should be the student's essay, there are many such examples, For example:
(1) I like reading books.
(2) ... our parents paid the money for us.

Among the above example contains the object of a verb meaning, in English, which they object is usually omitted, but the Chinese were the object was retained. Thus the sentence should read:
(1) I like reading.
(2) ... our Parents paid for us.

(2) the direct literal translation of the word meaning

English learners to master the concepts and language associated with the semantic system and so they learned a new word in English, usually mapped to the existing concept of the meaning or translation of words with meaning, sometimes, it will promote the learning of English. In some cases, especially in the English synonyms are different, the learner has been trying through his memory and the language of symbols to translate the new language of symbols in the acquisition of new words when the behavior becomes a distraction. language learners may be the same by looking for meaning in Chinese words and develop a strategy for the direct translation of their Chinese vocabulary regardless of whether they are expressed in the English vocabulary to express meaning, we take the 'neglect' and 'ignore' to give example, the Chinese translation of these two words are the same, but their connotation and extension of meaning is different. 'neglect' often refers to someone or something did not get enough attention, and 'ignore' often refers to a person or something not easy to be noticed, so they can not arbitrarily be replaced with each other, otherwise it will form a 'Chinese style English', we can see from the following examples of their differences:
(1) I ignored this problem, since I was busy with other tougher matter.
(2) He a short-spoken man and is easy to be neglected in class.

3 inappropriate choice of words

(1) She didn't make a fault anyway.
(2) She didn't make a mistake anyway.
The reason why learners made examples (1 this error is because they only understand the meaning of the word of the extension of the connotations of the word is not understood. The word of the extension of the concept of meaningful content is the meaning, and connotations of the word is the word of the additional meaning and the implied meaning of the word. 'Chinese style English' only to seize the meaning of the word of the extension, while ignoring the connotations of the word, the word did not understand the type of compliment or derogatory, formal or informal, is spoken or written language, such as , a learner does not know the 'fat' tone implied by the word, he wrote the following sentence:
Those who are fat should do plenty of exercises.
Some people see this sentence that it is correct, but English is the native speakers can not accept, because the 'fat' when used as an adjective, it is obviously a derogatory term, it is clear that the example in the syntax can be accepted in pragmatics can not be accepted. This sentence could be rewritten as:
Those who are over-weighted should do plenty of exercises.

Fifth, teaching suggestions

When we find the crux of learners writing, we can take the appropriate method from a new perspective to make our teaching, the basic knowledge of English and Chinese language, cultural background and other knowledge combine old-fashioned teaching methods in improve learners' Chinese-style English 'consciousness does not work, so we should be writing in English teaching and practice should be more time and effort, the following is based on our research on the teaching of English writing suggestions.

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1 Writing with teachers and teaching materials

English writing skills for English majors is a trained high-level ability. In general, this course at the university second and third grade up. English writing skills are not synchronized with other capabilities to improve and, therefore, writing lesson should be based on the various stages of learning English were included in the curriculum of learning so that learners can be at different stages of the formation of their own learning plan, with the overall writing skills will improve and enhance language skills.

It is worth mentioning that the foreign teachers from English-speaking countries were invited to teach in the English Department of English writing course, which is good for advanced learners, because their English language ability, through the teacher's guidance, they can exposed to the environment than the pure language, that authentic development for their helpful English writing skills, if conditions allow, hire the best proficient in English and Chinese language teachers to teach English writing course is also feasible. the best English teachers strong control of language skills and a strong cross-cultural awareness, while their emphasis on grammar, more attention to language use.

For teachers and learners of English writing books, not many know, the traditional teaching is to improve the language ability of learners to be more effective, but not enough to develop the learner's communicative ability. Through our review of English language teaching English, we can see that English writing in each unit are seen as an important part of the materials designer, but the writing subject is rather monotonous, often only related to the text of the comments, and, other materials not enough writing materials while writing in the language teaching profession in each chapter there is a range of writing skills are explained and listed, but more content and Chinese writing is not very detailed, and therefore insufficient to establish English language learners writing standard schema. so teachers have to add additional content and materials, for example, teachers can address the relevant English and Chinese knowledge points set up some special subject, with some clever way of guidance, or a detailed explanation or discussion, until the learner fully grasp the knowledge points so far. for the teaching of English writing and design appropriate to modify the teaching plan is necessary while teaching content should be in accordance with the development of writing skills in English stage to detailed design, writing materials and exercises should be as diverse as provide learners with more inspiration. writing materials should not be based on test-oriented, but should be a long-term study program.

2 Writing

Good writing skills are not innate skills, even if this ability is not a natural language form and it is obtained by the persistence of the training, while drawing on cultural characteristics and life experiences. Since writing is a regular instructor at get the context, we need systematic teaching program. classroom instruction provided by teachers, in combination with other English language skills training through the system of English writing training, learners can consciously reduce the mother tongue interference,
Writing is not a blind exercise of writing it is not just practice words and sentences and structural arrangements, but also learn vocabulary and grammar must be placed in the context of large, thus making writing training, teachers should plan in detail, consider learning of the different levels, and other personal needs, learners should follow the steps in the process of writing gradually and systematically trained. Any method of writing designed to stimulate the enthusiasm of the learner and only they are aware of the writing process and guide the way, they can grasp the essence of English writing, write a good essay.

We have to admit writing skills are not independent of the other reading and listening skills outside. Writing should be accompanied by training in reading and listening comprehension, reading and hearing a lot of training can not only help learners to the accumulation of writing material, but also cultivate a sense of language learners . writing classroom reading and listening is a learned writing the appropriate input. This reading and writing are interrelated ideas and Krashen's Second Language Acquisition consistent with the idea. Krashen that the development of writing skills and second language fluency occur simultaneously, through comprehensible input and low affective filter these two conditions, he proposed writing a lot of interest from the feelings of pleasure and self-motivation to obtain the reading, 'write the authors is to read the Read the article felt during the appearance and structure. 'language learners can recite some of the classic articles and sentence structure to learn English idioms. Gradually, the learner will find that he will unconsciously he had learned similarity of sentences and vocabulary used in writing them. When we read the article, we mainly focus on three areas: in chronological order, chronological order, including all acts, incidents and structure - how they occur , involving the relationship between the characters, so that learners will learn in the brain to internalize the information entered, and then output them to their own writing, we can also write in English native speakers to practice reading and listening, learning can be read or listen to a brief conversation and a short drop, then the dialogue or paragraph to answer questions or repeat the dialogue or paragraph. the same as translation exercises, practice answering questions so that learners can freely enter some new sentences, sentences of contents is restricted, for example, learners can listen to a short dialogue, there are such words as Tom says to Mary that he doesn't think Peter is smart, learners can be asked the following question 'What does Tom think about Peter? 'learner's answer might be' Tom thinks Peter is not smart. 'If the learner answer that English teachers should respond to' what you say is the order of Chinese-style English, listen to the recording again (or read the paragraph again ), the secondary listen how to say Tom is through repeated this exercise, learners will be enhanced with native speakers of English to express the sense of expression.

Carefully selected to do the translation of some sentences to practice, you can also find the vocabulary and syntax errors in the migration, we can give learners a number of Chinese sentences and some paragraphs with Chinese cultural characteristics, and then translate them into English, they complete the task, the Review each other and allow them to correct their workbooks.

VI Conclusion

Appear in writing from the learners' Chinese-style English, 'we can see that the learner within the knowledge of the impact of treatment by the Chinese in fact a significant contribution of this paper is that it is the Chinese migration from one situation does not meet the needs of raised to guide the process of language learning in and we all know that the teaching of writing mostly conducted in the classroom, but some natural language input and habits are not necessarily always in the English classroom teaching is guaranteed, so the learner's behavior and writing not always satisfactory. To remedy this situation, we should have the following sense: even for very proficient in a second language students will write with varying degrees of 'Chinese English' essay. This 'Chinese English' in the writing of students learning a second language in common, they usually have a lot of ideas, but can not find a suitable language to express. so the students will turn to their mother tongue. Many taken for granted 'Chinese' in English which exists in the student's essay. 'Chinese-style English,' the source is very complex, but the first language is a major factor in the migration of our writing materials, courses, writing, training and feedback provided on the proposal for English teaching, so teachers will be able to use appropriate and effective teaching methods to improve their teaching.


[1] Byram, M. Culture Studies in foreign Language Education.London: Multilingual Matters LTD, 1989.97.

[2] Cook, V. Second Language learning and Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold Ltd, 1996.6.

[3] Corder, SP Error Analysis and Interlanguage.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.151.

[4] Harmer, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching.London: Longman, 1985.46.

[5] Tan Yumei. Chinese-style English characteristics and causes of [J]. Zhejiang Education Institute, 2004, (4.

[6] Levin, China English and Chinese-style English [J]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 1993, (4): 150.

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