Papers Category:English Papers
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Post Time:2011-12-8 10:00:00
Paper Keywords: language acquisition theory of social construction theory, the teaching of writing courses Abstract: Studies in English Writing English teaching in China present one of the hot area of ??research, 'the task writing approach' to language acquisition theory, social construction theory and curriculum theory, is a response to foreign language teaching reform in the new writing teaching author in Jane Willis (1996 provides task-based language teaching model based on the revised test of writing a three-stage model, and its description and operation, classroom teaching that 'the task writing approach' will help creation of independent learning, to a certain extent, so that the depression had the joy of writing is now writing for the leap.
With the expansion of international exchanges and to accelerate the pace of China's reform and opening up, increasing the cultivation of English tend to complex, practical as the output language applications is the teaching of English writing skills, colleges and universities to develop complex, practical English language skills of important, therefore, contemporary English writing in China, English language learning and teaching has become increasingly prominent in the important position of the face of the challenges of the 21st century, China's foreign language teaching profession, there are many problems in the new round of reform of the teaching of English writing wave and scholars (such as Cailan Zhen, 2001, Wang Luhua, 2005, and the majority of our front-line teachers, gradually discovered the mainstream teaching of English writing, such as 'results approach' and the 'process approach', there are some limitations, and Horowitz (1986 et al's ' task of writing pedagogy, 'which make up the deficiencies of the teaching of writing a great inspiration and help, it is worth further research and testing.
First, the 'task writing pedagogy' in the 'task' is defined as
'Teaching writing task' is actually a task-based language teaching in the use of writing activities in regard to task-based language teaching in the 'task' is defined, different scholars from different perspectives have defined. Crookes (1986 that mission is 'a work of a specific goal or activity'. Willis (1996 that the task is to make something with learners to engage in the target language communicative purpose of the activity. Richards, platt and Weber (1986 that the task is people in learning, understanding, experience the process of language activities. Breen (1987 that a task is well-organized to promote a series of language teaching for the purpose of teaching activities. Nunan (1989 that the task is to learners comprehend the target language to understand, deal with the problem, be creative, to communicate with each other classroom activities (Gong Yafu, less Qian Luo, 2003.
Although scholars of the 'task' definition varies, task-based language teaching is the core idea is to learn as a series of tasks to complete the process, and these tasks together with the course objectives. Long and Crookes (1992 stressed that ' task 'must be the language of the community with real needs are clearly linked, according to the requirements of real world design.' task 'can catalyze meaningful use of language, because in an enabling environment can help to understand and reshape the meaning of the target the development of language structure, so they believe that teaching is focused on the most important meaning by addressing and solving to enable students to acquire language, attention to certain forms and not all forms.
Second, the 'task writing pedagogy' theory
1 theory of language acquisition
Task-based language teaching theories from the study of language acquisition, in accordance with <<Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics Dictionary>> definition, language acquisition is a language of learning and development of mother tongue or first a language learning as the first language acquisition, second language or foreign language learning as second language acquisition. language acquisition is more preferable than the learning of the term, because the latter term is sometimes connected with behavioral learning theory in together. linguists, psychologists and applied linguists study language acquisition in order to understand the use of language learning methods, according to Routledge's 'linguistic dictionary>> language acquisition research also included in the formal learning environment master the language of study.
(2) theory of social construction
Williams and Burden (1997 to Lev Vygotsky's social constructivist theory and Piaget (1966, Bruner (1960 and Kelly (1995's theory of cognitive development and educational psychology to combine the use of foreign language classroom.'s Social constructivist learning theory , learning and social development cooperation activities, such activities can not be the Church of knowledge constructed by learners themselves, rather than passed by others. This construction occurs in an environment with others, social interaction results from its emphasis on individual learners starting their own experience, background, building understanding of objective and subjective meaning of things, focus on learning process and against the existing knowledge of simple teaching's emphasis on human learning and development in interaction with others and interaction for while the teacher is the most important interactive learner objects should be placed in meaningful teaching scenarios, and the best scenario is learned can be used in which, in the learning process, there are four main factors, namely students, teachers, tasks, and external factors - the environment which is most important to teachers and students.
3 curriculum theory
Curriculum theory refers to Van Lier (1996 founded the concept of a design course, his curriculum from the learner's point of view, learning theory, curriculum theory and teaching practice integrated curriculum for the 3A, that sense of self and the real . Van Lier that presented in the foreign language teaching new language knowledge, teachers want to teach students the content and structure of existing knowledge, life experiences linked to learning and allow students to clear the purpose of such content, you can do with these language anything, this is the consciousness and only students with this awareness, they know what they are doing and why to do so, it may be a conscious attention to the learning content and actively participate. self-involved students in self-regulation, motivation, responsibility and a sense of duty. is independent of the two 'selective' and 'responsibility.' If the learners are passive recipients of the knowledge imparted, their attention will be weakened, and can not really pay attention to the learned. Van Lier 'real' does not only refer to the language of teaching materials and language use in real life relevance, more importantly, people's 'real action.' learners in language activities to do is want to do their own, they The action is the result of self-selected, they are expressing their true feelings, they expressed that they would like to express language, this is true.
Second, the 'task writing pedagogy' in College English Majors English writing application
1. 'Task of writing pedagogy,' the writing mode
Jane Willis (1996 in her book <<task-based learning mode>> proposed a task-based language teaching classroom activities, the general pattern in her view, task-based learning based on three stages The first stage is the task early at this stage, the teacher introduces the theme of this unit, then the learner activities. The second stage is the stage in the cycle task at this stage, one or small groups of learners to carry out activities and prepare report to the class How did they complete the task, they concluded that what the final form of oral or written, introduce their findings to the class and the third phase to focus on the language at this stage, stressing that the mandate of the special form of language and practice, and from a student's performance on a stage to give feedback.
Willis (1996 provided by the teaching of second or foreign language teaching provides a very useful guiding principle, therefore, the author based on Willis (1996 model, he revised a writing test mode and this mode of writing, a total write-ahead task, co-writing, editing three stages of change.
(1 write pre-task in writing before the stage of a mission, according to <<syllabus for English Majors>> the requirements of English writing and English writing students to the learning needs of teachers with specific objectives and significance of writing the theme or task , such as argumentative, expository, narrative, descriptive text, summary, notice, resume, official letters, etc. for different tasks with different meaning and form of language, to stimulate different background knowledge of the language of information, to provide students with the classroom use of real language opportunity and stressed the importance of selecting the task, give students several real essay, the form of a simple analysis of the structure of their language to their attention, for example, to explain the 'Summary' writing structure is: highlighted theme, analytical articles or books of the purpose or intent to introduce the main content, so that readers understand the articles or books quick overview, conclusions or recommendations provided for reference. (2 co-writing.
Co-writing stage is the teachers and students, students and co-creative process between the students at this stage, students are asked to follow on phase of Fan and teachers suggest that the first draft completed within the stipulated time, first teachers put the students into several groups, inspiring students to use a range of writing strategies (such as brainstorming, mind mapping method, group discussions and consultations, sketches, scratch and other tasks around a theme or idea brewing, gathering information, retrieve information about a particular genre of writing and ideas. Secondly, the students of a particular genre of writing information and ideas (often keywords or writing prompt sentence planning structure, the proposed outline and preliminary writing in cooperation writing process, students You can discuss topics of common writing can also be division of labor, and then dispersed with, either way, its purpose is the removal of his team for a particular genre of writing, the essence of information and ideas (reflected in the vocabulary, grammar, sentence type, stylistic rules and layout, and point of view, in order to integrate a common goal in their essay on the entire process, teachers act as supervisors, observers and assistants and adjust their roles must be noted that, from beginning to end, teachers should go to the students were to go, according to the needs of students, and students at any time to discuss, agree on the contents of the article, to provide students with timely and necessary assistance.
(3 modify the editor in the finished first draft, based on a representative selection from the each group report their results in writing, the report should note that the form of the language, especially written language, accuracy and fluency, attention should also be consistent with article and coherence in this stage, teachers act as listeners, analysts and instructors, teachers reported the first analysis of the students proposed evaluation criteria for writing and then, based on these criteria to evaluate student writing, teachers can also use the quality of different composition, let students evaluate each other, each group can be exchanged between the first draft, discuss and amend the draft based on the evaluation criteria, writing the second draft and edit written. peer feedback is very important, it allows the internalization of some standard, not only to improve their independent evaluation others and their own writing ability, but also allow them to stand in the reader's perspective of writing the article, readers writing to enhance awareness.
2. 'Task of writing pedagogy' in the college English classroom practice in English Writing In the implementation of the 'task writing approach' before the first task should be designed to take full account of these factors.
Secondly, when used in the classroom 'teaching writing task', we should pay attention to the following four points: 1) Since the students to Writing in English as the most difficult learning activities, teachers should be approachable to students, ready to provide assistance to students, guidance or organization, if necessary, give students encouragement and advice appropriate .2) Teachers should try to stimulate students' interest in writing and writing confidence, to enable students to overcome obstacles in the process of writing .3 dominant teachers should be trained properly to ensure that students can successfully write .4 teachers should be noted that individual differences in the writing process. The author shows in further detail 'task writing pedagogy' three phases of the teaching operation.
(1 write pre-task stage in writing before the mission phase, we designed the following writing tasks: Now you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Computer Age.
You should write about 150 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinesebelow. 1 In recent years, computers and more widely. 2) The computer can do many useful things. 3 computers, there are many side effects. (2 co-writing stage. A brainstorming.
First, the teacher put the students into several groups, inspiring students to use brainstorming ideas brewing around the writing task, collect data, retrieve information and ideas of genre writing. Brainstorming writing can help students sort out clues: the author can write on paper Write down any one flashed in my mind the idea of ??the topic, regardless of whether it is reasonable, grammatically correct or not, in short, the better. If the author's Evans too fast, you can also use abbreviations, phrases or symbols instead of complete sentences of this method is the creation of the basic elements, also enable the author of Evans Quan, to find every conceivable material, then the subject of these materials selection, so be concise, to retain the relationship with the subject most relevant material from questions and asked us to write this article that the object is a computer, the computer is writing to people's work and life changes are essay style, the article asked to write three paragraphs, the article prompted the Chinese outline that each the theme each of the words were popularity, advantages, disadvantages. These words identified the three sections of the central idea of ??writing focus and After brainstorming screening, we can summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the computer: efficiency, entertainment, calculation, fantastic speed, taking over routine jobs, convenience, crime, trouble, virus, indulgence. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
2 outlining according to the preceding analysis, comparison and synthesis, we can outline the article listed:
A. popularity of computer use: in the universitis, on farms, in factoris, in shops and other places
B. advantages of computers
a.improving people's work efficiency
b. making scientific discoveries
c.doing difficult work d.
taking over routine jobs
C. disadvantages of computers
a. computer crime
b. computer virus
c. indulgence of children in computer games
3 to determine the topic sentence, according to the title of the Chinese prompts, we can list the following topic sentence:
A. Computers have grown in popularity.
B. Computers can do many useful things.
C. However, computers have a dark side. 4 to write the first draft. At this point, we can say that writing has had a good start.
Next, ask students to use brainstorming filtered out of the material, outline and develop topic sentences paragraphs. Written form of language when it should be noted, in particular, words and sentences and consistency and coherence of the article. (3 to modify the editing stage (ibid.
Third, the conclusion
In the 'task writing pedagogy' in the classroom, most of the time spent on group activities or results of the exercises or discussions in which group activities, students may be split up to find different information, and share information with their peers, so exchange activities in a limited time only increases the language of input and output, but also increased the time and the participation of students from the classroom to share the fun while writing group pressure can reduce students' writing, writing can be time-limited training in the classroom writing speed, help students examination, can be said that this mode of writing to a certain extent, so that the depression had the joy of writing is now writing for the leap.
'Teaching writing task,' students can maximize their motivation for writing due to have a clear, specific writing tasks, in order to complete a task and use of language, students are no longer passively follow the instruction of teachers to do various activities, they have more opportunity to describe familiar things, to express their thoughts, to choose their own favorite materials to build their own knowledge, so that the original creation of the passive writing into their own in the equal and harmonious, positive and happy but challenging creative writing environment, they take the initiative to fully experience the joy of success obtained by writing, but also to recognize their lack of experience and understanding of this will encourage students to continue their efforts to become truly independent learners.
'Teaching writing task' in the classroom teaching practice effect is obvious, therefore, it conforms to the teaching of English writing new round of reforms under the new situation in the teaching of English writing given to the author recommended rating. Even so, 'Teaching writing task 'In the Chinese context of English teaching practice also need more and more scientific validation and improvement.
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, Gass.S.Tasks and Language Learning Integrating Theory & Practice [M]. Philadelphia: Multylingual Matters Ltd, 1993.  Horowitz D.
. Process not product: less than meets the eyes [J]. TESOL Quarterly, 1986,20 (1).  Long, MH, Crooks, G.
. Three approaches to task-based syllabus design '[J]. TESOL Quarterly, 1992,26 (1) :27-56.  Richards, JC, Platt, J.
Platt, H.. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics [M]. London: Longman, 2000.  Willis, J.
. A Framework for Task-Based Learning [M]. London: Longman, 1996.  Cai Lanzhen.
'Task-based approach,' in College English Writing in the application [J]. Foreign Languages, 2001, (4) :41-46.  Gong Yafu, Qian Luo less.
Task-based Language Teaching [M]. Beijing: People's Education Press, 2003.  Li, Mu Aipeng.
College English practical writing tutorial [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2005.  Wang Luhua.
With 'genre approach' Improving College English Teaching [J]. Suzhou University, 2005, (3) Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com