Review of Cognitive Linguistics

Abstract: Cognitive Linguistics is the product of the development of cognitive science, language study represents a paradigm, a variety of cognitive linguistic theory collectively. Cognitive linguistics, philosophy is based on experience of philosophy, that is the people's everyday experience as is based on the use of languages, focusing on language and general cognitive ability explain the inextricable link between, the language cognition as a person's overall cognitive part of the process to grasp.

Keywords: cognitive linguistics; cognitive science; semantics; grammar

Studies have shown that modern linguistics, cognitive and language are inextricably linked, but the language of cognitive research as a separate discipline but it is the end of the 1970s the rise of the mid-1980s after extending its scope to many areas of linguistics, including syntax, semantics, phonology, discourse analysis, etc. In 1989 in Germany, held the first meeting of the International Cognitive Linguistics and founded in l990 >> << Cognitive Linguistics magazine, marking the disciplinary status of cognitive linguistics has been established since then, cognitive linguistics is growing very rapidly, more and more scholars began to study from the perspective of cognitive language.

First, the basic ideas of cognitive linguistics

(A) Cognitive Linguistics is the product of the development of cognitive science

Cognitive Linguistics is part of cognitive science and cognitive science is a comprehensive science from psychology, linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, computer science and other disciplines interdisciplinary composition, from many angles to explore the thinking mysteries of the human mind is the crystallization of language, language is the human way of expressing ideas and thoughts is one of the cognitive system is part of the human experience, culture, society, customs, environment and other factors result of the interaction linguistics On the one hand the use of cognitive science theories and methods to explore the linguistic phenomena, on the other hand through the linguistic phenomenon to reveal human cognitive abilities, the language as a person's overall cognitive cognitive part of the process to grasp.

(Two) Cognitive Linguistics in category theory

"Categorization" (categorization) can be said to be the most important human cognitive activity most basic kind, is the process of human evolution on the external things or classified, so that the world becomes disorderly orderly, hierarchical category system and this process (ie, areas of the process) is the cognitive, or the perception of a link. Categorization mankind saw everything from vastly different similarities and differences which distinguish the things that will be treated as the same category, thus forming concepts based on this man to complete more complex cognitive activities, including judgments and reasoning and cognitive development is a form occurs concept and scope of the process, it is a subject-object interaction with the outside world as a starting point for the generic division of things mental processes [1] As Lakoff says: "There is no categorization capability, we simply can not live in the outside world as well as spiritual life or social role to play. "[2]
Aspects of the phenomenon has aroused early attention of philosophers, Aristotle in chapter >> << category systematically discusses his views on the scope of the classical categorization is formed on the basis of the 1960 .20 years, psychological and anthropological research on traditional classical categorization made a lot of evidence to the contrary. Wittgenstein in Philosophical Studies >> << proposed a "family resemblance" [3] the concept of Vickers that can not be used a common attributes to describe a category of all members, but in the presence of some members and between members of the similarities, and this similarity intertwined linked into the overall category; category boundaries are vague and open ; within the scope of the status of each member is unequal.

Vickers "Family Resemblance" denied areas exist between the various members of any common essence, the classical categorization launched a strong challenge to .20 in the 1970s, the "Family Resemblance" was introduced semantic category of Trigger philosophy, psychology, linguistics categorization problem for re-examination. linguist Labov and Rosch has published their experimental studies of natural areas, to have a "family resemblance" of these natural areas called "Prototype "[4-6]. belong to the category of a thing is not to see if it has the scope of the common characteristics of all members, but rather to see if it has enough between its prototype of the" family resemblance. "Categorization of the great Cognitive Linguistics to develop into an important foundation for the emergence and development.

(Three) the philosophical basis for cognitive linguistics

Lakoff and Johnson's commitment and belief in accordance with the philosophy of cognitive science is divided into two factions: the first generation and second-generation cognitive science cognitive science first generation of cognitive science produced in the 1950s. Objectivism recognition known concept represents the first generation of the basic ideas of cognitive science can be summarized as "all rational thinking involved in the operation of abstract symbols, these symbols with the outside world only by statute in order to obtain meaningful things" [7]. thinking only of abstract Symbol of mechanical operation, without human perception system and the motor system constraints. human mind is a mirror of nature, is an internal representation outside world, on an objective nature, the mirror reflection. Chomsky's generative linguistics is the first generation of cognitive science in the field of linguistics typical theoretical form.

Second-generation cognitive science appeared in the 1970s, believed in the so-called non-objectivist philosophy, philosophical basis in order to experience the second generation of the first generation of cognitive science, cognitive science resolutely oppose the basic view that objectivism Cognitive View ignores human cognition most important feature, namely the physiological basis of the formation of concepts and language played an important role in cognitive experience doctrine outlook is mainly reflected in the following aspects [8-9] : thinking is not out of the body. concepts, categories, mind from body experience, those are not derived from the concept of experience is the use of metaphor, metonymy and mental imagery results. cognitive linguistics and second generation of the basic ideas of cognitive science consistent cognitive linguists believe that language ability is the human part of general cognitive ability, and its description must refer to cognitive processes. grammar, syntax are not independent, but with semantics, vocabulary inseparable. semantics is not just an external objective reflection of the world, but also closely related with people's subjective understanding is gained through the body and imagination, and this imagination is not out of shape, because the metaphor, metonymy and mental imagery are based on experience, which Semantics and objectivism stark contrast. "Philosophy is the first generation of cognitive science and cognitive science second generation watershed divide between the two far-reaching, will enable us to more clearly understand the theory of cognitive science , and will not be confused during the different genres. "[10]

Second, the major schools of cognitive linguistics

Cognitive theory is not a single language, but represents a research paradigm, is a variety of cognitive linguistic theory collectively, which is characterized by the people's everyday experience as the basis of language use, focusing on language and interpretation general cognitive ability inextricable link between these linguistic theory, though not the same, but the basic assumptions of the language are similar holdings are recognized to varying degrees, on the one mentioned in the basic view, but in talking about the specific language phenomena differently. Cognitive Linguistics major theoretical approaches are: Fillmore's frame semantics (Frame Semantics), Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (Cognitive Grammar), Lakoff and others Cognitive Semantics (Cognitive Semantics).

(A) Frame Semantics

Frame Semantics is an important part of cognitive linguistics, is the study of semantic and syntactic sense approach. Fillmore said: "Frame Semantics provides a special way of observing the words, but also trying new word describing a language the generation of new and existing words in the significant increase in, or a passage in the significance of the various parts fit together to form the meaning of the entire article needs to follow the principle "[11]. In frame semantics, the meaning is to describe the framework, the framework is a conceptual system or cognitive structure, to understand the meaning of words, you must first have the conceptual structure of the semantic framework that knowledge. "A" framework "as a significance of language play a role in the description of a concept is activated with some context of a structured consistent with the scope of the system "[11]. to Fillmore famous" commercial transaction "Frame Case This framework involves concepts include: possession, giving, trading, money, so that a scene graph style elements include: money, goods, buyer, seller Other elements include: price, time, give change, etc. According to these concepts, we can a series of words meaning, usage and grammatical structures contrasting descriptions, for example, in English the buy, sell, spend, cost, charge, price, etc. If we put commercial transaction framework to further integrate with other frameworks, then we can further describe and explain like tip, bribe, fee, honorarium, taxes, tuition such words. Thus, the framework is a very important cognitive structure. language framework for the meaning of existence and use provides the background and motivation. To understand meaning it must be placed in people's experiences and socio-cultural practices framework, to understand people's experiences and social customs. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

(two) Cognitive Grammar

Cognitive Grammar is Langacker linguistic theory and research methods, originally known as the "Space Syntax" (Space Grammar). The theory provides a grammar by far the most comprehensive and detailed description of the theory and cognitive linguistics framework of cognitive grammar syntax and meaning of language on the nature of proposed a new theory [12]:
1 language ability is the human part of general cognitive ability, so language is not a self-contained system, the description of language must refer to his general cognitive law;
2 grammatical structure (or syntax) does not constitute a form of self representation level, it is symbolic in nature, is the symbol of the Statute of semantic structure (conventional symbolization);
3 syntax is not the language of a self-contained part of the syntactic (and lexical) and vocabulary in essence the same as a conventional symbol systems, semantic syntactic analysis can not be separated;
4 The basic form of the true value used to describe the semantics of logic is not enough, not just semantics objective truth conditions, even went closely related to people's subjective understanding. Obviously, these basic assumptions with Chomsky's basic assumptions is tit for tat.

Cognitive Grammar think the language is only three units: units of speech, semantic units, a symbol unit. Voice units and semantic units are poles of symbolic units, is a symbol of the link between the poles of contact, for example, the English word cat as a symbol of unit is [[CAT] / [cat]], where capital letters represent semantic pole, lowercase letters represent the voice pole. symbol unit is a combination of sound and meaning, some form represents a certain significance, and this is represented by the convention. various grammatical categories and grammatical structure are symbolic units, only concrete and abstract level differences. semantic grammar study can not be divorced, so breaking the vocabulary and cognitive grammar lexical, syntactic boundaries that vocabulary, morphology and syntax form a continuum (continuum), can borrow symbolic relation to this continuum as exhaustive description of the relationship that is highly symbolic generality makes cognitive grammar can make a unity of different levels of language interpretation. (three) Cognitive Semantics
Cognitive semantics main representatives Lakoff & Johnson, Langacker and Talmy other. Lakoff & Johnson focuses on the "metaphor" (metaphor) in semantics and cognitive processes important role; Talmy focused on general cognitive ability and language specific links between; Lakoff published in 1987 Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things laid the foundation disciplines of cognitive semantics. Wikipedia encyclopedia on cognitive semantics is defined as: cognitive semantics, cognitive linguistics part, it negates the traditional forms of speech linguistics, syntax and pragmatics model, the structure of cognitive semantics as meaningful representation.

According to Talmy discussion [13], the concept of cognitive semantics of the content and the language is organized. Conceptual content includes not only ideas (ideational) content, but also including emotional, perceptual experience such content. Meaning structures are conceptualized, but also That is, the meaning of a word is equal to the hearer concept of the brain are activated, while the concept of experience and world experience and perception related to different speakers can be used in different ways to the same experience conceptualized. Meaning is neither completely objective, is not entirely subjective. Meaning of words and is considered to be a relationship between the brain, rather than directly is the relationship between words and the world, for example, according to the traditional semantics Dictionary "bachelor" means "unmarried adult men," but in certain cultures, People in the brain to form the semantic definition of the concept is not entirely consistent with this, because, like "Monk," "priests" and other provisions under the doctrine can not be married, although monks, priests in full compliance with the definition of bachelor, we almost do not they call as "The Bachelor."

Third, the inadequacies of cognitive linguistics Thinking

Any one discipline has its scope, but also has its limitations, like all language theory, cognitive linguistics as well. Cognitive linguistics is the traditional linguistics, especially Chomsky's transformational generative linguistics reactionary, it makes up for some of the shortcomings of these schools and put forward many new ideas interpreted language, the theory of language made a significant development but it also go to the other extreme, abandoned a reasonable place to other schools, but we can not expect It solves all the problems in linguistics linguistics existing deficiencies, worth further reflection.

Language world and its laws are the object of study of cognitive linguistics, which aims to reveal the cognitive effects of language we should dialectical view of the relationship between cognition and language. Language Cognition is the person's overall cognitive part of the process, but the language with relative independence, it will affect people's way of understanding the world, such as the different perception of the real world, will result in different grammatical category is not the national language the same, then it will affect the language users observation, cognitive way the world of English grammar has singular and plural markers, plural nouns, add-s, single zero mark does not add-s. Native speakers of English, the language they use to express themselves, it must comply with the requirements of the syntax Over time, when the world will focus on cognitive quantitative characteristics of things, so they can be used in singular and plural totally do not make mistakes, and we Chinese students are often mistakes in it, because we do not have this number of grammar category, so the sense of the world, it will not amount to much attention.

In the family resemblance built on Prototype theory: the category has a central meanings that prototype meanings [14], other non-central meanings are based on the central meanings extending outwardly formed in a category, especially when there are multiple meanings in the category, how to determine a center Senses? should concept formation when the initial meanings, or later language development process of the formation of the central meanings? we can not determine a center Senses is the central meaning of the basic meaning, or the original meaning, it can not tell the other members are based on a prototype meanings extending outward from the center. various languages ​​have many synonyms, they belong to the same category, or is it the same meanings in different areas of the prototype? addition, In the language has the same word antisense phenomena such twilight (dawn; also Jacuzzi as: Twilight), overhear (overheard; also Jacuzzi as: intentionally eavesdropping), sanction (approval, authorization, support; Jacuzzi is also : sanctions prohibit boats out of the port). opposite meanings in general not in the same category, then the word in the same language antisense phenomenon, opposite meanings belonging to the same category, or different areas? Prototype Theory seems to This has not yet made a reasonable explanation.

IV Conclusion

Cognitive Linguistics is an emerging school of modern linguistics, there are still imperfections, but it proposed a set of their own theoretical system and research methods, challenging its theoretical basis, and gradually most of the world language scholars recognition. With deep research, theoretical system improvement, cognitive linguistics of language laws will be more fully revealed, the mystery of human language will be revealed little by little.

References:

[1] Wang Yin. Interpretation of the cognitive process of the formation of language - seven of experiential language: Detailed experience-based cognitive processes [J]. Sichuan International Studies University, 2006, (6).

[2] Lakoff, G. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things [M]. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987:6.

[3] Wittgenstein. Philosophical Research [M]. Chen Jiaying, translated. Shanghai: Shanghai People's Publishing House ,2005:37-38.

[4] Labov. W. The Boundaries of Word and Their Meanings [A]. Bailey & Shuy. New Ways of Analyzing Variation in English [C].

Washington: Georgetown University Press, 1973.
[5] Rosch, E. Cognitive Representation of Semantic Categories [J]. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975: 4.

[6] Rosch, Eleanor & Barabara B. Lloyd. Cognition and Categorization [C]. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1978.

[7] Lakoff, G. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things [M]. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987: preface.

[8] Casad, E. Cognitive Linguistics in the Redwoods [C]. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyer, 1996.

[9] Johnson, M. The Body in the Mind [M]. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987
[10] Wang Yin. Philosophical basis for cognitive linguistics: Embodied philosophy [M]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 2002.

[11] Fillmore Charles J. Frame Semantics [A]. Linguistics in the Morning Calm [C], 1982:111-137.

[12] Langacker, RW Foundations of Cognitive Grammar: Volume I [M]. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987: 2-3.

[13] Talmy, L. Toward a Cognitive Semantics [M]. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2000: 5.

[14] Yan-Fang Zhao Cognitive Linguistics [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2005, (84) Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

English Language Culture Papers