Papers Category:English Papers
- English Language Culture Papers
Post Time:2012-6-12 22:56:00
Abstract: directly related to the fundamental interests of a country, the diplomatic language is very particular about the wording and verbal skills to the success of the diplomatic activities, diplomats often with the phrase with fuzzy effective diplomatic strategy to solve diplomatic problems, in order to achieve the communicative goal. this article to conform to theory, based on language from the psychological conform society to conform to and physical conform to the three aspects of analysis and discussion of the diplomatic language of the late Premier Zhou Enlai. results show that the appropriate use of diplomatic discourse Pragmatic Vagueness can guarantee to speak steadily, rigorous and flexible , polite and efficient, the best communication effect.
Keywords: Theory of Adaptation, foreign words, Pragmatic Vagueness Diplomatically refers After careful consideration of the wording is used when talking about sharp or sensitive issues in the diplomatic activities.
In general, the diplomatic language is a formal, conservative, accurate and persuasive language, but for the speaker's position and language policy needs, speak often deliberately vague words, to ensure that the speech sound, rigorous, flexible, courteous and efficient in order to achieve the best communication effect. the only way to make smooth diplomatic activities a "milestone" on the Chinese Foreign People, Premier Zhou Enlai, in diplomatic occasions the appropriate use of Pragmatic Vagueness, it discourse decent, proper, with the extraordinary charm of speech from the perspective of the Theory of Adaptation, Premier Zhou Enlai Pragmatic Vagueness in the diplomatic discourse analysis.
Pragmatic fuzzy and Foreign Language
Pragmatic ambiguity is a special kind of linguistic phenomenon of speaking in a particular context or the context of uncertain, vague or indirect discourse to the hearer expression illocutionary act or illocutionary force (illocutionary force ) phenomenon  It is to speak the language selection driven by a strong communicative intent, the strategy can make the language more subtle, subtle, polite.
Pragmatic ambiguity is the uncertainty from the perspective of the use and understanding of language to talk about language often shows an indirect indicator of language, Fuzzy limit the use of means of language, low-key statements and indirect speech acts, pragmatics blurred including approximate (approximation ), ambiguity (fuzziness), general (generality), borderline (ambiguity), ambiguity (ambivalence), as well as moral expression, such as metaphor (metaphor), weak Chen (meiosis), irony (irony) and exaggeration (Hyperbole and) 2].
Foreign language is a formal, conservative, accurate and persuasive language, its most common sense that enables diplomats (home to the wording of the sharp and yet prudent and gentle "prudent to retain the statement" (the Guarded understatement) 3]. Foreign language is very particular about the wording and speech skills, in order to complete the exchange, the diplomat must have both said and also different words, "constructive ambiguity" can guarantee to speak steadily, rigorous, polite, flexible and efficient. to solve diplomatic problems, the best communication effect, is how natural Professor said, "The exact time to be precise, the fuzzy, blurred, accurate among the fuzzy, blurred into accurate - this is the problem The starting point is also the final result.  It is because of the language with extensive use of the fuzzy strategy that makes the diplomatic language more appropriateness, simplicity, humor, image, and flexibility characteristics.
Second, language adaptation theory
Linguistic adaptation theory (Linguistic Adaptation Theory by Verschueren, he believes that the use of language is the language users continue to make a language selection process, regardless of this choice is conscious or unconscious, whether for language inside or out of the language The external reasons are the characteristics of the language itself, language users have been able to made in the process of using language appropriate choice, because of language variability (variability), discuss (negotiability) and responsive nature (adaptability) . language variation refers to the language with a range of alternative possibilities, discuss means all options are highly flexible principles and strategies on the basis of compliance refers to the language to let users flexible modifications to meet the needs of the communication from the choice of projects. variability in order to comply possible to discuss is the means to comply with the compliance is reflected in the variability and discussions among is the core of the language used in the process.
In the choice of language, communication will always be according to the language selection process to comply with the theory of language is a dynamic adaptation process between language structure and context, the choice of different languages, the structure of language users to comply with the language internal and language external factors. consciously or unconsciously, according to the context and the purpose of communication, the communication of both the psychological world, social world and physical world in many aspects to consider and make appropriate adjustments discourse, and finally made comply with the communication choice . To achieve smooth communication, language users need to conform to make a choice to speak and the recipient's psychological world. First of all, the speaker's own personality, emotions, aspirations and desires and other psychological factors influence the choice of language. At the same time, the speaker's words choice is always tentative or successfully adapt their own assessment of the recipient's psychological world. Social world refers to the social occasion, social environment, the principles and guidelines of the specification communication by speech acts. Indicate the relationship between the physical world, including the time and space, time indication relations, including the event time, talk time and space, and the alleged time.
Third, the language of the Foreign Language fuzzy analysis
Means of a strategy as a diplomatic language and speech skills, pragmatic fuzzy characteristics embodied in the fuzzy surface, deep and clear view from this particular context of the diplomatic occasions, Pragmatic ambiguity is the uncertainty of the use of language as one Communication Strategies of the clear purpose of their communicative intent  According to the theory of linguistic adaptation, we can treat it as a high level of awareness, in order to achieve the purpose of communication, the mental world, social world and physical world conform to the results. In this paper, Zhou Enlai, in diplomatic language, for example, to explore the fuzzy language to express foreign language appropriateness, simplicity and humor.
(A psychological world conform
According to Verschueren point of view, the psychological world mainly related to the communicative personality, emotions, beliefs, intentions and other psychological factors, the choice of language by the speaker and listener mental world (including their personality, emotions, beliefs, aspirations, motivation and other psychological factors) . the choice of language by the communication of both the psychological impact on the world, the process of the speaker's choice of language was in keeping with the listener dynamic process of the psychological world. Share Free paper Download Center / eng.hi138.com 1971, Premier Zhou Enlai met with the U.S. table tennis delegation, the regiment named Glen? Cohen's 19-year-old athletes to ask questions: "Mr. Prime Minister, I want to know your views on the American hippies. "Zhou Enlai smiled and said:" It seems that you are a hippie myself. the world's young people dissatisfied with the status quo, and are seeking the truth to go through all sorts of things in the search for truth, which is permissible, we the young man had wanted to try a variety of ways. Therefore, we understand young people ideas. "Premier Zhou said:" If you do, this does not correct it should be changed This is our opinion, only a suggestion only. "(Associated Press Beijing, April 14, 1971.
Premier Zhou appropriate use of vague language, beautiful and clever answer to this question, gently pointed out that our attitude is to "allow" their existence is to "understand" and to suggest ways subtle and tactful expression of our comments: "If you find that doing so is not correct, it should be changed." not only conforms to the hearer's psychological, but also to maintain the speaker's face. U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger commented: "This whole thing is a masterpiece of Zhou Enlai. With all the moves of the Chinese people, it has a lot of sense, the most obvious meaning of these American youth invited: it symbolizes China has assumed the obligation to improve relations and the United States, and a deeper meaning, it guarantees a diplomatic channels than any more weight - certainly ambassadors will be invited to future set foot on the land of friendly countries ".
(B conform to the social world Social world, including the social occasion, social environment, standardize the communication principles of verbal behavior and guidelines.
Where communication is not abstract and idealized language users, their speech acts by the social and cultural constraints . Language use in different social situations, for the needs of the communication must dynamically adapt to abide by social conventions, subject to the constraints of social and cultural norms. The speaker often through language with fuzzy to achieve their communicative purposes, to conform to social norms. In 1972, President Nixon visited China, Premier Zhou Enlai at the airport to greet him.
Nixon completed the ladder from the ground there are 3 4 steps, then smiled and stretched out his hand, and Premier Zhou's hand stretched out. two tightly holding hands, gently shaking, full more than a minute, Premier Zhou said: "Mr. President, you reached across the world's most oceans, and I shake hands with .25 does not have any of the Oh . "vast ocean" not only represents the geographical distance between China and the United States, it is stated that the political views and confrontation between the two countries, a far cry from 25 years long period of time. As the two leaders shook hands cordially All this seems to have taken place to change. Premier Zhou a right analogy, conform to the prevailing social occasions, and fully reflects the good wishes for China to improve Sino-US relations and appreciation of the friendly attitude of the United States.
(C conform to the physical world
Indicate the relationship between the physical world, including the time and space in terms of time, which includes the event time, talk time, and the alleged time and space directions, locations indicate the relationship, which includes the absolute spatial relationships and the reference to the alleged object of the relative spatial relationships  by the vague language of this strategy to adapt to the physical world is to avoid third party interference and participation.
In late April 1960, Premier Zhou Enlai to negotiate with India-Indian border issue, the Indian side put forward a provocative question: "Tibet has been China's territory?" Premier Zhou Enlai said: "Tibet has been China's territory, far away do not say , at least during the Yuan Dynasty, it has been China's territory. "the caller said:" Time is too short. "Premier Zhou Enlai: the Yuan Dynasty in China from now over 700 in the coming year history, 700 in the coming year are considered to be time short, then, only 100 years of history, is not the United States can not become a country? which is plainly absurd. "
Premier Zhou Enlai's rebuttal, in the language strategy to the physical world choose to conform with a two-time compared to negate each other's point of view .700 compared to 100 years, 700 years to deny recognition of 100 years is clearly untenable, and the result is the recognition of 100 years is to recognize the fact that 700 years. firm position is contained in the few words into the subtle expression, which fully demonstrates the fantastic expression of vague language.
Pragmatic ambiguity is in verbal communication, talking man-made to achieve a particular communicative purposes, could have to clearly express the meaning of deliberate use of ambiguous language to express a special kind of language out of the use of the phenomenon and communicative strategies in diplomatic context fuzzy strategy, out of the speaker's position and language strategy needs, speak often use language. It is this language that makes extensive use of the strategy the speaker's language is more Appropriateness, simplicity, humor, image and flexibility characteristics based on fuzzy language to conform to conform to the theory, from the psychological community to conform to and physical conform to the three aspects of Premier Zhou Enlai's diplomatic language to analyze and discuss results show that the cut in diplomatic language in the local use of language speech sound, rigorous, flexible, courteous and efficient, the best communication effect.
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