On the Contextual Factors On hearing test

Thesis: Context hearing test words meaning

Abstract: Context is a very important concept in linguistics, has a very important role in language acquisition and use of this paper, through concrete examples and analysis of how the hearing test, application context theory to find the item design The intention of verbal meaning, to a certain extent, help the candidate to overcome the difficulty in hearing tests.

1 Introduction

"Listen to the words of an input is a positive acceptance of information and information processing. Second language acquisition theory tells us that most basic requirement is language acquisition, language input. If there is no language input to talk about language acquisition. "listen" for the students' language acquisition is very important, however, the auditory input, most learners in China, due to the lack of a good language environment for the visual input to much less, so the hearing to become a "bottleneck" of Chinese learners of English. for how to improve English learners' listening comprehension ability, some domestic scholars and discussed the importance of contextual factors. In other words, the specific hearing process, the basis of known information to create the role of context to improve listening comprehension can not be ignored.

2 Theory of Context

In the field of linguistics, it is believed that the context is proposed by the British anthropologist Marin Malinowski (B.Malinowsiki) in 1923. He distinguished between two types of context: the cultural context (context of culture), the speaker living in which socio-cultural; the situational context (context of situation), the specific situation in the speech act occurs, he language basically taproot of the language of the nation's cultural, social life and customs, without reference to these broad context it would be difficult to properly understand the language. [1] United Kingdom London School of representatives of (Firth,) to accept the Marin Malinowski's view, he will be the context of the internal relationship between the main description as follows: the relevant characteristics of the participants, including participants' speech event, and participants in non-verbal activities; about things; speech activities. [2] how natural language in << Introduction >> pointed out that "understanding of language is an important component of human cognition, is a complex cognitive process of this complexity to show subject to social situations and socio-cultural factors in speech , but also in the speaker's discourse organization depends on the listener in a specific communication environment of contextual assumptions ability and comprehension. "[3] shows that the context is the premise of discourse comprehension, discourse comprehension plays a decisive role. language The environment includes language context and the context of non-verbal.

3 Speech, Context

Speech context refers to a speech unit in the process of verbal communication in the expression of a particular exchange value depends on the context of context by the specific words, the expression of the form and content of the discourse is clear in the context of the context recipient of the words with the knowledge of the language, you can perceive the specific meaning of discourse. In other words, the very important aspect of context is also the knowledge of the language, it constitutes a factor of context. [4]

Cases (1) Mother: What are you doing?

Son: I'm watching TV,

Mother: It's nine o 'clock.
Son: Oh,.
"It's nine o 'clock." Generally, "What time is it?" Answer phrase, without any emotion and deep meaning in this conversation, how to understand the mother's "It's nine o' clock." This sentence connotation? from the mother and the son of a question and answer may be the creation of a context: nine o'clock, the mother saw the son is still watching TV reminded that he should do their homework or go to bed, first rhetorical beating around the bush to show reminder, but his son does not have any reaction, so the mother emphasis said, "It's nine o 'clock!", emphasizing the lateness of the hour, you can not look at the context given these words with emotional significance, in the dialogue has played a reminder, urging the role of .

Four non-verbal context

Non-verbal context, including the situational context, that is, the communication time, place, topic, etc.; background context, culture refers to the Statute, the session rules.

4.1 Situational Context

The time and place at least elements of the language communicative activities in the context of the objective factors. Words at different times and places is not the same, people's communication methods and terminology is not the same example as follows:

Cases (2) M: Good a morning What 'can I do for you?

W: I'd like to have the emergency brake fixed. The car rolled when I parked on the hill.

Q: What does the conversation most probably take place?

A) At a gas station B) In a park

C) In an emergency room D) At a garage

This question is to be judged in the context of the scene, heard the candidate's knowledge and understanding of Western culture, "What can I do for you?" Can be told that this is a service and the service context. Again can determine from the dialogue to have the emergency brake fixed, the dialogue took place should be the repair shop D.

4.2 Background Context

Specific cultural and social background context must focus on to consider a factor. It is because of the existence of such cross-cultural differences, speech activity constitutes a wide diversity today. [5] on the nature of language is a social, cultural behavior. differences of social and cultural background will be a direct reflection of the language, content and form of the language have a certain role in the understanding of discourse should be constrained attention to cultural background, only to understand the speaker's social background and cultural habits in order to accurately grasp the dependence of the cultural connotation of the words surface meaning. Consider the following example:

Cases (3) W: Can you speak German?

M: Oh, no. It's all Greek to me.

"It's Greek to me" from Shakespeare said that he only one o'clock Latin, Greek completely understand. "Greek" is a "foreign, difficult and mysterious stuff" of meaning, rather than the meaning of the "Greek". So, most of the candidates due to the lack of this cultural knowledge, which led to the misunderstanding in the process of listening comprehension.

Cases (4) A: How about going there by boat?

B: Sorry, I'm a bad sailor.
This dialogue appears to be very simple, and a question and answer, the meaning is clear and concise, but if the listener dialogue in the "bad sailor understand the" bad sailor, will affect the understanding of the whole dialogue. In fact, the phrase The correct meaning should be easily seasick. "visible, the lack of background knowledge, can not create the same background context will become the stumbling block of listening comprehension.

5 a number of strategies to solve the defect of hearing testing Context

5.1 to improve cross-cultural knowledge of the candidate

Listening comprehension is the listener heard the result of the interaction of content and cultural knowledge, good listening comprehension depends on the listener's understanding of the topic, background knowledge. [6] to improve their English listening ability, must be studied under a number of Western cultural knowledge, including the political, economic, cultural and other fields to understand the human geography of the English nation, customs, etc., in order to enhance the sensitivity of cross-cultural knowledge. In listening teaching, teachers can on the one hand there are plans to introduce the East-West cultural differences, the Anglo-American countries and cultures, on the other hand can encourage students to read books, and heart to understand, master, and the accumulation of a wide range of background knowledge, to increase the listen to the familiarity of the material, and thus a more accurate understanding of listening to the content. Share Free paper Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

5.2 use selection context prediction

Hearing tests are mostly around the question of the context of various elements, in order to test whether the candidate to understand a short passage, and provide choice just implies a context and short. Therefore, in everyday teaching, teachers should guide examination good at the beginning of a book written material and answer choices to find some background information, narrowing the topic of conversation, forecast to be listening to the content of the material, try to figure out the intent of the questions, imagine the problems that might be mentioned, so find out by listening to the type of content and structure, and even theme is helpful if the choice of a title, time, place, person or number, the candidate to listen to the recording can be targeted to pay attention to these specific details, which quickly and accurately to make a choice .

5.3 great importance to voice, tone, contained in the emotional significance

The emotional significance of changes in the tone of voice changes in the expression, for the candidate often is the most easily overlooked, but to understand them is the most difficult, because of the emotional significance does not like the concept of meaning as clear, but implicit in a tone of voice, but it changes with the communicative content are closely related. the same words, used in voice tone different, the expression of connotation is also different. in the hearing test, speech, intonation is an important basis for the candidate to judge speaker attitudes of the to infer, according to the original reading when used in a different voice, intonation, the speaker doubt, denial, impatience or appreciation, certainly a different attitude to elect the correct answer and hearing the original, the grasp of the emotional significance actually has embarked on a deeper level of communication content to understand, to grasp the emotional significance conveyed by tone of voice, no doubt help to improve the candidate's overall hearing level.

6 Conclusion

The presence of language, accompanying it will have a context whether it is a hearing test or direct verbal communication, the influence of contextual factors on the hearing test are obvious. Reason why many hearing tests are unable to improve their listening comprehension ability The fundamental reason is not good at listening to the process found that contextual factors, are unable to known information and new information to be linked, in order to fundamentally improve their listening comprehension, the learner must gradually develop to accurately capture the locale information, the role of attention to contextual factors in listening comprehension, and awareness to understand and master the knowledge of the culture of some Western countries, thus eliminating cultural barriers caused by cultural differences, as long as the learners have the relevant background knowledge and language information, encounter no matter how complex, can also produce the corresponding contextual factors, so as to achieve a smooth hearing level.


[1] Jef Verschueren. "Understanding Pragmatics" [M]. Edward Arnold limited, 1999:104.

[2] Slephen C. Levinson. "Pragmatics" [M]. Cambridge University Press, 1983:47.

[3] where natural language Introduction [M]. Changsha: Hunan Education Press, 1988.

[4] where nature. Contemporary Pragmatics [M] Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2004:114.

[5] Cheng Shao-kui. On the context of the characteristics and applications [J]. Sichuan Institute of Technology (Social Science Edition), 2008 (1): 97.

[6] I-lan. On the impact of college English listening teaching effectiveness reasons and countermeasures [J]. Sichuan Normal University (Social Science Edition) Supplement, 2007:284. Share Free paper Download Center http://www.hi138 . com

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