On contrast from the English language and culture to talk about the status of adult English language learning

[Paper Keywords] English language and cultural differences in adult learning English compared

[Abstract] This paper from the English language structure, ethnic and cultural differences in thinking caused by differences in analysis of both adult English language learning situation, to spread through the analysis of the current trends in English, adult English language learning difficulties, the response of adult learning needs of the community appear some inspiration in a lot of confusion.
Contrastive linguistics is a new language disciplines which discipline formation began in the 1950s, nearly 30 years has made significant development. In China, contrastive linguistics linguistics over the last decade before they get attention.

A comparative analysis of English language

1 English-language historical comparison

Divided into seven languages ??around the world language, English is Indo-European, Chinese belongs to Sino-Tibetan language. The history of English origin in the 5th century, and now more than 1500 years of history and English is a phonetic system, the European most abundant in the vocabulary of a language. Chinese history, a much longer history than the English, there are already 6,000 years of history. Chinese is pictographic, is the world's most developed one of the languages.

(2) compare the nature of English language

Morphological classification from the language point of view, English is the language integrated development model to analyze the language, while the Chinese are mainly based on analytical language. The so-called integrated language is the language itself, mainly through word to express the significance of morphological changes (cell, number, time, etc.) from the comprehensive English-based language developed to analyze the language. The reason why the characteristics of a comprehensive because English has singular and plural forms of nouns, verbs and sometimes tense, voice forms, in modern English, with adjectives and nouns do not require sex, the number of cells in the same, the same sentence word order is gradually fixed, Chinese sentences with the word order is also similar, according to the Lord, that, bin sort, so we are constantly called by the modern English is a comprehensive analytical language development language to language. the so-called analysis-based language, this language is grammatical relations than by words to express their own form, but by means of function words or word order to express.

3 English sentence structure is

As the external form of the English language is spelled words, demanding their syntactic structure, the entire sentence to 'subject + predicate' basis, through the clauses, infinitive phrases, prepositional phrases, and grammatical structure independent nominative, etc., so that sentences continue to expand extension of English focus on 'form together ', which makes the English people prefer logical and analytical way of thinking. in the form of Chinese language is ideographic Chinese character, the pursuit of the overall presentation of the text effect, pay attention to language fluency, focusing on ideographic, rhythm strong sense, less emphasis on the continuity of syntactic structure and rigor. Which is characterized by parataxis, which is the whole concept of philosophy by the Han Chinese influence results.

Second, comparative analysis of English culture

At present, the cultural contrast mainly carried out from three perspectives. A learning situation from the perspective of language, the cultural connotations of words; a cross-cultural communication from the point of view, analysis, use of language and cultural backgrounds. In addition, the cultural contrast also involves non-verbal communication areas, appropriate discipline from the school called the body and body language learning.

The meaning of the word is the basic meaning of a word beyond the meaning, for example, in Chinese 'politics' into proper English word is difficult, in most cases, translated into 'politics', not exactly express intent, because ' politics 'in the meaning is:' to take the means of fraud and improper political activities '(<<New Webster's Collegiate Dictionary >>),' in a group to plan, intrigue' (<<Longman Modern English Dictionary>>) in the choice of the appropriate English word, according to Chinese context, the 'political,' the word translated as 'political activities' (political activities), 'political work' (political work), or 'political study' ( political learning), etc.

Third, what Fang Siwei differences on the negative interference of adult English language learning

Adult learning English is not only learning another language is more important is the system to adapt to another culture, another way of thinking of the adaptation. Studies have shown that the formation of human language the more perfect protection system, the internal resistance to accept a foreign language be. comparative analysis of the ability of adult learners although strong, but they have better logical thinking, language and habits of mind have been relatively fixed, plasticity when learning a language is not as young learners, which is why adult reasons for the difficulty of people learning a foreign language. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

1. meaning difficult to understand

English has a lot of abstract nouns, difficult to correspond exactly to express the Chinese, English, there is a wealth of virtual means, such as the prefix and suffix; known in the Han ethnic thinking in images, like to use specific words to express abstract concepts, The term does not morphological changes in adult English language learners often find English words are very obscure and hard to understand, can not find the corresponding Chinese words to help understand memory. English prepositions and prepositional phrases and more, can be used to express the meaning of virtual pan. Chinese intermediaries evolved from the verb word for a long time, far less than the number of English, so Chinese learners are often unable to find the corresponding preposition, not flexibility, the use of English prepositions.

(2) is not strong grasp of various clauses

English re-shape together, sentence structure was the main access from the buckle style, Chinese re-consensual, sentence structure was dispersed layout style. Adult learners tend to ignore this sentence caused by the differences in the characteristics of thinking, learning clauses will along the Chinese way of thinking, according to the characteristics of Chinese sentence structure to understand the various clauses in English memory, making them the output of the English clause contrary to the rules of the English language.

3 to grasp the characteristics of discourse structure in English

As the value of different cultures, ways of thinking and so there are differences, the discourse structure will vary from culture to culture, Yin Siwei way vary, although many adult learners of English grammar rules, but the lack of English language understanding of the law chapter organization and sensitivity, reading can not clearly understand English discourse structure, which greatly affect the accuracy of their understanding, and in writing, by the insidious effects of type of thinking, is not set to start from the topic, but with all aspects of the situation and problems give implicit or explicit. often unconsciously Chinese discourse organization to move to the English language to the law.

4 English translation of Chinese writing more

Translation of the surface is a form of language into another language form, but its essence is a way of thinking of the conversion, the conversion are two trends of thought, while the adult English language learners in the translation or writing , during the time language translation, in fact, been limited Chinese-style thinking, because thinking is the basis for language translation, is bound to affect the thinking of the difference between the two languages ??of the conversion of native deep-rooted way of thinking can impact on learning English that is all-pervasive, ever-present. a lot of people do not realize or ignore the differences between different ethnic thinking, not adjusted accordingly, using Chinese-style way of thinking of the English language to operate, Chinglish is inevitably produced.

IV Conclusion

English and Chinese have different cultural backgrounds, different world views and values ??and thinking patterns, differences in their mode of thinking has a different history, this difference is the formation of morphological differences between English and Chinese roots. Language reflects the way of thinking, thinking about differences in English language and its manifestation through the comparative analysis, to better understand and master the English language within the law, and thus learned more authentic English. Second, adult learners of English its own characteristics and the object of teaching adult English as a whole there is a big difference, they are different levels, requirements vary. In English learning, adult learners if social environment according to their specific needs, for the acquisition of language, the effect is more prominent.

References:

[1] Deng Yanchang, Liu Runqing. Language and Culture [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1997.

[2] Hu Wenzhong, high and one rainbow. Foreign Language Teaching and Culture [M]. Hunan Education Press, 1997.

[3] with Shu can. English and comparative study of [M]. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1993, Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

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