U.S. presidential inaugural speech of Intertextuality - in compliance based on the theory

11 Introduction of American society as an important cultural phenomenon, the president's inaugural speech has always been a speaker based on current events, on national domestic and foreign affairs to explain his own policy agenda and strategy and to win the majority of citizens for the purpose of endorsement and support of an important political speech. Precisely because of this, the previous president's speech not only in words and sentences in carefully worded, very elegant; Moupian in the text is in conformation is also crafted, can be described as Pianpian classic. No wonder many of them linguists keen on stylistic analysis, in order to maximize reveal their stylistic features, and tap their intrinsic aesthetic values. However, as a kind of both literary and non-literary nature of the dual characteristics of the particular discourse, the previous U.S. president's inaugural speech research value clearly does not lie in its stylistic features. Taking an overview of previous U.S. president's inaugural speech we find that: one of the words is not only a strong dialogue with nature and with a typical multi-language and multi-genre hybrid hybrid save that Intertextuality (intertextuality) phenomenon. Although the Intertextuality in a sense, language is a very common phenomenon, but in reality when the construction of a particular discourse, to make different styles or genres of discourse in which the characteristics of the language can be compatible with co-exist, and ultimately achieve a harmonious blend, consistent flow is not easy. So, the U.S. president's speech discourse is how to successfully achieve this it? Here we shall try to conform to theory [1] point of view of discourse in which the formation process of intertextual analysis, in order to find the answer as well as interpretation of other similar benefit of Discourse. 21 Intertextuality as the field of linguistics related to the current domestic Intertextuality research is still small, there is need to look briefly recount its history and to start the ensuing discussion and analysis. 'Intertextuality' concept can be traced back to Bakhtin Bakhtin [2] proposed by the heterogeneity of language (Heteroglossia) theory. Bakhtin attaches great importance to multi-lingual miscellaneous storage and genres mixed language phenomenon, any discourse has a dialogue with property, any discourse with past and present are inextricably linked, its meaning, both as themselves belong to others. The 20th century, the late 60s Structuralism and post-structuralism transition, Kristeva Kristeva Bakhtin's theory will be introduced to the French and led a 'intertextuality' (intertextuality) the word that she would Intertextuality as is' text and the history of interactive interludes', [3] (39), or Intertextuality is a historical discourse and the discourse in history loading process. Bakhtin and Kristeva believe that discourse can not be divorced from the specific cultural and social context. Falker Lanfu inherited Fairclough Bakhtin's dialogue theory, put forward the orders of discourse (order of discourse) Discourse Theory and the principle of intertextuality, and on this basis, draw on the French school of the terminology used in discourse analysis, will Intertextuality the linear region is divided into 'obvious intertextuality' (manifest intertextuality) and 'construction of intertextuality' (constitutive intertextuality). [4] (104) In the former case, to a certain level of discourse in the language of discourse is clearly visible traces of the other features, while for the latter, these language features are hidden vague. Relatively speaking, the construction of more complex intertextuality, its complexity is reflected in a certain text which contains a variety of discursive structure of the statute, such as the discursive practices associated with different genres, discourse and style and so on. [4] (125) According to Falker Lan Fu [4] (118) classification, text can be divided into three kinds of intertextual relations, namely, Serial (sequential), embedded (embedded) and mixed (m ixed ). Serial intertextual relations in different statements refer to the same discourse, or discourse type of the order of use; embedded intertextual relationship refers to a statement or a type of discourse clearly contained in another statement, and discourse type; hybrid intertextual relationship is a different type of statement or intricate to use, integrated into one. Based on the above introduction, we find that the U.S. president's speech in Intertextuality is not only very common but also very obvious. But the question is why different styles, discourse or genre characteristics Intertextuality components can be harmonious coexistence in the same speech text. Here, we believe that this is mainly because the Intertextuality of the generation process, the text generator consciously or unconsciously followed the principle of such a principle --- compliance. 31 text-generated compliance principles, since they are here to talk about the compliance of the principle is based on the compliance of Jef Vers2chueren basis of the theory, so here it is necessary to make an Introduction to the theory. Jef Verschueren will be applied to evolutionary epistemology, language study, and in 1999 published U nderstanding P ragm ia tics presented in his book Theory of Adaptation. According to conform to this theory, the process of language use is to keep the language forms and strategies to make a choice process. Human beings have been able to make a choice of language, because language itself has three interrelated characteristics: variability, consultation and compliance. Variability refers to languages to choose from a range of possibilities; consultation refers to the choice of human language is not mechanical and rigid, but on highly flexible principles and strategies. These two features mean that language selection uncertainty. This being the case, why the success of our communication? The reason is that the third language is more important characteristics: compliance. Compliance can mankind from the many possible options to make consultative language selection in order to meet communication needs. These three properties can not be separated, together constitute the basic properties of language. Jef Verschueren pointed out that to describe and explain the use of language must be considered in four aspects: the relationship conforms to the context, language structure, conform, conform and be responsive to the process of dynamic level of awareness. Contextual relationship conforms to refer to use of language choice must be made in the course and context (including the communicative context and linguistic context) comply. Language structure conform to the language is in many ways to make a choice: Choose language, language codes, style, choose the discourse to build components, choose different types of discourse and discourse as well as the choice to build the principles of discourse. Contextual relationship conforms to the language and language structures conform to the contents of the selection process, that is, verbal communication in the language and non-language elements combined. Dynamically adapt to refer to how the language selection process, to set context and language structure to adapt to each other, thereby dynamically generate meaningful discourse. Conform to the awareness level of the process pointed out that people in the language use process, not all of the language choices are made under the same level of awareness, some choice is unconscious, while others may be very strong purpose. Thus, JefVerschueren of compliance theory in fact gives us describe the people in the language used in the process of consciously or unconsciously follow a principle, namely, the principle of compliance. The principle is to describe and explain the generation of human discourse or text has universal significance. Use it to analyze and explain the wide-spread in the previous U.S. presidential inaugural speech Discourse Intertextuality phenomenon is not only feasible but also reasonable. 41 U.S. President's speech on Intertextuality overview of the compliance analysis of all previous U.S. presidential inaugural speech, we can easily find, of which Intertextuality outstanding performance as follows: political discourse disseminated 'Bible' style and written characteristics of both spoken text. Why does this happen? We believe that Jef Verschueren's compliance theory can help us find out the underlying reasons. For ease of illustrative purposes, here we only capture the many presidential inaugural address in the typical example of discourse to be analyzed. First, we discuss the political discourse disseminated 'Bible' style, characteristic of this Intertextuality. Taking an overview of the previous U.S. president's speech, we found so far published in the inaugural speech of the 38 U.S. presidents, in addition to威廉哈里森 , Grant, Hayes and Benjamin Harrison, President of the four, the other 34 presidents of the speech on form and content are permeated with strong religious overtones. In his speech, not only in the beginning and end of speech, we often can see the 'Bible' style, language, or used to pray to gods to bless, or to call for action in the name of God, that is,'s speech is also often seen direct reference to the 'Bible' in the discourse to serve their own policy objectives and views and stand to explain the phenomenon of Intertextuality. For example: And my fellow Americans, as we stand at the edge of the21 th century, let us begin anew with energy and hope, w ithfaith and discip line, and let us work until our work is done.The scrip ture says: 'And let us not be weary in well2doing, forin due season we shall reap if we faith not '. This is the Clinton took office in early 1993, in the face of the last century the early 90s the U.S. Great Depression, many large factories closed down and unemployment up to the United States 7.8% of the population of this social and historical situation, in order to mobilize the American people at this critical moment of heavy drums fighting, persist in the end, and strive to win the direct reference to the 'New Testament' in 'Galatians' Chapter VI Section 9 in the discourse. So why is Clinton's speech will appear in the language of such a choice? We know, language has long been considered an important part of culture, but language is also inevitable, with its social and cultural characteristics, marked with their social outlook of the mark. China since ancient times 'the text in order to set Road' theory. Well-known British linguist Halliday [5] have also strongly advocated the language on the social and cultural context of the next study. Well, for most of them with a national Christian country, the new president in order to win the general public through the speech of its policy agenda, the recognition and positive response to their call to action, it is natural that he would consider national conditions, is responsive to community cultural context in order to enhance the effectiveness of their political speech. The use of 'the Bible' in the discourse is more likely to move people and enhance their persuasive rhetoric, it's no wonder the president's speech in the style of a large number of borrowed religious language to explain your policies and views stand. Of course, such words choice, not language generator machinery to comply with the results of language rules, but rather conform to the context, in a highly flexible and pragmatic principles and pragmatic strategies on the basis of dynamic negotiations completed. Only in this way in order to maximize the speaker to achieve their communicative purpose. Similar to the above situation, that is, by borrowing 'the Bible' in the discourse to enhance the persuasiveness's speech to impress people, win the support of examples in the U.S. President's inaugural speech, there are many, but space is limited, we are not here, re-interpretation of 11 superfluous. For Intertextuality in previous president's speech in the written text to another outstanding performance --- both verbal characteristics, we think that could also be explained by compliance theory, be found. Let's speech on the adoption of a comprehensive analysis of characteristics of the sentence to be elaborated. Micro previous U.S. presidents speech, we can easily find, which is the length of both sentences, simplified are prepared and used in sentences are usually complete, omitted or incomplete sentences are rare. And we know that, under normal circumstances, a discourse in the average length of sentence the greater, the text becomes more formally [6]. The U.S. president's speech, the average amount of a single sentence with the word 19.2, significantly exceeded the average sentence length all kinds of stylistic 17.8 [7]. This shows that the language of speech on the formal than everyday conversation more and more complex. So why 'speech on' will appear in such a situation? We know that the U.S. President's inaugural speech, in a very formal, dignified and solemn occasion, and under, and speech is one of the main purpose of the new government in order to elaborate the policy agenda and policy, for which, it is necessary to use a relatively long sentence is more complex and logical and strong language to accurately express concepts and information in order to enable people clearly understand, accept and actively support the government advocates. Thus, we see the reason's speech is very formal and complicated, precisely because the choice in language dynamically adapt to the above-mentioned communication context and communicative purposes, Shi Ran. Why, then, the U.S. president's inaugural speech but also has characteristics of oral language? We know that, although successive U.S. president's inaugural speech are based on 'written text' in the form of well-built out, but they still have to 'oral speech' in the form to express, which determines the discourse generated in the language choice but consider this factor. In addition, we know that, although's speech should be clearly and accurately described the policies and proposals speaker, but after all he has to in order to win people's support to fight the main purpose. Therefore, when he encouraged and inspired the public to respond when called upon, he must resort to simple and powerful, highly colloquial sentences, because such a sentence can make his speech with a strong sense of dialogue and scene, but also make the audience feel intimate and lively, easy to accept. In addition, the length of the sentence's speech on integration, not only can increase the wording of the aesthetic, but also can greatly reduce or avoid the monotonous and boring speeches. The reason why we see that the U.S. president in his inaugural speech with spoken dialogue and character precisely because of text production are consciously or unconsciously, have taken note of the above factors, or said they were conscious or unconscious response to the above-mentioned factors to language communicative context With the appropriate choice on the manifest. Should be noted that, in addition to the above-mentioned characteristics of the two Intertextuality, we in the United States President's speech can be found in many other forms of Intertextuality phenomenon. For instance, we can see them often mixed from the United States Constitution or the history of words such as authority figures. Of course, we also have reason to believe that in these phenomena Intertextuality generation process, the text's language choices are also generated through the consultative and responsive to the dynamic process, so that the final's speech style of discourse types and genres with the communicative context and linguistic context fit with each other, coordinate, and then complete the pragmatic purpose. At the same time, we should also point out that the U.S. president's inaugural speech in though contains a diversity of Intertextuality composition, the entire text is still a harmonious natural, flowing freely, it is precisely the discourse generated in the language selection process no mechanical stick to the language rules, but always maintain a high degree of flexibility and Shiran. 51 Conclusion Jef Verschueren's compliance theory to describe and explain the use of language has a universal significance. Use it to analyze all previous U.S. presidential inaugural speech in Intertextuality phenomenon, we are able to know, different styles, discourse or genre of discourse characteristics, which has been able to live in harmony but not to hurt the continuity of flow because: In his speech, speech generation process, the text generator in order to achieve its communicative purpose (such as enhancement of speech to persuade and appeal, etc.), there are conscious or unconscious response to the communicative context and linguistic context in language choice and language use strategies to do dynamic consultative and responsive results. This is a case study in a sense, but hope to resolve other similar texts on some inspiration.
[1] Verschueren, J. Understanding Pragmatics [M]. Lon2don: A rnold, 1999
. [2] Bakhtin, M. The D ialogic Imagination: Four Essays [C]. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.
[3] Kristeva, J. Word, D ialogue and Novel [A]. In T. Moi (ed.) The Kristeva Reader [C]. Oxford: B lack2well, 1986.
[4] Fairclough, ND iscourse and Social Change [M]. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992.
[5] Halliday, M.A.K.


English Language Culture Papers