Yellow River Basin groundwater resources utilization analysis

Abstract Based on the Yellow River Basin groundwater use statistics, Since the nineties groundwater abstractions yearly basis, the average annual water withdrawals 12,563,000,000 m3, about 1.7% annual increase in 2001 reached 13.776 billion to take groundwater m3, water consumption 9.664 billion m3, from the river basin district of view, Longmen to Sanmenxia river water taken up from the point of view of administrative divisions, Shaanxi maximum use of groundwater, ie mainly concentrated in the largest tributary of the Yellow River Basin within the Weihe River, the Yellow River Basin groundwater quantity of water than can be mined serious, indicating that the exploitation of groundwater overexploitation and not part of the direct competition for water runoff.

Keywords groundwater abstractions Consumption Yellow

The Yellow River is China's second largest river in Bayan Har Mountains originated in Tibet about 4500m above sea level were columns of ancient basin, flows through Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Shandong and other nine provinces ( area, Kenli County in Shandong Province into the Bohai Sea. mainstream river length of 5464km, drop 4480m, drainage area 795 000 km2 (including the flow area of ​​Ordos 42,000 km2.

Yellow River water resources, including river runoff and groundwater in two parts, formed by atmospheric precipitation recharge Yellow River Basin scarce rain and snow, dry climate, annual average rainfall of 466mm, average evaporation 1100mm, most parts of the drought index 2 ~ 3, local area reach 10 or more. geographical distribution of precipitation extremely uneven distribution during the year focused, interannual variability, leading to frequent droughts and floods the Yellow River Basin.

As China's Yellow River northwest and north region is an important source of water supply, bears the watershed and downstream irrigated arable land accounts for 15% and 12% of the population and more than 50 cities of the water supply tasks, but also to some areas outside the basin long-distance water transfer, water supply task is very heavy, water demand has exceeded the carrying capacity of water resources in the Yellow River.

The total quantity of water refers to the natural river runoff and groundwater are not repeated computation of the Yellow River Basin water resources total 71,900,000,000 m3, natural river runoff 58 billion m3, do not repeat the groundwater resources 13,900,000,000 m3, the amount of available groundwater 11 billion m3.

1,2001 groundwater resources development and utilization of groundwater abstractions, refers to the direct extraction in the Yellow River basin aquifer water (including deep groundwater. Groundwater Groundwater water consumption means less its infiltration of water aquifers and underground rivers of water after return of water, its water consumption rate estimated by empirical data.

2001 Groundwater Yellow River water was 13.776 billion m3, of which agricultural water withdrawals 7930000000 m3, accounting for groundwater basin water withdrawal of 57.6%, industry 3.428 billion m3, accounting for 24.9 percent of urban life 1.214 billion m3, accounting for 8.8%, and the remaining for rural drinking water. groundwater basin-wide water consumption of 9.664 billion m3, of which agricultural water consumption 6.674 billion m3, accounting for groundwater basin water consumption 69.1%, industry 1.337 billion m3, accounting for 13.8 percent of urban life, 464 million m3, accounting for 4.8 %, the rest of rural drinking water.

According to administrative district statistics, the volume of groundwater quantity of water and water consumption to a maximum of Shaanxi Province, respectively, 3.064 billion m3 and 2.091 billion m3, corresponding to 22.2% of the total watershed and 21.6% along the Yellow River provinces (autonomous regions and see the utilization of groundwater by industry Table 1.


1 Table 1                    年沿黄各省(自治区地下水利用情况统计表 2001 along the Yellow River provinces (autonomous regions groundwater utilization statistics
Press basin district statistics, groundwater abstractions and Longmen to Sanmenxia water volume to 55.26 billion m3 and a maximum of 3.92 billion m3, respectively, accounting for 40.1% of the watershed and 40.6% in the Yellow River Basin District groundwater utilization by industry Table 2 .

Table 2 2001 Yellow River Basin groundwater utilization partition tables

2, the development and utilization of groundwater resources in the nineties


1991-2000 (average, the Yellow River and the flow of groundwater extraction volume was 12.563 billion m 3, of which agricultural water consumption is 7.035 billion m3, accounting for 56.0% of water, industrial water consumption was 44.4 million m3, accounting for water amount of 35.3% of rural drinking water consumption was 10.9 million m3, accounting for only 8.7% of the total water consumption. shown in Table 3.

Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

Table 3 1991-2000 (average utilization of the Yellow River Basin groundwater tables
From the point of view of river, Longmen to Sanmenxia water up to 5.53 billion m3, 45.1% of the total water consumption, from the sub-provinces of view, Shaanxi Province, the biggest water is 3.074 billion m3, 24.9% of the total water consumption .

3, take the Yellow River water changes of groundwater exploitation mainly distributed in the River Basin (Basin Area: Ningxia Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia Hetao Plain, soil Mote Chuan plains, Yikezhaomeng plains south of the Yellow River, Shanxi Taiyuan Basin, Linfen basin , Yuncheng Basin, Shaanxi Guanzhong Basin, northern sand beach area, Henan Yiluo valley plains, Qinhe River Plain and the Yellow River Plain, etc. divided by the Weihe River Basin, Jinghe, Beiluo, Fen, Iraq Luo, Dawenhe other basin in which the annual average of 2.516 billion Weihe m 3, followed by the Fen River Basin annual average 1.699 billion m 3. shown in Table 4.

Take the Yellow River Basin in recent years, changes in water was increasing, Since the nineties groundwater abstractions yearly basis, an annual increase of 1.7 percent from 1991's 11.59 billion m 3, increased in 2001 to 13.776 billion m 3, increased 2.186 billion m 3, an increase of 18.9%. shown in Table 5.


Table 4 major tributary of the Yellow River Basin groundwater utilization statistics
Table 51991-2001 provinces to take the Yellow River Basin groundwater conditions Statistics
4 Conclusion Through the Yellow River basin during the past 10 years of groundwater utilization analysis combined with some specific work experience, the following aspects are summarized awareness and problems.

(1 Yellow River in recent years to take changes in water was increasing, Since the nineties groundwater abstractions yearly basis, an annual increase of 1.7 percent.

(21991 ~ 2000 (average flow of the Yellow River basin and groundwater within the extraction volume is 12.563 billion m 3, of which a maximum of more than half of agricultural water, rural drinking water at least.

(3 Yellow River Basin groundwater exploitation mainly distributed in the River Basin (Basin regions, such as the Weihe, Jinghe, Beiluo, Fen, Yiluo, Dawenhe other watersheds.

(Four from the administrative point of view, Shaanxi Province, the biggest water user, followed by Henan, Shanxi, Shandong and from basin district perspective, Longmen to Sanmenxia river water taken up.

(5 whole river in 2001 reached 13.776 billion to take groundwater m3, more than 11 billion basin can be mined m3, has become a serious over-exploitation in the basin plain (basin area, due to long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater, groundwater depth and influence the formation of centers range are larger cone of depression are: Ningxia Yinchuan funnel, Shaanxi Feng East funnel, funnel Xinghua, Lu bridge funnel, funnel Weibin, Shanxi Song months ancient funnel, funnel Taiyuan, Yuncheng funnel while suggesting that groundwater exploitation and overexploitation not only part of the direct competition for surface runoff water, such as wells and Weihe river near the city of deep wells, thus reducing the surface river runoff.

(6 Yellow River Basin since 1986 into a dry phase, reduced rainfall and natural runoff, groundwater supply shortage and increasing the effective exploitation of groundwater, the Yellow River Basin groundwater will further face the grim reality.


References

[1] White Zhao west of the Yellow River Water Resources [R]. Institute of Yellow River Conservancy Commission .1986.

[2] Wu Xie medium, the Yellow River Basin Water Resources Assessment [R], the Yellow River Conservancy Commission, 1986

[3] Panqi Min, Dong, Zhang Peide etc. .2001 Yellow River Water Resources Bulletin [R], the Yellow River Conservancy Commission, 2002
[4] Yellow River provinces (District Water Resources Bulletin [R]

Links to free download http://eng.
hi138.com