Risk prevention and control of inland transport of dangerous goods

Abstract: With the rapid development of China's rapid economic, inland transport of dangerous goods was a blowout development trend, but the safety of the transport of dangerous goods and the risk of environmental pollution has increased dramatically, This paper summarizes the characteristics of the transport of dangerous goods in China's inland waters to analyze the risk of inland waters dangerous goods transport safety and pollution prevention, hazards, and risks, hidden methods of prevention and control measures and recommendations.

Keywords: inland transport of dangerous goods risk countermeasures in recent years, with China's rapid economic development, inland waters have increasingly become an important resource for economic development in China, has an important position and role in promoting China's economic development process. Watershed areas The rapid development of petroleum, chemical, energy, urban gas, as well as transportation and other industries, via inland shipping dangerous goods traffic has also grown dramatically, and the same time, due to the large volume, conservation, environmental protection, low transportation costs advantage waterway transport of dangerous goods, plus Jianghai, development of Ganzhi direct transport, ship transport of dangerous goods and hazardous cargo pier rapid growth in the number of dangerous cargo vessels, the coast dangerous cargo terminal at the same time to bring economic prosperity to areas along the Yangtze River, also become a potential source of contamination.

Inland transport of dangerous goods in China is characterized by the so-called dangerous goods, has the characteristics of explosive, flammable, poison, corrosive, radioactive pollution hazards or potential hazard to people and the environment will bring the goods.

1, the main varieties of the inland transport of dangerous goods in the Yangtze River in bulk liquid transport of hazardous chemicals: benzene, toluene, xylene, methanol, ethanol, butanol, caustic soda, glacial acetic acid, nitric acid, styrene, vinyl acetate, ethyl acetate, phenol, aniline, acetic acid, formaldehyde, sulfuric acid, liquid sulfur, nitrous methane, carbon tetrachloride, the ring has ketone, acrylic acid, isopropanol, iso-octanoic acid, etc., a total of more than 60 varieties.

Transport of Dangerous Goods varieties of the Pearl River system: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, methanol.

Operations category of chemical pollution and harmful see (Table 1

3 presents the characteristics of inland transport of dangerous goods dangerous goods traffic increased year by year, the the chemical ship's capacity year by year, but a large number of hull structure is irrational, the state of technology behind the old dangerous cargo ships are still engaged in the transport of dangerous goods.

Increasing variety of carriage of goods: With the construction of chemical base in Chongqing, Sichuan chemical industry base and Zhenjiang, Nantong, Wuhan, inland transport of chemical species from the common diesel, gasoline and other goods gradually soda ash, ammonium chloride, caustic soda, methane many types of chemical transport of chloride, benzene, yeast transformation.

Transport of Dangerous Goods ship was large trend: With the rapid development of the petrochemical industry in the major cities along the Yangtze River, the chemical transport ship presents a large-scale trends, the the Yangtze largest chemical transport ship cargo traffic reached 3000T.

Increasingly wide watershed area of ​​the carriage of dangerous goods: With the continued advance of the western development strategy, in southwest China has become an important chemical industry base, the formation of the a huge chemical production and export base, making the transport of dangerous goods waters from the eastern to expand to the Midwest.

Countermeasures and suggestions to reduce the risk of inland transport of dangerous goods, the proposal to modify the norms and regulations of the current dangerous goods transport ship bulk liquid goods existing norms CCS << inland bulk transport of dangerous chemical structure of the ship and equipment prepared specification >> and << ship structures and equipment standards >> inland bulk transport liquefied gas, packing and shipping chemical ship, its technical requirements dispersed inland vessels << steel construction rules >> << the inland vessels statutory inspection rules >> specification, rules content can not fully reflect the inland transport of dangerous goods ship commonness and individuality is neither comprehensive nor systematic. therefore, recommended as follows:
Construction specifications add special chapter "tankers" >> << steel inland vessels, and its contents, including the special requirements of the oil tankers, chemical tankers and liquefied gas ship
>> << Inland statutory inspection and technical rules to increase specialized chapter "Transport of Dangerous Goods, covers the special requirements of the packaging and transportation of dangerous goods ships, bulk transport of solid dangerous goods ships, oil tankers, chemical tankers and liquefied gas ship.

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2, to carry dangerous goods transport ship anti-collision assessment study BV, GL through a series of studies of the chemical ship anti-collision on the Transport of Dangerous Goods of double-hull ship's double hull plastic deformation properties proposed requirements in its specification accordingly ship classification, greatly improving the ship's anti-collision capability It is understood that some domestic the ship research institutions to carry out a similar project of ship collision avoidance research from energy and limit the impact velocity to assess the ability of the ship collision avoidance. research into the specification as soon as possible to improve the capacity of the ship's anti-collision.

3, the establishment of the inland waterway operation of chemical libraries and inland chemical transport ship emergency response information system water transport of dangerous goods incidents with sudden, rapid and serious harm. The event of an accident, improve emergency response efficiency to maximize reduce the hazards of the water dangerous goods transport accidents, should establish a comprehensive emergency management system of specific ship transport of dangerous goods, dangerous goods database and shipboard emergency response information should be established in addition to the establishment of a Water Transportation of Dangerous Goods Emergency Command Network support systems.

At present, the developed countries in the inland waterway transport chemicals, have set up a comprehensive chemical database and emergency response systems in the United States, established in 1971, chemical transportation emergency center (Chemical Transportation Emergency Center, CHEMTREC in chemical disasters, accidents emergency rescue activities, mainly to emergency personnel, transportation companies, and medical personnel to provide technical support for information, technology, and medicine. addition, the United States Coast Guard (US Coast Guard for water transport characteristics of the chemicals, research and development specifically chemical hazards emergency information systems (Chemical Hszards Response Information System, CHRIS. in Europe, the European Chemical Industry Association for specific chemicals or nature similar chemical preparation of a unified transport emergency card (TREMCARD, in the European countries in the implementation of the chemical carrier or an important reference document on-site rescue personnel for emergency information its content mainly includes six parts: 1 cargo risk, (2) leakage disposal, (3) Fire-fighting measures, (4) Personal Protection, ⑤ driver action, ⑥ medical emergency card specifically for waterway chemical spills (marine chemical spill contingency guidance in Canada, established in 1979, the Canadian Transport Emergency Centre (Canadian Transport Emergency Center, CANUTEC part of the Canadian Transport of Dangerous Goods guidance at into the member to handling dangerous goods emergencies information to support the center has developed a system of "Emergency Response Guidebook" collection l966 kinds of chemical emergency response information.

All over the country in general has a chemical emergency center, but not yet specifically for inland chemical transportation emergency response information systems, certain chemical emergency card, especially emergency response simpler and just universality ship is not targeted. establish shipborne inland operations essential chemicals database and emergency information systems and so-called chemical database contains the physical and chemical properties of the chemicals, the impact of disasters, emergency measures, appropriate shipment type "Knowledge Base", the CHRIS system developed by the United States Coast Guard, as an example, a typical database of goods. chemical emergency response information system includes a number of features of the chemical database, analysis and evaluation, decision support, information services Therefore, it is recommended that the development of dangerous chemicals database and emergency response information system.

4, the establishment of a safe and reliable safety management system, to form a multi-level monitoring mechanisms dangerous goods producers, carriers, hazardous cargo terminal as soon as possible to establish a full range of safe and reliable indeed feasible and Safety Management System. Currently, some domestic Dangerous Cargo Carriers companies have started to try to establish a safety management system, but the actual lot of the safety management system of the company is not well run, on the one hand, the safety awareness of employees, on the other hand is a scientific system to develop Debu unreasonable and difficult to run. the European Union and other developed countries have set up to improve the safety management system, clear safety standards for the transport of each of the kinds of goods, the responsibility for the implementation of every aspect of the transport of dangerous goods in the delivery of the entire process from the signing of the contract of carriage to transport chemicals , have specific requirements for each link in the process of loading, and are subject to full supervision, Once the artificially accident, the accident responsible party will bear a high price, to form a strong complement to the supervision of government authorities, on the other hand system during operation of some hidden danger effective investigation and found hidden in a timely manner to avoid accidents. government regulatory agencies.

5, strengthen the training of inland transport of dangerous goods practitioners EU personnel engaged in the transport of dangerous goods shall be subject to two years, the basics of training and three years of professional skills training in our country, in addition to some large engaged in the transport of dangerous goods shipping companies outside low educational level is not high, the prevalence of dangerous goods transport ship crew quality phenomenon one hand, some of the crew has not been a system of professional training, although some specially trained, but due to the low theoretical level, the ability of the acceptance and implementation of regulations than poor, can not be the master of the ship carrying dangerous goods transport system knowledge and practical skills, some of the crew and even the operators did not know the characteristics of the carriage of dangerous goods, let alone how to deal with the emergencies, and thus prone to transport of dangerous goods accident. example, a fleet of transport of dangerous goods shipment of dangerous goods benzene (flammable, toxic Jin Chuan, do not understand the characteristics of the carriage of dangerous goods, in the course of a voyage crew inhalation of benzene vapors cause chronic poisoning, other one hand, with the increasing of the inland transport of dangerous types of new chemical products continue to emerge, the operator put a higher demand for goods carriers, need to continue to learn, charging to master the carriage of safety knowledge. therefore , must strengthen the training of practitioners and professional quality of the transport of chemicals, and constantly improve the professional skills and qualities to strict access for dangerous goods transport practitioners, especially the crew worked strictly prohibited without professional training or professional qualities lower crew engaged in the transport of dangerous goods by sea through continuous training and learning to improve the professional quality of employees and management level, and to put an end to all the thinking and behavior of careless.

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