Papers Category:Engineering Papers
- Electronic Machinery Papers
Post Time:2012-12-13 11:23:00
Abstract: With the continuous progress of the international trade liberalization, international trade barriers but never completely eliminated, especially in the technical regulations and standards, certification as the main form of technical barriers to trade, increasing its influence and role, as an international the trade protectionism best shelter electromechanical products as a pillar of export products in Zhejiang Province, suffered one of the most serious areas of technical barriers, technical barriers have become the main obstacles and challenges facing the export of electromechanical products in Zhejiang Province. This paper focuses on the impact of technical barriers Zhejiang electromechanical products market access, product competitiveness, and to make some suggestions on how the export of electromechanical products effectively across technical barriers to trade. Keywords: sticks barriers; Zhejiang electromechanical products: the impact of countermeasures.
With the acceleration of economic globalization, countries in the world in pursuit of trade white South, Wai interpersonal barriers to trade, however, is still there. Formal legitimacy of the technical barriers to trade, covert and complex, technical barriers to trade international trade protectionism best shelter. According to WTO statistics, today more than 80% of international trade barriers, technical barriers to trade from the point of view from the of WID members of the same amount of TBT notification, 2005 briefing of the total 865 had soared to 2011, 1732, increased by 2 times .2005 2008 Bulletin] 0075 totaled This suggests that, as a hidden non-tariff barriers, and flexibility measures, technical barriers to trade has been more WTO members of all ages.
Mechanical and electrical industry is the pillar industry of Zhejiang Province, the export of electromechanical products in Zhejiang Province in 2011 the total value of 92.104 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for 42.57 percent of the province's exports, has for 11 consecutive years, Zhejiang Province, the first category l leaves I mouth the product. However, due to mostly in the low-end level, the prevalence of low value-added, low technical content, poor environmental performance, makes electromechanical products encounter technical barriers, the hardest hit, to become the main obstacles and challenges faced by the export of electromechanical products in Zhejiang Province.
, The impact of the financial crisis is still in the spread of the debt crisis is far from over, Western major developed around the home of shrinking demand, serious damage to the development of international trade, trade protectionist sentiment and behavior and is ready for it in this context, technical barriers to trade caused due to its hidden nature, complexity and apparent rationality, will become the weapon of choice in many countries for trade protection, which requires us a high degree of vigilance. Technical barriers definition and mechanism of action. (A definition. For Technical Barriers to Trade (Technieal Barriers to Trade.
Referred to the definition of TBT, Yan occasion and there is no uniform, clear concept, look at the research of scholars from home and abroad, of the commonly used definition is: Technical Barriers to Trade sufficient means with government and non-government agencies in order to safeguard national security, protection the safety and health of humans and animals and plants, to protect the environment, prevent fraud, and to ensure food safety and production quality of the grounds to take the mandatory or non-mandatory technical restrictions or regulations, this locust measures or regulations subjective or objective to be outside the same barriers to free access of goods, which is a relatively abstract definition of technical barriers to trade, from the perspective of research and analysis, technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures or inspection and quarantine system and other domestic laws and regulations in the implementation process of the Trade constitute a technical barrier, is the use of the technical details to build trade barriers. " (Mechanism of action of the two technical barriers to trade.
Currently, for the mechanism of action of the technical barriers to trade, the researchers have formed a consistent point of view As traditional trade barriers, technical barriers are mainly controlled by the quantity and price of the imported products to play a role.
Analysis from a static point of view, the importing country on imported goods did not set technical barriers to trade, it first imports in the short term produce a significant number of control role.
Into [:] products can not meet the technical standards for imports of the same provisions, environmental standards, and inspection requirements, not immediately conformity assessment, product certification system certification mandatory requirements, it is clear, it will be importing countries banned the import of imports had to temporarily withdraw from the Kids in the market, the number of technical barriers to trade control role to play an important role.
Of course, the export enterprises will not be reconciled so quit had to struggle across technical barriers as soon as possible, in order to protect the market, such as the adaptation of the product. Conformity assessment, obtain the relevant certification, this enterprise had to increase the cost of inputs and costs expenditures and therefore, the setting of technical barriers will increase production costs, but also naturally raise the price of imported products, and thus weaken the market competitiveness of imported products, to achieve the effect of price controls; On the other hand, the price increase, but also makes imports circumference of the decline in imports of consumer demand, but also produced a significant number of the inhibitory effect.
It needs to be pointed out is that when I Ye J importing country products across technical barriers, as technology advances, the number of failure means that the technical barriers continue to adopt new technical standards for the protection of domestic industries to consider imports of Congress the development of new technical regulations, to form a new technical barriers to trade, its control over the quantity and price controls continue to play a double role. Second, the technical barriers to the export of electromechanical products in Zhejiang.
Zhejiang electromechanical products export market is the European Union, the United States, Japan and other developed technical barriers to trade in these countries to establish themselves as the main obstacle faced by the export of electromechanical products of Zhejiang Province. Displays results from a sample survey of the Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision, the European Union, the United States, Japan, etc. is Zhejiang Province, mechanical and electrical products export enterprises encounter technical barriers most countries and regions, which affect my week l small industry products export of technical trade measures type concentrated in the certification requirements, technical standards, products, personal safety requirements, environmental protection requirements, toxic and hazardous substances limited requirements and packaging and material requirements six. (A negative impact. Affect the mechanical and electrical products market access.
American and European countries in electromechanical product noise pollution, electromagnetic pollution, sewage limit recyclability and energy efficiency has developed strict technical regulations and standards, Zhejiang electromechanical products can not enter the market, market access directly affected mainly performance: some mechanical and electrical products do not meet the standard requirements of the importing country, have been shut out any of the importing country to raise standards, resulting in companies can not meet the requirements: improve standards increase the cost of exports, some companies can not afford the fees, and had to withdraw from the market.
UL certification of CE certification of the European Union, the United States and Canada CSA certification and product requirements are very strict, and electromechanical products businesses unable to obtain such certification, you can not enter the relevant market. WEEE Directive, because of its cost recovery passed on to the manufacturer, look back and proposed higher rate, resulting in significant increases in cost. According to company estimates, the only cost recovery alone will result in the average selling price of its products in the EU market rose by 30% to 50%, another fluorescent enterprise that: 90% of its products sold in the EU market can only withdraw from the EU market, if the recovery rate of more than 80% of the EU, the costs are too high, and ultimately another example, in 2005 the German imports of mechanical and electrical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS investigations, Zhejiang exported many of Germany's electric] two manufacturers are afraid to accept large orders, resulting in power tools exported to Germany, the traditional market disruption serious. Affect the competitiveness of the mechanical and electrical products.
Technology, environmental protection, as well as inputs for improving the working conditions in order to achieve the requirements of the importing country on Technical Barriers to Trade, mechanical and electrical enterprises directly increase the cost of the product cost enterprises to obtain the relevant certification has also increased the cost of the enterprise, the enterprise loss product The price advantage, weakening its international competitiveness.
The increasing emphasis on health and the environment, on the one hand, the related environmental labeling certification products more and more popular, there is no market competitiveness greatly reduce environmental labeling certification products, on the other hand, enterprises should obtain the relevant certification must pay the expensive cost of certification, leading to the decline in the competitiveness of enterprise products such as SGS, ITS commodity inspection fee of about eight thousandths achieved UL certification in the United States are generally required $ 3-5 million, and a year to pay the $ 2,000 annual supervision fee, the implementation of the EU WEEE Directive, making the manufacturer to bear the cost of recycling discarded products, which are increasing the low-cost advantages of mechanical and electrical enterprises in Zhejiang, weaken their competitiveness. posted in the free papers Download Center http:// eng.hi138.com (positive impact.
Although the technical barriers to trade in developed countries have a greater negative impact on exports of machinery and electronic products, but we can not completely deny the positive side. The long term, have a positive role in promoting the technical barriers of the mechanical and electrical industry in Zhejiang Province.
On one hand, the technical barriers Forced mechanism "effect, forcing companies to continuously improve the level of technology, improve product quality, continuous technological innovation, reduce energy consumption and consumption of raw materials, to meet new technical requirements, on the other hand, due to technical regulations and standards to enable producers to production within the limited range of product features and machining, to extend the size of the economy, which will bring huge economies of scale, long term, forcing inefficient enterprises to expand the production scale exit the market and promote the company's merger integration. Third, Zhejiang export of electromechanical products deal with technical barriers countermeasures.
Electromechanical as the most important export products in Zhejiang Province, the development of the rise and fall of the economic development of Zhejiang Province, has an important impact. Skipped from the fundamental technical trade issues, Zhejiang Province attaches great importance to and from the three levels of government, industry associations, enterprises actively response, to build a strategic alliance of governments, associations and enterprises, the formation of a joint force to respond to technical barriers. (I give full play to the leading role of the government.
The government should actively create a fully competitive environment, and encourage enterprises to improve their competitiveness, and build a good technical service platform to provide effective services to the enterprise. 1 through the open market, actively promote industrial upgrading.
Export of electromechanical products in Zhejiang Province, Annex value low, low technical content, so frequently suffered technical barriers troubled industrial upgrading is the only way, but many companies do not have the power of this self upgrade, do not pay attention to the investment in science and technology and personnel training . Although the provincial government to develop incentive policies, but with little success. Government can take advantage of foreign technical barriers to the implementation of the "Forced" mechanism, technical barriers to persecution, order processing, the most effective way of OEM production-based enterprise technology upgrade Therefore, the Government should formulate a positive policy to encourage enterprises to participate in international competition, promote industrial upgrading.
2. Formulate a reasonable industrial policy, forcing industrial upgrading. Government departments should make full use of industrial policies to adjust the industrial structure, forcing the industry to upgrade.
Specific way is constructed in the province of technical barriers, forward, promote industrial upgrading. Use of technical barriers such as the relevant international standards, international standards directly translated into the other standards, the implementation of mandatory certification, especially in the aspects of security, ecology, energy, implementation of market access policies, actively pursuing ISOI4000 certification, the implementation of the WEEE and ROHS environmental standards to exerting pressure on enterprises to actively respond to the industry gradually embarked The road of sustainable development.
3. Actively promote the standardization of Zhejiang Province.
Foreign technical barriers, regardless of certification requirements, conformity assessment procedures, or a variety of environmental directives, the last property of the root in the technical standards issues. Standards largest barriers to the export of electromechanical products in Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang, technical standards and international standards. Therefore, to actively promote the standards, and encouraged the strong electromechanical enterprises to participate in international, national standard-setting activities, at the same time to guide enterprises own patented technology in standards, the implementation of the patent, the standard combination of strategy to enable enterprises to obtain maximum economic benefits. (B strengthen the construction of industry associations play Association functional.
Industry Association is an independent organization set up by the enterprises themselves according to the laws and regulations and its own constitution, this organization is responsible for the overall interests of the organization, the government can not have the industries and enterprises under the WTO rules, the government can not public protection. Industry Association in relation to the same benefits of the industry will take the initiative to lobby the relevant government agencies, organizations, strive for results beneficial to the industry, especially in resolving the unfair treatment, policy discrimination, gifted Rotary policy, industry associations play government departments, the role can not be replaced by a single enterprise. <3 give full play the main role of the export of mechanical and electrical enterprises.
As a direct encounter technical barriers, electromechanical export enterprises should very clearly aware of their situation in the global competition, the passive waiting final only to be eliminated. Really have to straddle the technical barriers to obtain long-term development, the key is the enterprise itself behavior. Initiative to understand and study the technical requirements of the target market, the technical regulations.
Technical barriers to the formation of many cases companies do not understand due to foreign standards, especially accounting export of electromechanical products for half of the Zhejiang Province private enterprises, often not familiar with foreign laws and regulations, requirements and product exports, so companies should various trade barriers relevant information remains highly sensitive to the other hand, enterprises should also familiar with the rules of the game in the WTO, reduce blindness to enter the international market, and when necessary, the use of the trade dispute settlement mechanism of the WTO safeguard Links to free papers Download Center http:// eng.hi138.com