Papers Category:Engineering Papers
- Construction Papers
Post Time:2006-3-17 14:08:00
Abstract: The Bill of Quantities are some developed countries and regions, and the World Bank, the Asian banks and other financial institutions, domestic credit projects in bidding commonly used method of valuation.
With China's accession to WTO, the Project Cost Management
is concerned, the greatest impact will be subject to the price formation system works. From the domestic large regional differences in the state, once incorporated into the world's largest unified market, this change makes the price formation mechanism works in the past faced severe challenges, forcing us to introduce and follow the international practice of project cost management, namely, units from the tender drawings of self-compiled under the Bill of Quantities for tender quotation replaced by units of Quantities (Engineering physical quantity) to tender units offer not only conforms to common international competitive bidding method, but also solved the "The government management and incentive mechanism of market competition" between the two conflicts.
First, the concept of Quantity and composition of
The so-called Bill of Quantities will be contracting preparations for the implementation of all projects and content, based on a unified engineering calculation rules, according to project location, nature and amount of physical engineering and technical measures to unify the number of units of measurement are listed in the list. It is an important part of the tender document.
BOQ be composed of:
(1) job content general information, including engineering calculation rules;
(2) start-up component;
(3) Quantities table;
(4) unforeseen costs, specify the amount and the provisional amount;
(5) The summary sheet;
(6) day work prices.
Second, the use of the meaning of the Bill of Quantities
Bill of Quantities is an international bidding on construction activities, practices, it reflects the individual costs of the project, rather than the social average cost of a fixed pricing. Quantities consumption costs and the costs of measures of physical separation, so that construction enterprises in the tender technical level of competition can be shown separately, you can give full play to their own pricing, the ability of construction enterprises, thereby changing the current quota in the shackles of corporate self-quotation restrictions.
Bill of Quantities is essentially a unit price contract, pricing model, first of all, it reflects the "price-volume separation" of the characteristics of the project there is not much change in the amount of cases, the unit engineering unit volume is not changed. Second, it is conducive to achieving a reasonable sharing of project risks, construction projects are relatively complex and a long construction period, engineering change more, and thus the risk of the construction of relatively large, using the Bill of Quantities, the bidders are reported only to their own unit responsible for the works to change the amount of risk borne by the owners, this pattern consistent with reasonable risk-sharing relationship with Zequan Li general principle of reciprocity. Third, facilitate the management and control of Bidding, using the tender bill of quantities, project volume is open, is a part of the tender documents, pre-tender price control can not only play a breakthrough in engineering estimates, and in the evaluation process is not as The current bidding as important, or even sometimes the preparation of bidding price, so that basically eliminates the Base Price of Bidding accuracy and the negative impact of leakage.
Third, how to prepare BOQ
BOQ preparation of tender documents for bidding should be based on the scope of the chosen conditions of contract, construction drawing design documents and construction site the actual situation.
1, work General Information
General description of work content of the proposed project must have a clear overview of the scope of project bidding.
General Information must be clear job content quality, materials, construction sequence and construction methods of the special requirements of the tender on their own procurement of materials, equipment, name, specification model, the numbers.
General Information must be clear job content to take a unified engineering calculation rules, uniform units of measurement.
Engineering calculation general rules:
(1) project the amount of calculation rules refer to the list of Project asked the amount of the standard calculation method.
(2) process based on the amount of calculation: the tender documents, design drawings. Technical specifications, product samples, terms of the contract, after approval of the construction organization design or technical measures for the program, the industry department in charge of the rules issued by the calculation process.
(3) Unit adopts the following basic unit:
A. by weight of the items - tons or kilograms (t or kg);
B. the project terms of the volume - cubic meters (m3);
C. Area Calculation items R - square meters (m2)
D. in order to calculate the length of the project - m (m);
E. equipment installation projects - sets or sets;
F. calculate natural measure project - parts (one, block, tang, group);
G. there is no specific number of items - items or cases;
H. Professional special units of measurement, by mandating the use of industry sectors.
Engineering calculation, generally based on design drawings of engineering entities, net of considerations, not included in the construction must be increased workload and a variety of wear and tear.
The total work content to be a clear statement of the composition of the unit. Contained in the list based on the general price range of different benefits can be broadly divided into the following three forms: full cost price method; integrated unit method; Quantity unit price method. Most of the list price using the form completely. Unit, also known as full cost of the whole unit, generally consists of the following elements:
A. Artificial and all related costs;
B. materials, goods and all related costs (such as transport, delivery, unloading, storage, return packaging materials, administration, lifting, etc.);
C. Materials and cargo assembly in place;
D. equipment and tools;
E. mechanical royalties;
F. all the cutting and wear and tear;
G. organizing free operating expenses and profit, engineering, insurance, risk funds, taxes, including import duties;
H. Quantity machines price contingencies;
I. levy fees and all government departments under the related costs.
2, start-up project
Start-up projects (also known as measures project) is designed to allow bidders for the proposed project other than the amount of physical works projects have a general understanding. Bidding in the tender documents should provide start-up costs of the constituent elements, and covers the content of the various factors to be explained, to avoid subsequent claims the incident caused. If Quantity price fluctuations, the general contractor to use subcontractors, the scaffolding, providing turnkey projects for water, electricity and temporary toilets and so on. Bidder as much as possible of these factors should be considered comprehensive, quote the amount should be influencing factors, miscellaneous expenses, supervision, risk and other charges taken into account, to avoid the mistakes bidding.
In addition, the total contract price within the cost of the project and construction of measures for start-up fee for the use of lump sum and will not change because of the works to make adjustments, the bidders were listed in the start-up costs of bidding the project can choose to offer, for lack of parts to add.
3, sub-segment of the Bill of Quantities Table
(1) project coding rules
International general civil construction projects coded by two with five digits, said first and second segments, said first-class engineering codes, third, fourth, five second-level list items that the order of coding. Project Name in principle, but now the name to form a project entity.
(2) The project divided according to location, function, materials and process systems division and other factors.
(3) project to major project with minor projects to major projects with a small portfolio of projects get set.
(4) The project features should be described in detail and lists the subproject.
Quantities are based on the number of design drawings as shown in size, according to the net size calculation, the amount does not include any engineering and material losses. Any relevant materials (including the provision accessories) loss expenses, tender preparation and reporting of units shall be priced in the uniform consideration.
BOQ items in the characteristics of note is the core content of BOQ, tender person and the bidder should be attention. Bidding in the preparation of lists, list items should be clearly on the quality, materials, construction sequence and construction methods of the special requirements of the tender on their own procurement of materials, equipment, name, specification model, the number of projects such as characteristics of bidders in the bid, the right to do fully understand the above information, as an experienced contractor should give full consideration to the list of items included in the price range, to prevent the pricing errors. The project features are equally beneficial to project a clear settlement, to avoid the settlement of the dispute when the project division.
Sub-segment of the Project Costs
calculated using an integrated unit. Price refers to the completion of a comprehensive list of the project works in the content of what is happening costs. Integrated unit, including the use of artificial-free materials, free-free machinery management fees. Taxes, profits, should consider the following factors, such as insurance, risk prediction, all kinds of loss, additional project, and net other than the construction according to construction specifications and design requirements the organization must increase the quantity of work, in line with national requirements of the various charges.
4, unforeseen expenses, the tentative amount and specify the amount of
When the "unforeseen expenses", "Provisional Sum" and "specified amount of money," appears in the project list, the projects offer the amount will be fully deducted from the contract. According to the projects carried out in all the works in accordance with the following implementation of the provisions will be added within the contract amount.
(L) on behalf of the owners should have been in the design of the request or the total contract price to include the designated amount and on the use of provisional amount may be given.
(2) The representative requested by the owner, or subsequent to the written approval of all the changes and the general contractor for the design of the request or the provisional amount of the total contract price included all the work done by the measurement and valuation of Quantity Surveyors. When carrying out the measurement work, quantity surveyors should be given to the general contractor and for the presence of notes that might be required, and measurement opportunities. Unless otherwise agreed, the right to change the amount of instructions and list of works included in the preliminary valuation of the amount of work done shall comply with the following provisions:
A. Conditions and the nature of the construction project work items in the list of similar work should be based on the project list prices prevail;
B. When the work is not of a similar nature are above or in the construction of similar conditions, then the price should be within reasonable limits, as far as possible into the price basis of the work, such as the alternative should not apply a fair valuation;
C. When the work can not be properly measured and valued, the general contractor should be allowed to use Daywork unit, unit prices applied in the following order:
a, the total amount of contractors in the engineering completed the list of unit prices;
b, when there is no fill in the price when, places part-time work in the contract price of wages to workers and machinery rental prices, and add 15% (15%) as a general administrative expenses and profit and tax and valuation;
c, when in accordance with paragraph (2) valuation of the work of the special material, the material shall be cost plus packing, transportation and delivery costs and add 15% (15%) as a general administrative expenses and profit and tax and valuation;
d, to give directions on behalf of the owners the cost price of the works sub-contractor or supplier invoice price, and this project should do this at cost price plus 15% (15%) as a general contractor general management fee and profits and taxes.
(3) must in any case is that the construction work will be specified within one week after the working day to spend some time (for example, on behalf of the owners request, including the list of workers), and the materials used in the documents sent to the owners on behalf of the approval and supervision.
(4) reduce the valuation of the project should be based on the list price of Quantities shall prevail, except when the reduction in substance, any remaining work to change the conditions of the project, then this will be the price of projects under this paragraph must be based on (B) provides that the valuation.
5, summary table
Summary table is that bidders have bid on this project the sum of the cost of the Tender Offer Summary of this table should include the following:
(L) start-up costs;
(2) sub-segment of the cost of Quantities;
(3) unforeseen costs, specify the amount and the provisional amount;
(4) The total amount of the tender;
(5) The tender is signed, legal representative signature, company seal.
6, day laborers price
Given the project implementation process, possible temporary or new construction method of valuation of labor and machinery and equipment generally include two kinds of table sets classes.
(1) When labor by the day, work measurement should be based on the bidder of the day, fill out the worksheet in the unit price calculation, that is calculated for each eight-hour working day as a. When the labor in the implementation of the work of less than eight hours of time, will be based on per hour, according to proportion.
Part-time work for the day, prices refer to the work, the actual payment of employee salaries; the actual payment of employee bonuses, bonuses and other allowances; under the recurrent expenditure and profits.
"Recurrent expenditure" is defined to include:
A. General office expenses;
B. site supervision and staff;
C. The People's Republic of China government and statutory bodies, all taxes levied;
D. due to inclement weather caused by the work stoppage losses;
E. when the transport time and expenditure;
F. living allowance;
G. safety, recreation and welfare facilities
H. third-party liability insurance and employers liability insurance;
I. holidays and clinics of the expenditure;
J. tool allowance;
K. use, repair and high-pitched grinding small tools;
L. All non-mechanical operation of the machine, the erection of scaffolding, scaffolding and shelf column, artificial lighting, protection cover, storage facilities and on site commonly used in general similar projects;
M. All other obligations and responsibilities.
(2) When machinery and equipment basis having the day, work measurement should be based on the bidder of the day, fill out the worksheet in the unit price method. That is calculated for each eight-hour working day for a. When the machinery in the implementation and effective use of time, less than eight hours of time. Per hour, calculated in accordance with the ratio will be based on.
Machinery, construction machinery
unit, including depreciation charges, large repairs, often repairs, security and demolition costs and off-site transportation costs, fuel and power costs, drivers and operating costs, Road Maintenance
fees and travel fees, profits and taxes, insurance costs.
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Fourth, the preparation of the principle of Quantities
1, the preparation of BOQ should follow an objective, impartial, scientific and rational principles of
Compilers have a good professional ethics, to stand in an objective and impartial stance on both construction units and construction units in the interests of both, strictly in accordance with design drawings and data, the existing quotas and related documents, as well as countries in developing technical regulations and standards of construction for the preparation, to avoid artificially raise or depress the amount of work to ensure that the objective fairness of the list.
Since the preparation of the physical volume is both a highly technical professional work, it requires compilers have a firmer foundation, extensive knowledge. Not only have strong business knowledge of the budget, and that should have some knowledge of engineering design, construction experience, and wood building materials and equipment, construction machinery, construction technology, an integrated building science knowledge, so as to have a comprehensive understanding of the project to form a whole concept to do the amount of calculation does not re-engineering is not missed.
In the preparation process is sometimes not enough because of the depth of the design drawings or other reasons, the standard of engineering requirements and equipment for shaping timber etc. confessed lack of clarity, it is timely to the design unit reflects the integrated use of building science knowledge to design and make suggestions to supplement the existing quota not the corresponding item. To ensure full compliance with the actual contents of the list, scientific and rational.
2, the amount of the projects one by one, careful to ensure the accuracy of the physical quantity
Amount of calculations is a boring, tedious and time-consuming long task, requiring patience and careful calculation of personnel. Scrupulous about every detail in an effort to reduce errors to a minimum, in the calculation should first be familiar with and read design drawings and explanations of engineering for the fixed location of the project and its engineering division of the amount of calculation rules-based, according to the project site, considering reasonable construction methods and construction machinery, sub-by-step breakdown of the projects to the amount of the fixed purpose of determining the child must be clear. For engineering content and processes meet the quota, according to a fixed project name, for most of the work content and processes meet the quota, only a partial materials are different, while the fixed permit conversion shall be specified, such as the transport distance, intensity level, the thickness of sections, etc.; Fixed missing items to be added to increase the subheadings, should be based on drawings to do to add content to supplement the subheadings should strive to avoid affecting expression of a clear offer.
3, careful to conduct a comprehensive review to ensure that the contents of the list of realistic scientific and rational
List accurate or not, related to the project investment
control. This list is compiled in earnest after the completion of a comprehensive review. Can use the following methods:
(L) review of technical and economic indicators for France.
Will prepare a good set of lists from the engineering cost of the fixed valuation indicators, the main material consumption indicators, the main engineering quantity indicators in the area to conduct a comparative analysis of similar construction. In the review, or to choose with this project has the same or similar structural type, architectural form, decoration standards, layers of previous works, the above comparison of several technical and economic indicators one by one, if differ significantly from the basic right to determine the list of If access to a larger one is certainly there must be, it would be in accordance with drawings in various divisions find out why. With the technical and economic indicators from the macro level to determine whether the list generally accurate.
(2) the use of the relationship between the amount of related projects for review.
Such as: wall decoration wall area = Area - an area of the external walls of windows and doors; interior decoration interior area = area of wall area of 10 × 2 - (outside the doors and windows within a window area of 10 × 2); on the ground floor area of 10 Ground area = ceiling area; flat roof area = construction area even.
(3) Carefully read the building description, structural description and the node from which can be found detailing a number of negligence and omissions of the projects, timely complement. Checklist scale and design of sub-headings for the name is the same expression is explicitly clear whether the errors and omissions item. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com