Papers Category:Engineering Papers
- Communication Science Papers
Post Time:2013/2/18 8:24:00
[Abstract] article in future information warfare environment as a precondition, to the traditional command-and-control network based on the analysis of the future integrated joint operational characteristics, build cross-layer collaborative model of command and control network, and take the network modeling and simulation methods discussed in detail the structure of the network model, survivability.
[Words] network-centric warfare cross-layer collaborative command and control network survivability INTRODUCTION traditional operational thinking to platform-centric preparation was the tree, each platform to rely on its own sensors and weapons, the lack of information sharing between platforms and collaboration capabilities, thereby limiting the overall combat effectiveness of the play.
Network centric warfare by the U.S. Department of Defense  is a new concept of war mode, it is a confrontation between a typical network system combat U.S. forces to use a powerful information network to multiple types of reconnaissance positioning systems, command bodies, weapons and equipment, interconnection, intelligence and information sharing, operational command and control integration [2-3], access to battlefield information dominance, quick to grasp the initiative in the war, to achieve certainty strikes against enemy critical nodes to the shortest possible time, minimize the cost to attack and destroy the enemy's combat system.
Various combat platforms networked system of network-centric war will greatly enhance horizontal linkages between the platform was flattening structure to improve information access and sharing capabilities, enhanced battlefield situational awareness capabilities to accelerate the speed of decision-making and command to achieve work together, and improve their combat effectiveness. since the 1990s, information warfare mode applications in many wars effect has fully demonstrated its strong ability to strike, has been the world recognized as the most advanced combat mode, network-centric warfare is bound to become the main form of future wars.
Network-centric warfare plane model shown in Figure 1:
The entire battle space sensors and weapons and equipment (including land-based, sea-based, air-based, space-based and other basic information network to form a powerful integrated network including sensor networks, command and control network, combat weaponry network. sensor networks to gather information from various sensors, and rapid generation of battlefield awareness, command and control network based on battlefield combat the effect of feedback-aware network provides trend information, as well as weapons of war network dynamically adjust the combat command, to ensure the warring unit simultaneously and dynamic allocation of tasks, and ultimately achieve the goal of real-time precision strike firepower network unit.
Combat system network by the ultra-large-scale sensing, command the warring entities or systems via RF wireless or wired light / cable connected to the formation of the complex network system .  angle topology from graph theory, in the system, sensing, combat and command entity abstract node information / material / energy interaction between these entities can be abstracted as a link side. (1 sensor nodes: access to battlefield information, find, lock and track the target, and the target information to other nodes. (2 command and control nodes: the core of the combat system network.
Conduct a comprehensive analysis of the battlefield environmental information and combat military strength of the two sides form a command decision-making, and then handed over to other nodes perform it to accept the higher level tasks to subordinates to carry out the command decisions, global level coordination, supervision and control of the various warring unit, the goal of the system resources reasonably and scheduling. (3 warring node: hard kill and soft kill weapons.
Warring unit only accepts the command and control of the only command and control nodes. Warring node to be operational synergies with other warring node must pass its command and control nodes connected indirectly to achieve synergy. battlenet network dominated by the command and control network via a wired or wireless communication protocols, linked together by a variety of weapons systems deployed in land, sea, air, space, and jamming equipment.
Under the conditions of information warfare, combat party by the sensor network reconnaissance detect enemy target information, these perceptual information including reflected light, infrared signals, radio spectrum energy, communication or audio energy, and transmission and distribution through information networks, after data fusion , analysis and processed, pass to the command post be utilized to form a battle plan, plan and command, and the implementation of the fire attack.
The main features of the flow of information between the combat system network internal node is as follows: (The beginning of the confrontation of a system, all nodes are controllable.
Sensor nodes and warring nodes must be under the command and control of the control unit, the command and control unit has a superior-subordinate relationship.
(Command and control unit at the same time command and control of multiple sensing units and warring unit command and control relying on the information network system to link directly to the important / critical nodes . Important node is connected node, such as in front of the command post, key node node connectivity, but take on important tasks, such as satellite station. (3 sensing unit for multiple command and control unit to provide sensor information to achieve the goal of information sharing. (Target sensor information shared between 4 sensing unit to reduce its own time to get information to improve the quality of sensor information.
(5 sensing unit detecting, tracking and positioning information perception of one's own warring unit, and the perception that the information is sent to the command and control unit to grasp task completion and destructive information to facilitate command and control unit. (6 warring unit can only perform only the directives issued by the command and control unit to avoid command conflicts.
2 command-and-control network, the main characteristic parameters of the network characteristic parameters are as follows: (1 network nodes, which is defined as the number of all the nodes included in the network, reflects combat war scale.
(2 network edge number is defined as the total number of the edge network, reflect the complexity of the relationship between each unit combat system, however, the number of wired or wireless communications equipment, command and control systems, command and control agencies information processing capacity and equipment and channel transmission capacity is limited, therefore, the number of edges of the network should not be too much when the total number of edges in the network, and the ratio of the total number of nodes exceeds a certain limit, the network may be due to excessive forward or backward feedback loop leading to paralysis. (3 node of degrees.
Defined for this node and the number of links to other nodes in the network of engagement, the degree of a node in a certain extent, reflect the importance of the larger value indicates that the node is the more important is one's own protection The focus is the key targets hit by the enemy. (4 node / network clustering coefficient.
Traditional hierarchy tree in the command and control network between the node does not have a regional collaboration capabilities only through indirect combat organization and coordination, in a beating, not independent network reconstruction node clustering coefficient is defined as the share of the proportion of the number of the most Dalian edge between them may all adjacent nodes with the node between the actual number of connected edges. network clustering coefficient i.e., all nodes in the network of the average of the clustering coefficient. meaning of the clustering coefficient to be fully reflected in two aspects: size reflects the strength of mutual collaboration capabilities between each node in the network need to work together to complete a task node clustering coefficient, network clustering coefficient reflects the self-renewal capacity of the area between the warring unit collaboration capabilities and network communication failure or suffered damage. when some warring unit communication failure or damage, the clustering coefficient higher the warring unit through neighboring node important node links, in order to effectively complete network rebuild.
(5 average path length. I.e. any of the average distance between two nodes in the network between two nodes, the distance is defined as the number of edges in the shortest path between two nodes and the average path length of the network characterization network transmission of information the ability of In general, the path length of the delay time of the transmission of information linear relationship, short path length, high degree of real-time information, a high degree of intelligence and information sharing, organization collaborative timeliness, to obtain better operational effectiveness. therefore , the average path length of the warring networks need to be designed to be as short as possible.
3 command and control network characteristics of network-centric warfare command and control network depends on the military establishment, the rules of war, command structure, operational platforms, weapons of war and equipment performance, and other factors, it is a special complex network system. Integrated joint operations It is a concrete manifestation of the thought of network-centric warfare, two or more branches of the military uniform operations, horizontal linkages have increased in the traditional hierarchy tree vertical command system based on the characteristics of the horizontal link of the combat system, to vertical Unicom, emphasize horizontal Unicom. needed in wartime combat forces quickly stitching overall combat capability of a combat system . armed forces of various countries are generally in the transverse direction to expand the number of command span compression in the vertical chain of command such as the U.S. military command span from 5 to 6 to 9, the Air Force command levels from five down to four in a commanding way, from a centralized / delegate command to a multi-level across, up and down interactive shift control to dynamically control the transition from the planned to the multi-level open distributed decision-making transition from single-stage closed and centralized decision-making. therefore, command and control network in the future have the following main characteristics:
Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com(1 command structure present in the vertical hierarchy.
Command structure from top to bottom with a hierarchical distinction, from top to bottom node graded Conductor The number of levels is a distinction between the level of the upper and lower levels in the command structure, the the collaborative trend information is not required by the different levels of command and control nodes the same command and control nodes with the hierarchical level of increase, the need of more comprehensive trend information.
(2 the warring unit in horizontal a synergistic relationship in the same combat within the Group, the same level of engagement between the units synergies between different combat groups, collaborative relationship between them the same level of engagement unit. (3 cross-level command.
Superior command and control unit in the same combat within the Group, its internal command unit cross-level command the cross level command important / critical node leapfrog command. Conductor span command structure in the same each layer of the level of command and jurisdiction of the number of units. conductor span when the total number of network nodes is fixed, the smaller, the less command levels, more means horizontal command unit, so the higher command and control nodes requirements node has stronger information processing capabilities, robust transmission of information needs to be stronger anti-jamming technology support. addition, once certain node suffered a blow to the affected nodes will be more, so the need to strengthen the hidden camouflage protection measures. (The 4 command decision-making time overhead is severely restricted.
Coordinated operations nested within each other "observation → evaluate → decision → action → observation" cycle, each cycle must be completed within a specified time window. Ever-changing battlefield environment, command decision-making agencies, according to the command and decision-making bodies in the analysis of the master battlefield intelligence information, may have lost intelligence information reflected in the battlefield situation part of authenticity and even complete failure, and new battlefield environment information continuously generated from the utility. The two sides of a combat posture timely adjustments to combat operations, quick decision-making, shorten target discovery → command decisions → targets "cycle.
4 command and control network survivability operational command and control network is an important part of the combat system against the main targets for destruction by the system under conditions of informatization system Attacking mainly take precision strike and destroy the enemy's combat system network to realize Susheng target.
4.1 command-and-control network reliability reliability metric definition of reliability indicators operational command system confrontation, when the command and control mechanism by the enemy to attack, destroy, interference, suppression, can continue to command and to complete the task. Operational command system reliability study of the structure of the command, with its emphasis analysis command and architecture node damage, and was under the command of the destruction stability of information transmission path between the nodes, delete network node or link side, the overall network connectivity performance, that is, the network of anti survivability analysis.
Combined result of the analysis from the angle of the command and control of the network topology, the command and control network in the attack after the network reliability depends on three factors: the largest connected component of the number of nodes in the network, the number of connected components in the network and the average path length. connected components defined as no great connected subgraph the number of nodes in the largest connected component in the network the more network hit better connectivity and overall combat performance more fully play the largest connected component in the initial state of the entire network, all the command and control nodes are connected, the smaller the average path of each connected component, higher transmission timeliness of information flow in the connected component, performance of command and control information to play the better, the more the number of nodes of each of the communicating components, the connected component is less in the case of a certain total number of nodes, the smaller the degree of breakage of the network, the higher the network reliability.
The command and control network reliability evaluation index is defined as:
Where, nmax is the number of nodes in the largest connected component in the network, m the number of connected components of the entire network, nj is the number of nodes in the connected component of the j-th, lj average path length of the j-th connected component The isolated node shortest path length is set to infinity.
4.2 cross-layer collaborative command and control network survivability analysis with the development and application of precision-guided long-range attack weapons, in order to achieve the desired operational effect, a precision strike on some important key target only one of the reconnaissance capability to detect and the other hidden camouflage protection capability, the two decisive factors affecting precision strike effect if one of the reconnaissance detection capability is an advantage, then combat becomes certainty blow, if the other party to hide camouflage protection capability advantage, then the battle on become randomness attacks. The random, and uncertainties attack mode simulation process is shown in Figure 2.
Structure of operational command and control network survivability analysis, reliability analysis of network topology, the article does not involve itself in the side of the node and link reliability, assuming the same transmission speed of information processing for each node and link side, each command the command node between the reliability embodied in the path length between network connectivity and node.
Multi-level cross-layer collaborative needs more wired or wireless information transmission path, but the average path length of the network is very small, a good real-time command and control information transmission When the war the total number of network nodes is fixed, the information in the command and control nodes the permit conditions of the factors such as the processing capability and information transmission capacity should be possible to increase the command of the span of the network, reducing network command level, thereby improving the timeliness of the command of the command and control network. contrast, directing span the smaller, more command level operational command information interaction timeliness worse, is likely to miss the best fighters. Cross-layer collaborative command and control the network invulnerability performance simulation parameters set as shown in Table 1. Random / deterministic attack mode under the five cross-layer collaborative network reliability as shown in Figure 3. 8 under random / deterministic attack mode cross-layer collaborative network reliability is shown in Figure 4.
Analysis from the simulation results, the preliminary draw the following conclusions:
(1 for the multi-level cross-layer collaborative command and control networks, high-performance network span, less hierarchical, the same operations within the Group close connections to different combat groups connected less.
(2 certainty the effect of the attack is stronger than the random attack effect, this conclusion means plays an important position in the information warfare attacks the former target detection accuracy and reconnaissance the one hand, accurate, real-time intelligence information to attack enemy / key node key, thereby destroying enemy combat system network, on the other hand, the need for one's own important / critical node to take hidden camouflage protective measures, focus on strengthening the protection.
5 Conclusion In the future information warfare, the need to improve the means of surveillance and counter-surveillance, attack enemy important / critical node, while defending their own important / critical node from the weapons and equipment research and development point of view, the need to improve the performance of weaponry attack, while improving the battlefield environment surveillance and counter-surveillance capabilities of the weapons and equipment, enhance target detection and information processing technology, new methods of research.
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