The M2M Mobile Communications Network Architecture Research

[Abstract] article M2M business features and MTC communication network architecture are discussed. Detailed analysis of the M2M business and the impact of the current network architecture, and to draw ISO M2M network architecture, and on this basis in accordance with the present stage network status and the M2M business requirements proposed network architecture for 3G network stage.

[Keywords] dedicated network elements of the the M2M network architecture the PCRF core network 1 Introduction barter communication (as M2M, smart phone, PDA and Machine to Machine is a process involving one or more entities with no human intervention, data communication, also known as machine type communication (MTC , Machine-Type Communication. With the rapid development of the M2M business, MTC based on mobile communication network is increasingly becoming a major mobile communication, but the traditional mobile communication network, after all, is for everyone Communications (H2H, Hu-man to human business designed to adapt to the business needs of H2H, but can not meet the business needs of M2M. Specifically, at MTC and everyone different communication include the following [1]:
(1 MTC communication scene scene than H2H communication of rich and differences can be broadly grouped according to the division of features for location-aware and sharing environmental information perception, remote control and execution, data collection publishing, video surveillance, The near-field communication. differentiation of these applications on the one hand the performance of functional diversity, on the other hand is also reflected in the application characteristics, and on the demand for network differentiation.

(2 main data communication, including the small flow of packets, and video streaming.
(3 requirements MTC communication costs than H2H lower. M2M business after H2H business development, minimize cost is an important consideration of the M2M business survival. Different applications because of their different importance of different communication requirements communication, requires a combination of events, the possibility and the need to pay costs to consider cost minimization.

(4M2M huge number of terminals, the need for more flexible and have a strategy terminal management. Potential mass M2M terminal access communication network, and M2M terminals either from the transmission characteristics, QoS requirements, and the mobility of, or from the distribution density of the terminal, different H2H terminal.

(5 mainly to the small amount of data transmission.
If you continue to use the traditional mobile communication system to MTC communication, efficiency, cost and applicability of the system are not optimal. Therefore, to consider the the M2M business features while reducing H2H business, in order to design MTC dedicated communication system is an important issue in the context of the current communication continuous development of material objects.

2 M2M business characteristics of the design of the network architecture, network hosted business as the starting point [2] In other words, the the M2M network architecture design need to fully analyze the characteristics and needs of the M2M business, combined with the amount of the terminal upper and lower rows of data, frequency degrees, QoS requirements and other aspects of the business characteristics, the application of the Internet of Things is divided into the following five categories. Among them, the analysis of the needs and characteristics of the various types of applications, including mobility, group communication, authentication, and periodic scheduled processing, large differences between different scenes.

(1 monitor alarm class: the sensor local monitoring data, not match the expected data change occurs through the network to notify the application layer alarm.

The average data transfer rate: low, only a small amount of uplink data traffic sent certain trigger conditions.
The peak data transfer rate: The big difference between the different scenes, the application needs to determine the transmission of data content.
QoS requirements: there is a big difference between the different scenarios and application requirements, as well as the meaning of the current data represent.

Data security requirements: the big difference between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Reliable data transfer requirements: large differences between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Data persistence: low, a short or shorter duration of data transmission is only exist in the event of a preset event.
Interact with people: low, usually handled automatically by the system according to the preset approach.
Connectivity needs: the need for monitoring to prevent the destruction of connectivity or invalid.
Terminal mobility: downstream traffic demand, mobility needs.
Example: a blood transfusion car blood environment monitoring, manhole covers monitoring, mobile asset tracking.
(Upstream traffic data collection class average data transfer rate: in a large amount of data, continuous data reporting or periodic data reporting, downstream flow: low, is used to modify the escalation rules.

The peak data transfer rate: The big difference between the different scenes, the application needs to determine the transmission of data content.
QoS requirements: there is a big difference between the different scenarios and application requirements, as well as the meaning of the current data represent.

Data security requirements: the big difference between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Reliable data transfer requirements: large differences between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Data persistence: depends on the data transmission interval and transmission choices. [Paper mesh]
Interact with people: low, usually handled automatically by the system according to the preset approach.
Connectivity needs: the need for monitoring to prevent the destruction of connectivity or invalid.
Terminal mobility: due occasionally downlink data, so it is necessary to optimize the mobility management.
For example: monitoring of meteorological information, the scene of the fire data collection, the collection of traffic information.
Upstream traffic (3 the push class average data transfer rate: usually low, mainly used for filtering or input required to provide application conditions (such as location information, downlink traffic: usually larger, mainly for passing information (such as push advertising, video media, continued, based on the conditions of interaction outside or periodic data push.

The peak data transfer rate: spike data characteristics, under match conditions trigger.
QoS requirements: there is a big difference between the different scenarios and application requirements, as well as the meaning of the current data represent.

Data security requirements: the big difference between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Reliable data transfer requirements: large differences between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
The data persistence: usually has a longer persistence.
Interact with people: high, usually user feedback, the system based on feedback push information to adjust.
Connectivity needs: a strong need to maintain a network connection in order to carry out the correct transmission of data.
Terminal mobility: polarization. Part of the terminal has a strong mobility and part of the terminal is typically not mobile.

Example: intelligent Museum.
(4 video monitoring class the average data transfer rate of upstream traffic: H, mainly used for the delivery monitoring of multimedia data, downlink traffic: low, and is mainly used for transmission control and adjustment commands.

The peak data transfer rate: no significant peak data characteristics, data transmission usually maintain a relatively stable transmission rate.

QoS requirements: the big difference between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Data security requirements: the big difference between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Reliable data transfer requirements: at different times have different requirements as in normal circumstances requires moderate, but you need high reliability of delivery in the event of certain pre-event.

The data persistence: usually has a long persistence.
Interact with people: low, users occasionally would intervene in the process of video surveillance.
Connectivity needs: a strong need to maintain a network connection in order to carry out the correct transmission of data.
Terminal mobility: polarization. Part of the terminal has a strong mobility and part of the terminal is typically not mobile.

Examples: home security video surveillance.
(5 remote control actuator class average data transfer rate of upstream traffic: usually low, mainly required for application filtering or input conditions (such as preset events downstream traffic: Depending on the complexity of the control object and control command level.

Peak data transfer rate: typically have a significant peak data characteristics.
QoS requirements: the big difference between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Data security requirements: the big difference between the different scenarios, and application requirements.
Reliable data transfer requirements: demanding, whether involved in the control process normally achieve.
The data persistence: usually has a long persistence.
Interact with people: high, usually reflect the specific operating instructions.
Connectivity needs: a strong need to maintain a network connection in order to carry out the correct transmission of data.
Terminal mobility: polarization. Part of the terminal has a strong mobility and part of the terminal is typically not mobile.

Example: industrial automation.
3 M2M business impact of the current network architecture from the existing network architecture, M2M business can be divided into two categories: A class is the existing network can not meet the need for network optimization business, this type of business need to avoid overload control function network overload, as well as to provide differentiated services for customers' business needs, class B is for existing networks affect small business, type of business is less demanding timeliness MTC business, and these businesses and mobile network business similar demand from the whole, most of the M2M business is a Class A business, the following analysis is a Class A business impact of the current network architecture [3].

The M2M business diversity, difference, multiple network access methods, M2M terminals massive difference, as well as the the M2M business performance of traditional telecommunications business does not have a variety of characteristics of the current network structure and network The metadevice direct consequence of the core network elements of the existing network and the as HLR / PCRF / GGSN ability to not meet the M2M business signaling, traffic impact and business control needs, mainly reflected in the following aspects :
(1 due to the particularity of the IOT business, may produce instantaneous large amount of signaling, key signaling interested wireless network control device (STP / HLR / PCRF impact lead to paralysis of the whole network. Thus, on the one hand, to a large scale control equipment capacity or equipment to improve the related signaling the signaling processing power, on the other hand need to be differentiated sub-priority access control and key signaling control and processing equipment to have certain equipment overload protection mechanism overload as well as the high disaster recovery, high flow control capability to avoid critical network elements, in order to effectively improve the reliability of the entire network.

(2 due to the special nature of the Internet of Things business, the diversity of access methods, involving industry and user and device diversity, mass, corresponding enhanced user data management HLR NE, including its database scalability contract information, as well as the device serial number and flexibility, in addition to the standard user, device driver information, location information and quota information operators, M2M customers private field, support for multiple access types can by different access types (2G/3G/LTE access network devices to authenticate the user identification and addressing flexible and dynamic support, support more than one card or multiple cards, 1 to support the basic state of the terminal equipment query issued terminal "wake up" request, found that the device is stolen through the network side can immediately locked.

(3 due to the special nature of the business of things, and diversity, group sex, so it is necessary to distinguish the business, including business segment classification, QoS classification, user grouping, grouping of devices, traffic management, and business management, according to busy leisure, location and other characteristics take the access and transmission of different treatment strategies, etc. In addition, the existing network PCC architecture the superposition of Things policy control, because of its particularity, PCRF (Policy and Charging Rules Function, strategy and policy control, charging rules function when first determine the individual users of Things User the instantaneous explosive Internet of Things data will affect the existing network PCC architecture, it is necessary to set up a dedicated Internet of Things M2M PCRF.

In short, the need for relevant network elements to enhance and upgrade ability, can transform the existing NE superimposed on existing H2H network dedicated M2M network elements can be set up to resolve the problems.

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4 M2M network architecture ISO ISO ITU, ETSI and 3GPP from different angles proposed the M2M network architecture [4].
According to the ITU-T definition of Things architecture can be divided into three levels: perception layer, network layer and application layer as shown in Figure 1, the architecture industry basically reached consensus, but its architecture concept too abstract belong The model also need to refine the process of transforming technology.

Based on ITU-T Internet of Things architecture, ETSI top M2M applications architecture one can be seen as a logical model [5], as shown in Figure 2, ETSI M2M architecture is divided into M2M devices and gateways two large domains of M2M network. M2M devices including M2M devices, M2M gateways and M2M LAN and gateway domain can be implemented based on existing standards of all kinds, including WAN and M2M applications M2M network domain system.

Compared to the conceptual model of the ITU, ETSI logic model focuses on M2M service capability layer, definition of service capabilities and interfaces to the shielded network details M2M applications, M2M service capabilities and network among each other call can be for reference in the research platform and gateway device functionality and interface.

Architecture based on the ETSI, 3GPP also proposed a support MTC application communication architecture shown in Figure 3, relates to the entity comprising the MTC terminal bearer network, MTC server and MTC application wherein, MTC server is MTC business management platform, the MTC application is responsible for the business logic to achieve hosting M2M communication mobile networks including GPRS, the EPC and a short message and IMS network.

3GPP MTC communication architecture focuses on the the M2M network layer, defined M2M network communication functions and interfaces of the network elements, and its application to the study MTC business management platform and M2M core network functionality and interface reference when.

Although the above standards organizations have raised the the M2M network architecture, but has its limitations. ITU and ETSI architecture overly framework for the actual deployment of the network is not good, 3GPP Network Element feature enhancements to some research, but because of the H2H network deployed mostly in the R7 or R8 version, the the MTC network system is carried out in the network on the basis of the R10 above. therefore, in accordance with the standards in the existing network to deploy the MTC network also for early, you need to study a network architecture that has both the feasibility of investment in the existing network infrastructure and deployment, but also to meet the needs of this stage MTC business applications.

5 3G network stage the M2M network architecture in existing 3G network stage, to resolve the problem of the development of M2M business facing network operators and network resources, operators can physically isolated network to a separate host machine communications business at an early stage can isolation business network through dedicated core network elements, in the latter part of the evolution of isolation can also be extended to the dedicated access network access business of things. addition, the Internet of Things platform is also essential solutions of Things fewer component. matter networking management platform with the matter networking independent network element tie, in the early stages of the Internet of Things business development of major realization matter networking independent code No. centralized management and substance networking business effective control and other functions. With the development of the Internet of Things, platform functionality will gradually support more control of resources and business processes, and open up more resources and the ability, based on location, time period, access type QoS control and billing can be based on the characteristics of the M2M business strategy can also be based on the properties and behavior of the user packet, the implementation of group-based traffic statistics, event distribution and policy enforcement, which reflects the realization the functionality of PCRF/SPR/M2MSP core network. sum up, In the development stage of 3G, M2M network architecture of the characteristics embodied in the following four aspects:
(1 Wi-Fi, 2G, 3G, wireless sensor networks and other wireless access side integration to achieve the wide coverage of mobile communication network of industry applications, building industry M2M mobile network.

(2 M2M dedicated to build on the core side HLR, GGSN, SMSC, NE, centralized operation and maintenance and management of the M2M business of things, and can be achieved with existing network isolation, is conducive to the security of the network, stability, expansion and upgrade.

(3 deploy M2M core network dedicated PCRF policy control network, take advantage of the the M2M business of business characteristics and user attributes, fine support of the efficient use of network resources and business services.

(4 structures in the core network the M2M business support platform to achieve unified management of the business and terminal.
In the early stages of the business development of the Internet of Things, considering the demand for the Internet of Things network communication, minimum costs isolation: only the new key node of the core network, network support isolation of Things platform for business systems require a separate building, service bearer isolation , for the access network, the public, without considering separate construction shown in Figure 4, is a the current online superimposed dedicated M2M core network architecture with existing networks in this embodiment, the shared wireless and SGSN, New IOT dedicated GGSN / DPI, APN routing to the Internet of Things data routing GGSN processing of Things data, new Internet of Things dedicated the PCRF + SPR flow of the business of things, security, QoS control, dedicated New Internet of Things The HLR physical networking equipment contract information, identity and security management.

The 3G stage M2M network architecture is shown in Figure 5.

Among them, the major network element functions as follows:

HLR: the existing network HLR supports H2H HLR support capabilities and M2M support or different. HLR also have their own special needs, including: the need to support the group signed data capacity, support terminal monitor (as position monitoring, IMEI monitoring capabilities, access control, support for a period of time to support the expansion of ID to MSISDN, IMSI mapping capabilities to support the terminal characteristics (such as low-end priority, whether the PS only, such as for SGSN control UE contract behavior, HLR to support multi-profile signing, lower terminal roaming charges, to support more than one card at multi-card M2M business.

GGSN: Extended GGSN needs enhanced support group traffic statistics, billing information flow-based QoS policy enforcement and group-based event reporting.

The short message service center: In addition to the functions of the existing short messages, short message needs to support the completion of the functionality of the device trigger support Message listserv One more card M2M business.

PCRF: support group policy data dynamically issued, update, and delete support group user traffic monitoring.
SCP: Complete billing the M2M business emergency call voice call, a voice call, then single.
The OCS: real-time credit control, pre-paid to use the real-time billing data services and value-added business.
The M2MSP business platform: the M2M terminals M2M platform for the Group's customers to provide unified management, terminal equipment Authentication. Provides data routing, monitoring, user authentication and management functions, carrying information reporting, configuration parameters, the detection of the state of the terminal, terminal registration and other business functions SMS uplink and downlink channels to support more than one card, and One multi-card M2M business, dynamic management of the number in the actual deployment of Things business support management platform is divided according to the function as the headquarters of the platform, Province platform two levels.

6 Conclusion M2M business diversity, differentiation and M2M business performance from traditional telecommunications business does not have a variety of characteristics, the existing network architecture and network element equipment had a significant impact research M2M business characteristics and its network architecture based on the impact on the existing network and ISO deployment is feasible on the existing mobile communication network to meet the MTC business application needs of network architecture, but also to a certain extent.

The foundation and development of mobile communications carriers developing M2M business is consistent, dedicated M2M network architecture, network resources must be long-term planning, according to the business development of network optimization and data distribution, to strengthen the platform construction, improve the network coverage and increase network capacity fundamentally to meet the M2M business requirements, without affecting the current communication services for all, improve the user experience.

References:

[1] Jia Shen, Liu Siyang optimized for mobile M2M business technology research [J]., Modern telecommunications technology, 2011 (10: 37-44.

[2] Jia Shen, Liu Siyang. The of M2M mobile communications system optimization technology research [J]. Telecommunications network technology, 2011 (9: 39-46.

[3] Sunqi Bo, Liu Jie, Li Shan, Internet of things: concept, architecture and key technologies Research [J] Journal of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 2010 (3: 1-9.

[4] Zhu Jin Wen, Wang Yi, the overall architecture of the Internet of things from the angle of telecom operators and development [J]. Telecommunications Science, 2010 (4: 1-5.

[5] Shen Su Bin of Things technology architecture [J]. ZTE Technology, 2011 (1: 8-10.

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