Psychological Barriers and training of race athletes

Abstract This article from the theoretical analysis, the use of the knowledge of sports psychology, and a brief analysis of the psychological barriers in sports competition reasons. Psychological training methods and means to overcome the psychological barriers, with some guidance to improve the level of competition role.

Keywords psychological disorders psychological training contest

1 Introduction

Athletic competition is a competition in a specific environment, which is characterized by the task, the opponent, the environment, and methods. Mental training with physical exercise relevant, and the associated side, but its nature, its specificity on psychological point of view, due to the enhancement of external stimuli, a result of strong psychological pressure, and manifested by athletes behavior, such as fear, too nervous psychological contest motivation is not correct, the purpose is not clear, lack of confidence, and even withdrawn or irritable phenomenon., regulation and control of mental activity, to overcome the psychological barriers to the implementation of psychological training to become a majority of the physical education teachers and coaches must be concerned about the problem and must be addressed.

The 2 athletic contest psychological barriers

2.1 Motivation disorder

Motivation obstacles other motive other than the state in the most appropriate level of motivation. Too high motivation level will cause excessive excitability of the body, so that the students and athletes distracted emotionally unstable, difficult to control the action, resulting in a decline in the quality of movement and other adverse reactions. motivation level is too low, and performance can not fully mobilize the initiative, enthusiasm, resulting in functional potential lack of mental energy is not the full mobilization, resulting in reduced levels of sports personality characteristics appropriate motivation "level with the sports and athletes many variables, is generally believed that the speed and strength, and simple action sports, need strong motivation level, more complex, fine motor based sports, you need to lower the level of motivation .

2.2 emotional disorders

Analyze the psychological reasons for the decline caused by the student or athlete competition results, the most common and most important is too much tension and anxiety. General, moderate tension helps stimulate initiative and enthusiasm of the students and athletes, but if the success social consequences, the mood of the audience, the victory or defeat of the significance of the game, and the level of competition opponent correctly treat or estimation error will have a strong tension or anxiety, it will affect the actions of technical and psychological development of their potential, so that the decline in athletic performance emotional disorder caused by tension and anxiety, generally in the high degree of emotional response before waiting for the advent of the stress stimulus race due to the release of mental energy toward a favorable direction, negative emotions eased after the game's emotional state and the results of the competition, and if the result is bad, the next game, the tension and anxiety will rise.

2.3 psychological saturation obstacles

Psychological saturation of the students and athletes are important factors that affect the athletic ability to play in the contest, the students and athletes sometimes be a long period of sustained efforts, to pay a great deal of mental energy, requires a high degree of focus on flexible thinking reaction, fine the perception of keen observation, when the athletic contest lasted fatigue state can not be alleviated, will produce psychological saturation escape race and tired of sports such a state of mind on the athletic ability to play impact impedance athletic ability to play a huge reaction force and undermine the motivation of sports training and competition.

2.4 activation barrier

In high morale, confidence, clear-headed, focused benign psychological activation state before the students and athletes at Pro full to mobilize physiological function potential competition, to adapt to the game environment, to play a skill level, remove all obstacles and achieved excellent the premise of the achievements. before overtraining physiological fatigue, lack of mental preparation, motivation is too high or too low, too much pressure on the environment factors cause activation barriers. When activated insufficient, students and athletes often exhibit indifference slack, depression, inability to concentrate, disgust and emotional characteristics, activation excessive manifested as stress, anxiety, confusion, excitement and emotional characteristics. activation or activation the excessive would interfere with the competitive level of play.

2.5 attack barriers

The attack is psychological characteristics and behavior of athletes in competition. Athletes when the contest opponents a target of attack and is in full hard and aggressive impulses state of athletes aggressive behavior by the constraints of the specific competition rules, if the want to achieve the purpose of the contest without reach, they tend to take too big attacks to vent their discontent, leaving the situation in their favor if this offensive underserved vent and release, they will desire to attack brought to contest, then the spearhead of the attack may point to themselves, fellow players, coaches, referees, spectators or venues and equipment this abnormal psychological barriers for both students and athletes to participate in the contest, or training for the future, life is very unfavorable.

3 psychological training to overcome the psychological barriers

3.1 to restore physical and mental, psychological training

3.1.1 divert attention training

Contests before and after the physical and mental recovery measures differ, the former have to use sports psychology, the latter only to ensure rest, sleep and nutrition can students and athletes in a tense dramatic contest period, if you eat well, sleep, physical strength is not only not restored, it will start to consume in advance, especially the the psychological energy consumption greater. in order to make the student and athlete's physical and mental rest, so that students and athletes to participate in the contest before some lighthearted Civic activities, eliminate the approaching contest early bad mood, team managers and coaches can consciously with students and athletes pleasant conversation or arrange for them a short break, met with relatives and friends, the transfer of the center of attention of tension.

3.1.2, muscle and nerve relaxation training

Muscle and nerve relaxation training is the best way to make students and athletes to quickly enter the "nap" state special psychological training methods students and the the athletes sit-down interest rate adjustment qi, in turn scratch to the chest, shoulder, arm, hand, abdominal, back, waist, and finally to the buttocks, legs, feet do relax action, slow breathing, and gradually enter the "nap" state so that not only can reduce the energy consumption of the body, but also through the regulation of muscle relaxation, ideas, reduce the psychological energy consumption from a variety of distractions to get out.

3.1.3 improve sleep quality

Improve sleep quality of the restoration of the importance of physical and mental means can be used psychological recovery, that is, to take the prone position to relax and regulation of breathing, combined with personal sleeping habits, appropriate changes to individual action, so that students and athletes by passive natural sleep change self-control active sleep, improve sleep quality, shorter time to fall asleep.

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3.2 recalls the psychological training of the technical movements

Motor skills to master the process, not only the training process of the musculoskeletal actions, but also the intelligence of the training process some skills action can not be formed, more often than not for reasons of their own muscle movement, but the low intelligence level of the brain, the lack of the necessary sports psychology qualities, such as a lack of positive thinking, agile memory and stable emotional state psychological training in order to improve the level of intelligence of the students and athletes to enhance motion perception, representation and thinking role in the formation of motor skills can be recalled technical movements method, which is chanted training or Imagery Training Its main characteristic is: memories of the technical movements, to form a clear movement representation and concept, deepen understanding and mastery of key technical movements, so as to achieve the purpose of improving motor skills. kinds of training methods is generally carried out before and after the technical training, also technical training gap. specific approach: sit down, close your eyes, muscles and nerves to relax psychological training system recalls learning the technical movements aimed master action essentials, to form a correct perception of muscle, and to promote the formation of dynamic stereotype. need to evoke memories of the corresponding muscles, joints excitement activities to strengthen the dynamic stereotype.

3.3 psychological training to eliminate tension

3.3.1 contest

Continue to participate in the contest and get real-world experience, the tension of the students and athletes can constantly adapt gradually reduced, and finally reached a normal state, however, the game should have planned and targeted, focusing on help athletes by race control their emotions, mental training purposes to eliminate the tension.

3.3.2 The use of simulated game eliminate tension

The simulation game is practice competitions, teachers or coaches have conscious control some movement conditions caused student and athlete's mood changes, and in this process, to increase their experience to improve the ability to adapt to the game and try to regulate their emotions, to master self means of regulation, the use of the official race.

3.3.3 Competition tension Transfer Training

The transfer of tension to temporarily leave the overly tight contest, induced them to think of some pleasant things, until the mood stabilized, so the attention back to the scene of the contest is to get the attention of the students or athletes training methods in intense sports training and competition site, take advantage of the gap before the race to take the language implied no direct relationship with the current athletic contest induce students or athletes to turn our attention to things or complete action up specific means to be determined according to the characteristics and causes of nervous students or athletes as coaches and players talk, replacement players to end a break, to convey some of the on-site information, reducing the requirements of the competition results, take a look at books, newspapers, or listen to music. short, due to different specific flexible means to transfer tension. kind of psychological training methods and means, must be consistently among the usual psychological training, student or athlete has both the experience of tension have the ability to self-control tension.

3.3.4 emotional contrast psychological training

Emotional contrast training method to be students or athletes memories of a tight contest scene, very difficult, complex and dangerous action to cause negative tension, this tension reaches a certain intensity, and then recalled the contest was repeated joy after the win scenarios, with positive emotions counteract negative emotions as well as relaxation exercises focus to relax parts of language implied. means with the practice for this kind of psychological training methods with more than three kinds eliminate must be the tension compared: require students or athletes learn to induce negative emotions, learn to relax and eliminate tension to be induced, learn to mobilize inner willpower. after repeated contrast training, in order to gradually mastered this ways, and can receive better results.

3.4 psychological training enhanced competition confidence

Through specific analysis 3.4.1 pep rally, the students or athletes recognize the significance and favorable conditions of the contest, in order to establish confidence. Requirements talker authoritative, the talk content has targeted arguments sufficient to meet the actual order to play stimulating this kind of psychological training means more convenient, and can be used collectively or individually.

3.4.2 combined before the tests, confidence training

Before the analysis of the test, you can change the expectations are too high or a lack of confidence in the non-benign state of mind. This approach allows students or athletes to accurately understand the actual technical level and their own advantage, correctly estimated their own strength, provide a reliable basis to establish a firm confidence and on this basis, certain aspects of the supplementary training, psychological well adjusted to make their own realistic estimate of the game, the game plan program is built on the reliable based on the strength Using this method, the test items should be targeted to specific analysis of different objects, the tests should have certain specifications in the form.

3.4.3 confidence-boosting self-training

This is a method by means of its own internal power to inspire confidence, amendment or rebuild their image in the training. Practice: students or athletes in a natural state of relaxation, induced them to recall the best in the restoration of physical and mental strength on the basis of race scenario memories of their own movement history of the growth, the purpose of the new understanding in the memories of favorable factors, identify their own potential advantages, temporarily lost repressed inner strength shone forth, to improve competition desire, enhance competition confidence .

1 Li Jianguo, LIU Shen years, Xu Shangxia,. Sports psychology. Shaanxi People's Education Press, 1986
2 sports psychology textbook writing group. Sports Psychology. Higher Education Press, 1994

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