Western scholars translation process of empirical research methods

Translator brain what happened? This problem has been attracting the curiosity of researchers translations. Translator brain cognitive mental processes can not be directly observed, therefore, be regarded as translation studies 'black box.' Until introspective empirical research methods have been applied to the process of translation, the translator thought process triggered on circumstantial evidence, the problem began to gradually obtain a valid answer. Evidence introduced in translation studies is the subject of translation in the development process a real milestone, its biggest contribution is to enable researchers to those constraints affect the process of translation, translation products and translation functions interrelationships between factors as possible, and may enhance the The results of the predictive capability; empirical research stems from the potential value of the intrinsic characteristics of the two experiments: the variable relative controllability and high replication rate [1] 221-222. Empirical studies will perform the translation process translation tasks translator mind or cognitive thinking process occurring mental process as the research object, help translate science 'out of over-reliance on perceptions and experiences of induction combing with practical point of paradigm '[2]. After nearly 30 years of development, the translation process empirical study of translation studies has become a cutting-edge research. 'Methodology of Translation Studies Translation Studies is the basic theory of the entire discipline an important part of the construction.' [3]
This article will Western academia translation process of empirical research methodology to be systematically summarize, the main focus of discussion within the provincial law, supplemented by other means multivariate data validation.
I. Overview of introspection
Introspective method, also known as self-observation, is the psychology of the basic research methods. Introspection were asked to pay attention to their inner mental activity, and the report came out in the form of words, and then analyze report data, draw conclusions psychology. 19th century,
Psychology developed into an independent experimental science. Construct psychology (structural psychology) is seen in Europe and the first psychology school, the object of study of psychology as direct experience, so introspection will become the basic methods of psychological research.
Construct psychology Wilhelm Wundt representatives (Wilhelm
Wundt) will introspection and experimental Combination, creating a psychology experiment introspective method (method of experimental
introspection). The method to be tested is placed under controlled conditions, to facilitate measurement and repeat the experiment, from the psychological research has opened up new avenues for the development of experimental psychology foundation [4]. But then the behavioral psychology research school of psychology is positioned as behavioral science, negating the right of conscious experience, and advocated the use of stimulus - response method, refuse derived from behavioral data concerning the conclusion of the thought process [5], so completely negates the introspective method in psychological research effectiveness. Until the 20th century, 50
Late, with the rise of cognitive psychology, consciousness once again the attention of researchers, introspection again being taken seriously, and get a new expansion.
Translation process research key question is impossible to directly observe the brain's cognitive thinking Translator state, but to seek indirect ways to explore the translator of the 'black box' of what happened, the main method currently used is introspective method [6]. Introspection mainly from the theoretical framework of the relevant discourse Ericsson and Simon [7-8]. Specific to the process of translation studies, the use of introspection can be divided into sync with sound thinking method (concurrent think-aloud protocol), backtracking Reporting Act (retrospective report), follow-up interviews (follow-up interview), dialogue Reporting Act (dialogue
protocol) and other four forms.
Second, think-aloud method
In the process of translation studies, to synchronize with sound thinking method most widely used, because 'in the implementation of longer duration task, only when the report on the thinking of the subjects to be able to fully reflect the psychological state' [9]. Generally speaking, we usually say think-aloud method that is synchronized with sound thinking method. Although there have been nearly 30 years of research history, but scholars have been conducted on the use of sound thinking process of translation studies questioned the existence of the practice can be attributed to the following two main areas:
(A) whether the true picture with sound thinking process of translation the translator state of mind? The process of translation the translator minds are thinking, the extent to which the report by think-aloud out? Experimental data obtained with sound thinking and Translator actual mental state of mind has a kind of relationship?
Behaviorist psychologists believe that there can only be counted as one kind of sound thinking France speculative introspective approach, the resulting data can not directly reflect the thinking process, and the analysis of data with sound mind has a strong subjective interpretive, not objective enough [10]. Therefore, they completely deny the think-aloud method as the psychological research method is reasonable. Contemporary scholars have sound thinking is taking a more tolerant attitude, in full recognition of its limitations and shortcomings at the same time that there is sound thinking method can provide information about the human thinking process rich data. Nonetheless, there are sound psychological thinking whether the report can reflect the thought process of questioning has been outstanding. J   skel  inen that the answer to this question lies in the definition of mental process, if the process is defined as the mental nerve activity, then any form of oral reports do not reflect this process [11]. According to Ericsson and Simon proposed theoretical framework, the psychological process of thinking is deemed to information processing. Information is stored in several different capacities and characteristics of the memory access: sensory memory, working memory (also known as short-term memory), long-term memory. Occurred in the working memory of that part of the information processing, ie, conscious attention (conscious attention) focus, through verbal report came out [11]. According to this theoretical framework, the process of translation that is a special kind of information processing, sound thinking through out the data reported by law, reflecting the translation translator working memory that occur in mental thought process.
Cognitive psychology research shows that through repeated practice, will accelerate the speed of cognitive processes, even to the degree of automation, which would be difficult dictation test the thinking process of the mind. As long experience, professional translator's translation process there is a lot of automation phenomenon, then the information processing of unconscious processes. Therefore, the automation process will not be tried by the express through words.
This assumption is called 'automatic assumption' (automaticity
hypothesis). Early sound thinking process of translation studies indeed confirm this hypothesis, the student translators can provide more extensive oral report data, and professional translators translate faster, can not provide adequate oral report data. But then, some scholars have found the opposite with this phenomenon: students with non-professional translator or translators compared to professional translator task spent more time and energy [12]. Some professional translators translating into a mental process automation at the same time, some other process will be activated into the awareness that the translator will become sensitive to new problems. '
Think Aloud method critics and supporters, have agreed that only through a conscious process to be verbal report came out, the problem is to be noted that not all the information will appear in the test report [13] 40. This is because the speed of thought is much faster than talking, some ideas or even fleeting, yet to have time to use language to express, it has generated new ideas. Nevertheless, there are sound thinking can be tried to be part of the conscious mind with words reported. Think Aloud report will reveal the subjects perform tasks concern the information, which can provide an accurate picture of the task execution mode, if used strategies, reasoning, memory access, etc. [8] 220.
Ericsson and Simon that oral reports can provide direct evidence of cognitive processes, and that depends on the accuracy of the oral report experimental program design [7-8]. However, some scholars believe that the content of the oral report only the results of the thinking process, rather than thinking process itself. Toury pointed out that there are sound psychological process of thinking can provide direct contact point of view is wrong, and oral presentations as the object of analysis, is still a 'product', the translator translate the result of thinking, but the researchers have assumed that the results of internal psychological process-related;
However, he did not result in a denial of sound thinking in the study of the role of the translation process, but further noted that despite the think-aloud data should not be regarded as a direct reflection of the thinking process, but can be regarded as very relevant and internal thought process is powerful explanation for the thinking process [1] 235.
(2) whether the impact of sound thinking Translators' thought process? Translation and sound thinking two tasks simultaneously, whether the translator will feel 'unnatural', thus affecting the ecological validity of the experiment?
From the information in the brain is perceived to be uttered through oral presentations time difference between. During this period, various intervention process may occur. According to the type of intervention process, Ericsson and Simon oral report will be divided into three levels [7-8]:
The first level: the subjects of the information on the current focus of attention and thinking of direct speech. In this case, the information in the minds of the subjects in the form of an internal representation language, in oral presentations without additional processing of this information, but directly into words.
The second level: the subjects of the current focus of attention in the explanation of the message. In this case, the information in the brain, the internal test non verbal forms of representation in the oral test report is to be converted to speech form this information, it can be oral.
The third level: This level report will introduce additional psychological processes affect the subject's focus of attention. Subjects' minds the idea, assumptions, motives to explain. The interpretation process information in working memory ideas and information with the previous link. The report will affect the level of the current focus of attention of the information in the sequence, which affects the subjects' cognitive mental process. Therefore, to avoid this effect, the experimenter should not be encouraged to try to explain their actions or the defense.
According to Ericsson and Simon's point of view, the first and second levels of the oral report will not affect the subjects' cognitive mental processes can be used as valid data about the performance of the task, and the third level of the oral report will be the introduction of other cognitive processes, thus the subjects' cognitive mental processes cause some interference, it can not as a process of valid data. In order to ensure a sound thought experiment the validity of the data, namely data obtained belong to the first and second level, in the preparation stage experiment, the experimenter explained the experiment to be tried, it should be described in detail with sound thinking, oral reports of the specific operation, were asked to Try not to explain their ideas, defend, comments, etc., as long as their inner thoughts, thought processes naturally expressed even reached the experimental requirements. Explained, defended, comments and so can be regarded as arising due to social interaction reporting data subjects will affect the minds of the sequence information [8] . Therefore, we should try to minimize the sound thinking when making social interaction, such as the experimenter should minimize oral presentations on the subjects involved in the process, so that experimental subjects are familiar with the environment and procedures to relax into a natural state of mind experiments.
The type of task and difficulty thinking with sound report also influence the validity of data. Think-aloud choice of the tasks involved to be cautious, the cognitive abilities of the participants shall be taken into account [14]. If the task is too difficult, perform tasks at the same time the need for sound thinking,
Would be too high cognitive load test brain in working condition,
This makes working memory pressure, so that some of the reports by sound thinking out of the language information is missing, greatly reducing the validity of the data obtained. If the difficulty of the task is too low, perform many tasks have tended to automate the process of cognitive psychology, it was tried out by the amount of data that will be dictated too small, difficult to explain the problem, not enough as the experimental analysis of the object. Charters said: 'For the target group, it a medium difficulty level of language activity, may be more suitable for the task of sound mind, because it eliminates the task of highly automated, it will not generate excessive cognitive demands.' [14] First, the translation task as a language program that caters to think aloud study task type requirements. Secondly,
Experimenter must grasp the difficulty of translation tasks, covering areas of expertise should not be too biased, the selected text material should be tried in regular contact with study or work in the style of the text involved nor too incomprehensible jargon or uncommon, lead to trial even through literature search also difficult to get the correct translation.
Sound thinking in the process of translation, on the one hand, the subjects need to mind the idea of ​​translation process using colloquial form of expression; On the other hand, the subjects need to be asked in mind rendered in writing. Therefore, this process will involve two kinds of interpretation and translation, translation model. Toury pointed out in these two translation modes coexist experiment with sound thinking that these two modes may interfere with each other,
Which affects the final translation products [1] 235. As interpreters and translators translation strategies involved are not the same, but any language spoken and written language are each with different characteristics, which may result in their written test oral translations translation inconsistencies. Krings found 'subjects TAPs generated translation data and submit its true finished up the final written translation sometimes many inconsistencies' [10], whether this is because of two different experiments translation model mutual interference due? This raised questions for Toury, translation scholars have failed to give a satisfactory answer.
Researchers are also thinking for sound effects on translating process devoted to experimental studies purport to provide empirical support questions. Jakobsen and the two groups were tested during the sound without thinking of the translation process in both cases were compared, and were tested using the Translog software keyboard in the translation process, a recorded keystroke activities and concluded: Think Aloud make subjects translation speed is reduced by about 25%, on the subjects of the amendment stage had no significant effect; however, sound thinking, but in the trial of the text segmentation has a significant effect that the sound thinking of, subjects tend to make the text smaller cut points. Because of the relatively small sample involved, the experimental studies failed to provide any conclusive evidence and conclusions. Although this study shows there is sound thinking has a greater impact on the translation process, which allows us to re-evaluate for Translation Studies think-aloud procedures underlying assumptions, but definitely not confirmed with sound thinking is invalid.

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