Discourse analysis began in the 1960s to the early 1970s, involving linguistics, rhetoric, psychology, cultural anthropology and sociology, and other various disciplines, a new interdisciplinary research fields. Discourse analysis since its inception, has been the field of linguistics and applied linguistics enormous attention. This is because the study of language is inseparable from the nature of discourse as a research object. People use the language according to the functions to be achieved when selecting the appropriate language in the form of people through a complete and systematic discourse to articulate themselves in numerous social activities in a variety of ideas. Therefore, discourse analysis not only has important theoretical value, there is an important application value.
In our actual teaching, but also always dealing with the discourse,
College English Teaching from the traditional words to explain the transition to discourse analysis. In this paper, discourse analysis theory in English listening, writing and reading teaching discussed.
First, the discourse analysis of the role of culture on hearing
Many students have been hearing through the CET a major obstacle to the students that one of the reasons for poor hearing their pronunciation, the correct pronunciation can not lead to a timely response, or unable to discern a similar tone. In addition, some students fail to master listening skills, a sound is not heard often lead to miss a potential sentence, and even affect the understanding of the whole chapter. These problems can be excluded by using contextual ambiguity or context, to obtain a proper understanding of the information to be resolved. For example,
(1) Urban violence is getting out of hand. We
really need to stop:
a) attacks on city buses. b) at ax on city buses
(2) Maria (praise / appraised) the cup.She said
it was beautiful.
In the first question, although a) and b) of the pronunciation identical, but if we can understand the meaning of the preceding sentence, it will predict the content behind the final choice a) instead of b). Similarly, after a second question in the meaning of two pairs of unstressed syllables are not easily distinguishable to suggest that the meaning of the sentence according to neighboring obviously should choose praised.
In addition, the basic means of discourse cohesion, including reference, substitution,
Omitted, the use of conjunctions, etc., can play a suggestive role.
For example, conjunctions in addition to, furthermore represent supplementary feed; whereas, as far as representation comparison; however, on the
other hand said the turning point and so on. To guide students in the discourse on the level of listening comprehension, you can design some teaching activities. Specific approach is to divide students into several groups, each group listen to a long discourse (eg: it
Things, recipes, speeches, news reports) and wrote part of the point.
Then, between the groups hear exchange information and ultimately the information is combined into the original Textual.
Second, the application of discourse analysis develop students' English writing
Ability discourse analysis approach to writing classes help is obvious,
Because writing is a direct product of discourse, rather than sentences simple pile of discourse, through cohesion, coherence and other means of permutations and combinations of the statement into a logical and the language as a whole, this logic reflects the nature of the links speaker mode of thinking, determines the structure of discourse, so that text can be in a specific topic areas or logical framework, without understanding the basics of discourse, without appropriate training, they can not raise the overall level of writing.
Discourse teaching so that students understand the inner passages and the logical relationship between paragraphs, students grasp the full article logical context of the total capacity to organize teaching units of discourse can be shifted to the teaching level of discourse or discourse level up. Explained in the article to help students from a separate analysis of the sentence came out in the context of a more comprehensive grasp of knowledge, analytical articles of different styles, the author's intention,
Cultural background, Rhetoric, etc., which will help improve students 'understanding of the meaning of the article as a whole, eliminating the semantic ambiguity, and enhance students to analyze problems and identify the problem's ability to improve students' communication skills. Discourse teaching, teachers should provide students with background information and guide students to use existing knowledge to obtain new information. Discourse Teaching should also allow students the main idea summed, and through the retelling, relay, abbreviations, rewritten article plot, content in the form of training of students' language skills and complete information skills, so that students have more opportunities a genuine language of communication. In discourse teaching, we would like to teach students not only knowledge of the language, but more importantly is to develop students ability to use language to communicate, because communication is carried out in discourse.
Discourse analysis theory for English writing has a very important guiding significance, it is the teaching imparted mainly from a syntactic level increased to discourse, from the study of language in the form of transfers to the study of language features, the traditional teacher centered classroom changed to become a student-centered classroom, thus changing the previous teaching situation see the forest for the trees. In the future, English writing teaching should focus on introducing students through conjunctions, reference, substitution, duplication Cohesion and coherence means analyzing discourse writing features, style to train students to appropriate discourse logical thinking ability, so that they gradually form a discourse awareness and enhance writing skills.
Third, the application of discourse analysis develop students' reading ability
A familiar article genre diversity. According discourse language field, tenor and style as well as ideological differences reflect different discourse genres or language classes. In the teaching of reading, to help students understand and are familiar with all kinds of genre and language article structure, so that students understand the chapter from the overall structure, accurately grasp the central idea and main ideas, understanding of the intention of writing. Discourse thinking through teaching, allowing students to master the context of thinking, familiar discourse structure, to enable students to quickly and accurately grasp the basic content and discourse central idea, to understand how the author to express ideas through language structure content and language readers articles communicative.
2 From Cohesion to analyze discourse. Bridging (cohesion) and consistency (coherence) is the discourse of the two important features. You must have a coherent discourse grammar, vocabulary and other convergence ingredients must comply with semantics, pragmatics and cognitive principles, sentences must have a link between paragraphs and paragraphs must comply with logic. According to the meaning and characteristics of discourse in teaching from the convergence characteristics of this discourse important start, the surface structure of discourse analysis. Information transfer are generally following information to guide the unknown from the known information, which means that part of the information that is known theme (theme), indicates unknown information component called Rheme (rheme), the continuous progress Rheme follow certain rules If the destruction of such a rule, the language is not so smooth, that is undermining cohesion and coherence.
In teaching, training students to master these cohesive discourse structure, identifying discourse marker word, note that they played in the context of cooperation with the transferee from the chapter layout, structural framework understanding,
Can effectively help students discover how the author describes step by step view, expand ideas, enabling students to quickly grasp the central idea and the implications of the article.
3. Understand reading comprehension level. Reading comprehension is a complex process of thinking, reading comprehension logically systematic classification,
This process can be divided into three levels of comprehension: literal comprehension level, inferential comprehension level, evaluative understanding layer. Layer is only to understand the literal meaning of the literal meaning of articles, such as identifying semantic, syntactic structure of a sentence limited to internal and does not involve linkages between sentences. Literally just a surface understanding, mainly rely on the ability to complete knowledge of the language or languages, the traditional reading pattern belongs to this level.
Reading is a psychological process, is a reader to rely on existing knowledge, conscious use of reading strategies, effective forecasting understanding of cognitive processes read discourse. The traditional teaching of reading can only stay in the language syntax functional level, you can not cultivate and improve students' language proficiency. Discourse structure analysis can help students from the macro and micro aspects of a comprehensive and profound understanding of the article, make up the traditional teaching model reading deficiencies. Application in the teaching of reading discourse analysis methods enable students to be understood in isolation from the vocabulary, sentence to come out to change students 'poor reading habits, and can improve students' language skills integrated use to improve their independent reading analysis capabilities, and ultimately achieve 'seer Corinthians see the trees, both to see the forest See also tree' purposes.
Discourse analysis of traditional English teaching theoretical breakthrough 'explore issues' Teaching units will be placed on teaching English language and context interaction of the environment, focusing on the meaning of the expression, breaking the form of restriction. Expression of the unit is not limited to a complete sentence, and sometimes a symbol, a word can express a full significance, such as 'V'
This gesture represents 'victory', ':-D' on the network that 'laugh', 'Fire!' To express 'on fire!' Or 'fire.' Discourse analysis theory application prospects, particularly in the teaching of English, students do not just pay attention to the meaning of a word, discourse should be to focus on the higher point of verbal communication. From this sense, discourse analysis to broaden their horizons and look at the problem has great role in guiding, and only from throughout the global focus, in order to have a comprehensive understanding of things, which is not 'not know the truth ,
Just because in this mountain. '
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