Flanders Interaction Analysis System in the classroom teaching

                        Author: Chen Tao Jing Zhou Pu-Jiang Wang Xiaoyan

     Abstract: The Flanders Interaction Analysis System (Flanders Interaction Analysis System, referred to as FIAS) is a well-known teacher-student teaching classroom interaction observation system, a recording and analysis of teaching situations in teaching behavior and teacher-student interaction analysis system events . In combination with case details the Flanders interaction analysis system in actual classroom teaching applications.

     Keywords:: Flanders interaction analysis system; education interactive behavior; code system


     Social interaction in the classroom is extremely detailed and complicated, in order to effectively observe, Flemish (Flanders) in 1970 proposed an interactive analysis system (Flanders Interaction Analysis System). FIAS is a classroom teacher-student interaction observation system of teaching. FIAS's role is to use a code system (Coding System) recorded in the classroom interaction between teachers and students an important event in order to analyze the study of teaching behavior, knowledge about the interaction context in the classroom impact of the incident in order to help teachers to understand and thus to improve their teachingBehavior.

     FIAS came to light, triggering a number of pairs of the classroom teacher-student interaction observation system and methods of research. In general, classroom observations can be divided into two approaches: First, "Quantitative observation" to the system's rules by recording the way to conduct a systematic observation; the other is the "qualitative observation," bringing together people the subjective sense of observation skills. As a method of classroom observation for the sake of the breadth and depth of observation, should be either a "quantitative observation" and "qualitative observation." In a variety of classroom observation methods are concerned, the Flemish (Flanders) in 1970 proposed an interactive analysis system for the earliest published, classification of the most concise, easy to implement and interpretation, but also to take into account the characteristics of qualitative and quantitative research research objective merits.


     Flanders Interaction Analysis System


     (A) Overview

     Flanders interaction analysis system emphasizes the teaching of the classroom teacher-student interaction, which uses a system, taking into account the direct and indirect teaching style behavior classification of the classroom teacher-student interaction behavior classification. At the same time for each type of act of Flanders, under the operational definition, so that teachers and teaching supervisory staff to operate. Flanders will be the language of the classroom for all teachers and students interaction is divided into 10 categories, of which 1 to 7 classes were recorded the status of teachers on students to speak; No. 8 and 9 classes are the students to speak on the situation of teachers; in class, in addition to dialogue with teachers and students, there are 10 categories, it is recorded classroom possible quiescent state (quiet or confusion). For example, in classroom teaching, teachers are teaching content to express their opinion, a statement of fact when they are "taught" (Class 5 acts); teachers, students approached the presentation, reasoning, such as "now shows up certain students," This belonging to "instructions" (6th Class acts); "Students, do you think there are other better solution problem asks it?" are "question" (class 4 behavior), the above three types of actions are part of teachers to students behavior among the acts of direct instruction.

     (B) records the coding system of teaching interactions

     First, teachers or teaching supervisory staff in accordance with the Flemish (Flanders) Interactive Analysis System code for the interactive classroom teaching behaviors to observe, and then select the appropriate category record, recording time interval for the record once every three seconds, which is once every three seconds, the observer records the current state of the classroom teacher-student interaction, speed, try to maintain stability. Flanders will be the language of the classroom for all teachers and students interaction is divided into 10 categories, each category with a number to indicate, where "1" represents the feelings of students accepted: a non-threatening manner, acceptance and to clarify the student's attitude or emotional tone; "2" on behalf of praise or encouragement: praise or encourage students to action or behavior; "3" stands for acceptance or use of children's thinking: to clarify, expand or develop the comments made by students and thoughts; "4 "representative to ask questions: the teacher's opinion or idea is based, asking students about the content or the steps of the problem and expect students to answer;" 5 "stands for a speech: With regard to content or steps to provide facts or opinions expressed by teachers in their ideas and put forward Teachers own interpretation, or to quote a certain authority of the person (not students) in view; "6" on behalf of the instructions: instructions, directions or orders; "7" on behalf of students or to maintain the authority of critics: The statement that the contents of a statement to change the behavior of students in order to , from the unacceptable into acceptable shape patterns; "8" on behalf of student discourse - Teacher-driven: students in order to respond to the remarks of teachers; "9" on behalf of student discourse - the initiative of students: students take the initiative to open a dialogue; "10" on behalf of Quiet or confusion: temporary pause, a short time of quiet or confusion, so the observer can not understand the communication between teachers and students. Here's to the author of "Fundamentals of Analog Electronics" teaching practice around the code 800 records for analysis.


     Classroom atmosphere in the analysis of teacher-student teaching interaction


     (A) interactive analysis matrix method (Interaction Analysis Matrix)

     The use of interaction analysis matrix analysis must first recorded data into the matrix, the first two data each combined into one coordinate. For example, the Table 1 data can be treated as (10,5), (5,5) (5,5) ... (Note that the second of which five need to re-use, that is, except the first data and the last one data, all of the Data should be used twice); then the number of occurrences of each kind of fill in the corresponding coordinates of the matrix cells, which coordinates the matrix in front of the vertical, said the number of (class), the landscape behind the figures, said coordinates (category), the resultant matrix shown in Table 2 analysis.



     Matrix 1 ~ 3 rows and 1 ~ 3 intersecting area (light gray) is an active integration of lattice, can be seen from the table, a record fall in this region where the number of relatively intensive, reflecting the feelings between the teachers and students in a cordial atmosphere is a positive integration of performance. The matrix 7 to 8 rows and 6 ~ 7 intersection area (dark gray) is a defect lattice, from the matrix, we can see that in this region the small number of records, but also reflects the exchange of teachers and students in language on a harmonious, if the record in this region where the number of intensive and reflects the emotional interaction between teachers and students on the barriers, a classroom should be taken to avoid defects. As can be seen from Table 1, falls on a positive record of the number of grid integration of the total number of 12.31%, while the total number of defective cells only 0.37%, showing that the class the teacher-student emotional atmosphere was quite cordial. Table, each cell on the diagonal is called the steady-state cell, coding landed there Gerry of a certain behavior for more than 3 seconds, indicating that continuing to do something. From the matrix, we can see that the steady-state, 3-3 cells are densely distributed, the number "3" stands for acceptance or use of children's thinking, so 3-3 steady-state grid that during this time of teachers to clarify, expand or to develop students made comments or ideas; 5-5 of this steady-state is also dense grid distribution, given the number "5" meaning "teaching, lecture," so it shows that teachers continued to teach during that time; 8-8 stable Georgia also has more distribution, the number "8" speech on behalf of students to teachers to react to it this time is the positive interaction of students and teachers. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com

     (B) ratio (Ratio) Analysis

     Interaction analysis using the aforementioned matrix obtained data for further analysis, based on the following formula to calculate a ratio of teacher talk, student discourse ratio, as well as quiet, or the ratio of chaos to analyze the class structure; but also through indirect and direct calculation of teachers impact ratio, a positive impact and negative effects to analyze the ratio of teachers teaching style.

     Classroom Structure: Teacher Talk Percentage (percent teacher talk) TT = [Row (i)] × 100 ÷ Total = 67.5%; student discourse percentage (percent pupil talk) PT = [Row (i)] × 100 ÷ Total = 31.5% ; quiet or disorder percentage (percent silence or confusion) SC = Row (10) × 100 ÷ Total = 1.0%.

     As can be seen that the main lesson is teaching language, but the students are actively involved, is a more open classroom; invalid language ratio (10 / total number) was 1.0%, indicating a very high utilization of classroom teaching .

     Teaching style: Teacher ratio of indirect and direct effects (indirect-to-direct ratio) I / D = [Row (i)] × 100 ÷ Row (i) = 90.8%; a positive impact and negative impact of the ratio (positive-to-negative ) Row (i) ÷ Row (i) = 435.7%.

     As can be seen from the above data, I / D value is less than 1, teachers tend to exert a direct impact on students, but also is committed to mobilizing the enthusiasm of student learning; from a positive impact and negative effects of the ratio (1 ~ 3 times / 6 ~ 7 times) was 435.7%, also can be seen, the teacher at the language of positive impact on students is far higher than the negative effects of language, speech to students in order to accept and encourage the main, so that the whole lesson The atmosphere was quite relaxed, thus greatly mobilized the enthusiasm of the students involved.

     (C) Time-line notation (Time Line Coding)

     Timeline marker will soon observed and recorded to the data presented in graphical manner so intuitive, graphically expressed in the language classroom behavior types. From the data we got to extract 40 data as shown in Table 1.

     Will convert the data in Table 1 in the form of Figure 1, Figure 1, the horizontal axis to observe the record of the serial number of the vertical axis representing 10 kinds of acts, classification, according to the ordinal data records the number and type of act black fill in the corresponding Figure 1 small box In addition, the vertical axis, on which each row represents one or two categories of acts, in the middle of the rampage to ask questions on behalf of teachers (4th Class acts); indirect teaching style (the first type of conduct 1,2,3) In the last part of it, belongs to a more open sexual conduct, such a style of teaching can lead students to take the initiative to express their own ideas (9 types of conduct); direct teaching style (the first type of conduct 5,6,7) in the second half of the structural behavior, which kinds of teaching style will limit the students to express their ideas, become a question only A (No. 8 Class acts); No. 10 kind of behavior (quiet or confusion) in the vertical axis there is no corresponding line, therefore, when there is 10 categories behavior, in Figure 1, the corresponding box corresponding to the moment there is no filling, in Figure 1, the start time of the type of act is the first 10 categories, so the starting time corresponding to the first one does not have any padding that The first three seconds of the type of act is the first 10 categories. Types share a single row of certain acts, such as the first and third acts of 6,7 class 1,2 class act, first, that they belong to the same teaching style, and second, to do so to save space.


     After such a time stamp, you can see the figure most of the filling in the middle, under expressed at this stage the observed courses are used in direct teaching style.


     Evaluation of Flanders Interaction Analysis System


     FIAS is a well-known classroom observation systems. It is the classroom atmosphere to be analyzed both teachers and students in the languages spoken. It can not only be used to record and analyze teachers in the teaching situation of the teaching behavior, providing feedback to teachers to improve their teaching in order to reduce novice teachers to spend unnecessary time and effort, but also can be used as the evaluation of teaching a reference indicator. FIAS through the use of digital coding system for the classroom series of events taking place in chronological order record, according to the order to connect these events into a time series, showing the structure of classroom teaching, behavior patterns and styles. For the recorded time series data, we can use interactive analysis matrix method, the ratio analysis, time-line labeling method for analysis of classroom teaching in order to make a meaningful analysis. FIAS has the advantage of the quantitative approach to classroom interaction in teacher-student verbal behavior statistics, analysis and processing, such quantifiable data on the teaching of teachers to analyze and reflect on, combined with classroom observation of the information available on the quality of teaching description, can conduct a comprehensive understanding of classroom teaching and analysis.

     FIAS is the emphasis on the limitations of verbal behavior, non-importance of non-verbal behavior, while ignoring the many important information; Second, the emphasis on teachers as a whole class of behavior, the classification of discourse for students (only two) too small, it tends to ignore individual students behavior; again, FIAS of the transformation of the variable data, although the teachers to understand teaching style, you can also do a wide variety of comparative studies, but can not go back because of what specific analysis of discourse and get this data.



     [1] Fude Rong, Zhang Hui-min. Education and information processing [M]. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press ,2003:88-90.

     [2] Ning Hong. "Teacher as researcher" understanding and possible avenues to [J]. Comparative Education Research, 2002, (1).

     [3] GUO Hui-Long, Lin Chien-shen. Flanders interaction analysis system for supporting software introduced reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com


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