Papers Category:Education Papers
- Disciplinary Education Papers
Post Time:2013-4-22 19:34:00
Any policy changes are not free to change its behind there are various constraints forces of ideological and political education policy change is not a single dynamic action, but by the three aspects of the social environment, government, university students force of the results of the integration of the force generated in the power system, the fundamental driving force of the social environment, the basis of government power, direct driving force of college students.
, The fundamental driving force of the ideological and political education policy change - social environment
Ideological and Political Education policy change as a subsystem, the "periphery" of a larger system, the social environment, economic environment, political environment, cultural environment, the ideological and political education policy changes have a restraining effect.
(A) the economic system and the ideological and political education policy changes
Marx pointed out: "the development of production in accordance with their material corresponding social relations, it is these people create the principles, ideas, and scope in accordance with their social relations."  Therefore, changes in economic relations thinking the dominant factor of the change in policy as the product of the people "thought" naturally constrained by economic relations since the founding of the PRC, China has formed a planned economy and market economy, the two systems under the planned economy, government and social affairs through centralized management , colleges and universities are located in the politics of Ideological and Political Education policy only requires that Marxist theory, social theme ideological education for college students around the will of the government, such as << 1950 decision on the implementation of the reform of institutions of higher learning courses >> the establishment of a Marxist-Leninist political theory courses in colleges and universities until 1976, the policy has always emphasized writings by "Mao Zedong", "Classic Readings Marxism-Leninism as the ideological and political education of college students. Judging from the social theme education requirements, 1950 years << >> specifies the principles of colleges and universities and political teaching principles, organization and methods "anti-imperialist education, land reform, education, education Five Love" focus .1961 << Higher Education sixty >> make the college students, "the spirit of patriotism and internationalism, and communist moral qualities, to uphold the leadership of the Communist Party of China, who support socialism is willing to socialism, and to serve the people".
With the advent of the market economy system, the university is moving away from government control and have a non-political autonomous social space at the same time, the market economy under the conditions of the student population showed Yongjin reality exile ideal play chase utilitarian moral, the value orientation of respect for self and weak groups  In this regard, the government had to adjust policy to the end of the class struggle as the era of the educational content, .1986 << starting to focus on the actual needs of schools and students in colleges and universities opened basic course of law "notice >> stressed the need to popularize legal knowledge .1995 << Chinese institutions of higher moral education outline >> << mental health education as an important part of the Moral Education In 1994 further strengthen and improve students' moral work a number of opinions "campus culture" means of education .2004 << >> proposed >> views on strengthening and improving ideological and political education to carry out to promote the network education.
(B) the political system and Ideological and Political Education Policy Change
Public policy is always to develop and implement the political system, "the possibility of institutional capacity of decision the result of public policy choices."  Therefore, the greatest impact of policy changes and political factors is the political system in the Early Days , China has established a highly centralized political system, reflected in the policy arena, as the logical starting point for the central spirit and leading indicators such as << 1950 National College Summer political teaching seminars and next semester political class should pay attention to matters Bulletin >> stressed that "the focus of the work of political and ideological education and other aspects of .1970 << instructions >> Peking University, Tsinghua University Admissions (pilot) to consult the report according to the Common Program of the Cultural and Educational Policy pointed out that, in accordance with Chairman Mao's teachings, cultivate the cultural scientific theory and practical experience of workers. << >> opened in institutions of higher learning in the basic course of law "stressed that in accordance with Comrade Hu Qili universities in the country to open basic course of law" instructions to set up the basic course of law.
With the advent of the binary differentiation process of the state and society, the ideological and political education policy, there are still authoritarian political "shadow", but not "mainstream". 1998 << set about colleges and universities TWO COURSES " the views of the requirements and their implementation >> stressed that according to the spirit of the congress emphasized in the curriculum and related work .2004 << >> views on strengthening and improving ideological and political education, "thoroughly implement the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress" strengthening and improving ideological and political education of college students in these policies, we obviously feel the changes in the policy-oriented, that is beginning to pay attention to the moral, psychological and living needs of college students, the text of the policy expressed by the "boot" instead of "shall" and "must" in the formulation of policies, the government has gradually out of the "circle of power", and actively cater to the interests and needs of schools, teachers, and students. opinion >> << 2005 on Further Strengthening and Improving Ideological and political theory courses nine months of research, involving almost all colleges and universities across the country, reflected in the ideological and political theory course curriculum, macro-management, teaching materials and construction aspects .
(C) cultural values and ideological and political education policy changes Cultural factors always in-depth system of specific provisions and spiritual power, but become important variable in determining the policy change.
Reform and opening up, the high degree of homogeneity of the socio-cultural values, people unconditionally subordinate to the collective and authority will as a measure of value, absolute negative people as the existence of the individual self. cultural values determine all the affairs of the society decided directly by the Government, the public (including university students) the right to question the policy or refuse to implement policies, even if the policies wrong direction still run, thereby enabling the ideological and political education the same mistake again. "1957 << >> indicated the creation of socialist education courses at the National College after the introduction of the ideological and political education more and more" left "and the aims of education steering the class struggle education, educational content turned to Marxism-Leninism with learning, steering education reform through labor, management system management .1980 << views on the strengthening of the college students' ideological and political education work >> after the introduction of steering workers, peasants and students gradually transition.
After the reform and opening up, the cultural values yuan highlights student population values "lost and missing, pluralism and the deviation from the phenomenon , so that the government take the initiative to change the policy. << In institutions of higher learning in the phased establishment of communist ideology and morality course circular >> << opened in institutions of higher learning in the basic course of law ">>, << Chinese moral education in colleges and universities outline >> increase in the content of education for college students' values; << work to further strengthen and improve the moral education in schools a number of opinions >> << views on strengthening and improving ideological and political education >> increase the means of education for college students individual needs. << 1987 on Improving and Strengthening of Ideological and political work in educational management, Decides to the >> whole party and society should care for the healthy growth of the young students, "further strengthen and improve a number of views of the school moral education work in the education system, << >>" Moral Education in Schools have a legal guarantee. "
Second, the ideological and political education policy change basis of power - government Marx, Engels argued, "a class is the dominant material force in society, but also the spiritual power of the dominant society.
"  Therefore, many activities of government management of public affairs of the country, education has always been the rule class maintenance, an important tool to strengthen its political domination. university students as the behavior of the individual of the society has a certain level of knowledge and technical capacity, how their thinking and behavior state will be directly related to the development of society as a whole, therefore, the ideological and political education is an important part of the work of the government of the ideological and political education management is not unique to the Chinese government, the governments of the world are a variety of approaches to the Moral management, management in different ways from the actual development of the ideological and political education in China , the Government through the development and implementation of policies on ideological and political education intervention across the ideological and political education services at the national and social development needs. Therefore, the Government is the leading force of the ideological and political education policy change is based on power . reposted elsewhere in the Research Papers Download http://eng.hi138.com
government in the process of change to promote ideological and political education policy initiative by the official body (CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the Ministry of Education, the Central Propaganda Department, the CYL Central Committee, etc.) and choice in all colleges and universities experienced ideological and political education teachers in the old, the new policy discussion, and ultimately issued a document on behalf of the official body. << >> views on further strengthening and improving ideological and political education of college students, the first President Hu Jintao General Secretary specifically on the ideological education of college students made important instructions, requiring to make the deployment of strengthening and improving ideological and political education of college students, followed by the Ministry of Education organized forces of the country's 10 regions, including Beijing, northeast China, north China, East China, South China, Central China, Shanghai, Tianjin, Northwest Territories, Southwest China and other universities to conduct research, collecting a lot of material, and selection from the local colleges and universities have some teaching experience experts on the basis of full discussion, and finally formed by the CPC Central Committee, the State Council approved the policy in the framework of such a system, to reflect and represent the interests of the government as a public power bodies, students' interests but can not really be reflected in this policy obligations type "policy, that a policy after the introduction of the target group had to fulfill some of the new obligations or increase the performance of the total amount of the original obligation. ideological and political education by the government-led policies to progressive change, few radical changes from the policy view changes more than 60 years, in addition to the instructions >> << opened at the National College of socialist education courses, the "Cultural Revolution" period policy for full adjustment, remained stable policy changes the Government to promote ideological and political changes in education policy, not remain "value-free" or "value-neutral", but to a certain value orientation based on the value orientation of the government performance: (1) to serve the needs of social development; (2) Uniform College Students' thinking and behavior; (3) develop social successor.
Government as the leading force of the ideological and political education policy changes, mainly according to the adjustment of the social environment and the ideological and behavioral changes and termination of the old policy, the development and implementation of the new policy from the policy point of view of ideological and political education, the founding of the beginning Government a comprehensive study of the former Soviet Union, the policy in the curriculum, textbook selection, teaching content, teaching methods, the requirements of the education management with an obvious traces of the former Soviet education system after the completion of socialist transformation, international and domestic situation college students appeared dissatisfaction and restlessness tendency, this government need to promote policies to service in the class struggle, and a corresponding increase in class education "," labor education "," social education ". reform and opening up, by Cultural Revolution ", the student population awareness and discussion of" self "," life "," value ", this government take the initiative to end the class struggle education, and to promote policy shift from a focus on Marxist-Leninist theory of education to highlight the moral education , legal education, life education with the establishment of the market economy by the "market", "benefits", "utilitarian" tendency, college team "ideal dilute", "shake the faith", "value distorted "," lack of responsibility "," poor psychological quality "tendency of this government re-adjustment policies put forward the construction of campus culture, mental health education, online education, and social practice education and other forms of education , proposed the establishment of moral education assessment system, the development of appraisal regulations and ways of implementation of the Moral Education. Meanwhile, the development of ideological and political education funding to put into the system, the formation of ideological and political theory building indicators.
Third, the ideological and political education policy changes the direct driving force - college students
The policy always point to a certain target groups a policy target groups certain benefits, then it is easier to target groups to accept; On the contrary, a policy if the target group as assault and deprivation of their interests, it is difficult to obtain the recognition of the target groups  Therefore, the students as a target group is the direct driving force of the ideological and political education policy change. 1950s college students showed great enthusiasm in politics, Marxism-Leninism.
And recalls: students most talked about topic is not a sport, not a game, not even academic, but a political one, we all firmly believe in Marxism-Leninism . Therefore, regardless of how such a policy students "peace of mind" to accept it, the students' performance prompted the government to go along the early days of the policy. Judging from the course requirements, the provisions >> 1956 << colleges and universities and political theory courses 1952 compared to years << >> National College of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought course instructions, in addition to increasing the basis of Marxism-Leninism, and the rest remain consistent .1957, part of the ideological and the volatility of the state that prompted the government policy fine-tuning. 1958 << few comments >> Political Education for College regulations, all closed for the political class, to change to open a "socialist education" courses .1959 and then back to the original track.
1960s college students jointly owned with the psychology of politics, and do not speak the origin "of the era, the Party, state and Chairman Mao showed boundless loyalty, has a life-long pursuit of the ideal struggle for the communist cause the performance of students in the continuation of the policy development on the basis of absolute obedience to the direction of the government and society, so much so that the ideological and political education as a tool of class struggle. << improvements such as the 1961 Institutions of Higher Learning in the common views of the political theory teaching >> << 1964 on improving the views of the colleges and universities, secondary schools and political theory courses >>, its purpose is Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought armed youth, to publicize the party's general line, principles and policies, to improve students' ideological and political consciousness.
1980s college students showed more "self-search", "self-design", "self-realization" and "self-struggle", "self-transcendence", gradually dispersed and political theory courses enthusiasm that "political theory does not seem to little use is optional. unlike school homework now so enthusiastic. sometimes want to abandon it, but feel helpless, into painful hesitation. ", a few students also some negative thinking, confusion phenomenon, and many times the student movement. changes in the student government to adjust its policy to the creation of the ideological and moral system of legal education courses and educational content.
Ideological and turmoil in the 1990s more obvious, such as the face of the problem of corruption, inequitable distribution of feel lost and confused, a sharp increase in the face of phenomenon of Naotidaogua "and new employment system of psychological problems. Changes in student government actively policy adjustments. 1995, 1998, respectively, the formation of "Two Courses" reform "95", "98" program curriculum reform, the strong political overtones, moral education be promoted. << further strengthen and improve school moral education work a number of opinions >> << Chinese institutions of higher moral outline >> "moral" instead of the "ideological and political education, and the overall planning of the school moral education system which shows that the efforts of the Government of the ideological and political education to scientific, standardized, life in the direction of development.
In the new century, the only child, network information, good and bad mixed, talent two-way choice, "unfair distribution", "corruption" and the emergence of the social environment, the student population increased even more. A survey shows that the "test anxiety, not good at interpersonal contacts, job anxiety, social phobia, dream analysis, Internet addiction, personal emotional problems and obsessive-compulsive disorder eight "is a common problem of troubled college students . changes in student government attaches great importance to ideological and political education, the central leadership repeatedly The speech emphasized the ideological and political education, and proceed to adjust the policy. << >> views on further strengthening and improving ideological and political education of college students planning the strategic position of the ideological and political education, guiding ideology and basic principles, major tasks, means of education, team building, organizational assurance. << >> opinions on Further Strengthening and Improving Ideological and political theory course curriculum, educational content, management adjustments.
, The social environment and college students from the analysis of the Ideological and Political Education Policy Change from the input signal to the Government, the Government in the received signal to adjust its policy to achieve policy change such decisions can solve the problem, but professionals and the interests of the government of the government's "passive" giving the impression that "When the firemen, the importance of ideological and political education digestion from actors of view, affect policy change by the government, professionals, college students. consistent, actually, only the government and university students two actors it is unscientific John Kingdon believes that actors should be obvious participant "and" stealth participants of the points. former refers to the policy directly groups, such as administrative officials, elected members, members of political parties and interest groups, the latter is indirectly related groups and policy, including experts and scholars, celebrities and the public policy interest . the establishment of various social organizations related to the ideological and political education in order to promote effective policy changes reposted elsewhere in the Research Papers Download http://eng.hi138.com