Papers Category:Education Papers
- Disciplinary Education Papers
Post Time:2010-11-10 23:05:00
Abstract: With the deepening of reform and opening up and economic construction, the increasing prosperity of the foreign language experts (especially English-speaking people) is an increasing demand for foreign language teaching also become increasingly important. As a foreign language talents and cultivate the main base for foreign language teaching institutions of higher learning, it should be how to adapt to the needs of society, cultivate a good comprehensive ability of qualified personnel? In this paper, the development of communicative language teaching theory thread talking about will be compared with the traditional teaching wears to explore the pros and cons of the teaching methods and try to propose ways to improve.
Keywords: Communicative language teaching; advantage; defects; to improve and optimize the
Communicative Language Teaching (commnmcattve language teaching) originated in the late 60s the traditional English teaching methods reform of the mid-70s to be further developed, since the early 80s some of the institutions in our experiment, step by step teaching communicative theory be promoted. It is according to the U.S. linguist Haim off (D. Hymes) proposed the theory of communicative competence, that communicative competence should not only have the language knowledge, but also has the ability to use language, with particular attention to linguistic appropriateness transport fields, kt Shin (Krashen) language acquisition theory of language learning must also stressed the use of verbal communication, rather than through training, language skills. Accordance with the communicative theory, communicative approach emphasizes the learning process, emphasizing the interdependence of language and communicative relationship. Therefore, the communicative approach is the core of the teaching process, the process of communication. So how do we make better use of communicative teaching methods, to reach the full service for the modern English language teaching purposes? This paper from the development of communicative language teaching theory, context and looks to explore the benefit of the teaching and disadvantages, and try to forward to propose several ways to improve its disadvantages.
2, the theory of the development of communicative language teaching context
Communicative language teaching is an early 19th century, 70 the United States linguist Hymes. Proposed, is a function of language as the key link in order to cultivate learning communicative competence as the basic purpose of teaching system designed to enhance the learner's language through language communicative competence. The theoretical core of which is Hymes's communicative competence theory and the theory of Halliday's functional linguistics. Communicative language teaching theory has undergone three development stages:
The first stage is in the 70's, for Chomsky (Chomsky)'s "language skills" concept, that language is the language of an abstract system of knowledge or knowledge of grammatical rules, Hymes presented on the theory of communicative competence (communica -tlon competence). He believes that language is the language of a person's knowledge of potential and actual use of language, is only a part of communicative competence, including:
(1) the possibility that expression with the correct grammatical rules of language ability;
(2) the feasibility of , that is grammatically correct sentence that allows the ability to be accepted, because the actual use of language depends on many factors, such as personal information the ability to decode a person's memory limits, as well as cultural, social, communication and environment;
(3) Appropriateness , ie in the specific context of the appropriate use of their language proficiency, propriety;
(4) the actual operability refers to the ability to express the reality of knowledge, as some languages, though grammatically correct, practical, context appropriate, but not in life there, and some language though ungrammatical, but it appeared to be acceptable. Thus, Hymes's communicative competence emphasizes the communicative function of language, context and language proficiency in foreign language teaching profession has aroused a great response.
The second stage is in the 80 years Canadian scholar Canale (Canake) and Swain (Swain) further developed the theory of Hymes's communicative competence, their communicative competence theory include:
(1) grammatical competence (grammatical competence), means master the language rules, the exact language to understand and express the literal meaning of the knowledge and skills needed, that is, the capacity of words and sentences;
(2) Social language proficiency (sociolinguis-d.
competence), refers to different social language environment appropriate for to understand and express language, is appropriate to refer to the meaning and form are appropriate, that is, words should be in line with grammar, topic selection and presentation should conform to principles of politeness;
(3) the ability discourse (discourse competence), refers to linguistic forms of convergence and semantic consistency, the composition of the different genres of spoken or written chapter in the capacity;
(4) strategic competence (strategi.
ccompetenc),, means to improve the effectiveness of the use of communication skills, such as how to choose topics in communication , how to start conversations, how to maintain or change the subject, how to end the topic, as well as the use of high and low tones and body language and so on. Halliday's functional linguistics theory of communicative teaching the theory of the formation of this had a tremendous impact.
The third stage is in the early 90s American scholar Bachman (Bachman) put forward the theory of communicative language ability. His theory is more comprehensive and more systematic. Is also more practical. He believes that communicative language ability consists of three parts: language skills (specific language knowledge), strategic competence (in the communicative use of a variety of linguistic knowledge in the mental ability), and psycho-physiological mechanisms (language communication in the process of nerve involved and psychological of the process). One strategy is the ability to further improve the communicative language teaching.
The late 70s early 80s, communicative language teaching theory, first introduced in China, language scholars actively explore the communicative approach in teaching English in China the problem, so "ideas syllabus," "functional curriculum", "communicative Outline (functional-notional outline), "communicative approach and other teaching materials have emerged, the majority of language teachers have begun to use communicative approach to English teaching.
3, the limitations of traditional teaching methods
So-called traditional method, the grammar-translation method, direct method and heard that the general law. The traditional foreign language teaching has been focused on making sense of learners to learn the language items in isolation, rather than to the process of communication with the real scene to link, the purpose is not for communication. They are very focused on teaching the principles of language form (form) of the master, rather than linguistic meaning (function). Therefore the emphasis is heard and translation, focusing on the correctness of language form, students must be correcting the error every mistake at the expense of fluency. Traditional law that learning language is learning voice, grammar, vocabulary, and master the four basic skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), but do not pay attention to how the language as a communicative tool to apply in practice. In the teaching content, grammatical sentence is the traditional focus on the content of textbooks, according to "from simple to complex," "Youyidaonan" principle arrangement, practice is often mechanical, there are many texts in order to meet the grammatical sentences and rewrite or writing, and seem unnatural or too "standard", "artificial" (contrived) traces of apparent lack of authenticity of the language. Its content is often limited to schools, family life, and very rarely involved in social life. Texts are often short and pithy, vocabulary less, the article type of small, little genre, almost did not take into consideration students need to live and work in the future. In the teaching process, the British linguists and teaching specialists Brumfit the traditional method of teaching in order described as: the introduction of item (present) - mechanical drilling (drill) - in the context of practice (practice incontext). In summary, the traditional method has the following limitations:
(1) attaching importance to master the language forms, rather than practical use.
(2) emphasized the vocabulary and grammar rules, rote memorization, while ignoring its social function.
(3) to the students enter the small, very few opportunities to communicate.
(4) The teacher-led, often a "Man Tangguan" teaching.
4, the advantages of Communicative Language Teaching
Communicative teaching emphasis on "task-oriented, student-centered" language teaching practice, asked to show the life of the actual needs of the English language to simulate a variety of life contexts, emotional, and to provide students with comprehensive use of English language, for communication of opportunities, its focus is not only a language in the form, grammatical accuracy, more emphasis on the Appropriateness of language use, feasibility, communication skills, as well as training students in communicative activities in the strain and problem-solving ability. In such a teaching and learning activities reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
Secondary school students of all activities in the main, they are in teaching actively construct new knowledge and develop new skills, to master the integrated use of language ability.
Specifically, the communicative approach of teaching has the following three advantages:
(1) the interaction between students and teachers. Communicative teaching is becoming increasingly clear feature is the change in the way as the internship, students develop the subject, initiative and become increasingly important. Teacher-student relationship is an interactive, harmonious relationship, rather than the traditional education, the kind of master-servant relationship.
(2) to impart the basic knowledge and ability to skillfully combine the development. Traditional classroom teaching of English in the main body of the expense of home study, only emphasized the teachers on the knowledge of the systematic and integrity, which is a teacher-centered, knowledge-centered from the medieval "scholastic" teaching teaching methods inherited One consequence of the neglect of student ability. The communicative teaching emphasizes the learner's cognitive ability and operational capabilities, which allow the students themselves to think about and express their views, thus trained in real life the ability to use language to communicate.
(3) greatly enhanced the student's interest. Communicative teaching students to participate in, sometimes accompanied by scenes or simulated scenarios, so that students more close to life, the students became the main character, naturally they were interested in the English language, to learn English as a pleasure.
5, Communicative Language Teaching defect
Communicative Approach is a new teaching methods to meet the demands of the times, its emphasis on interpersonal skills, better than the traditional method to stimulate students interest in learning, stimulate students to communicate their enthusiasm, it is than trying to teach the entire language is more formal system of traditional law quick , but also save time and effort, but it also has its downside.
First of all, using communicative approach to grammar teaching, grammar, learning systematic and progressive to a certain extent, be affected. Psycholinguistic experiments show that, regardless of language acquisition of children, or adults in second language acquisition, their awareness of grammar acquisition and understanding of the project is carried out according to a certain order. Communicative grammar teaching practice is often used features an outline of ideas to focus on teaching how to make the students in a specific context, in order to achieve specific communicative functions, such as: inquiry, instruction, order, refused the request and so on, the correct who graciously to use these linguistic forms. In this system, the syntax of the systematic and progressive to a certain degree of neglect, and sometimes give people with disorderly feeling.
Second, the communicative approach to grammar teaching, grammar items account for a large proportion of the output, that is a lot of time for students to communicate in conversation to understand the consolidation of the phrase v points. Compared with the traditional teaching of grammar, syntax knowledge, communicative input ratio of relative reduction. The linguists Van Patter and Cadiero found that "only from the input of those who perceive and deal with the students in understanding the grammatical structure of sentences is superior to the output-based students." In addition, the communicative approach, there are other
Issue. As Richard and Rodgers pointed out: "the adopting of a commu-fricative approach raises important i, ssues for teacher training, materials development, and tesn, ng and evaluafion."
6, for Communicative English Language Teaching Improvement and Optimization
Communicative Language Teaching mainly related to communication in the process of language learning related to the purpose of this teaching is to help learners acquire "communicative competence." To do this, language, form and function have been must be emphasized that the proper use of language is "communicative competence" and part of it: language fluency and accuracy are equally important: teaching materials and practical communicative activities should be true as far as possible. This allows students and teachers are adding to a lot of pressure. Therefore, in order to better use of communicative foreign language teaching, the author proposes several improvements following methods:
First of all, English teachers should continue to learn advanced teaching theory, improve their professional qualities and professional competence, correct understanding of "communicative competence" principle, understanding the substance of communicative English language teaching should be familiar with the English-speaking country's social and cultural. Understanding of student learning and mastering the psychological ability to develop ways and means of communication, so as to correctly use the communicative approach to English teaching.
Secondly, in the teaching process, teachers should correctly handle the students listening and speaking ability, and the relationship between reading and writing skills, to encourage students to the language environment as much as possible to participate in oral and written communication, not only to learn English to meet their current needs, And to meet their future use of English for effective communication needs.
In addition, teachers should correctly deal with the teaching of communicative English grammar teaching, the allocation of an appropriate amount of classroom time systems taught grammar, teachers should find ways for students to create, to provide some meaningful and communicative drills opportunity for students to both learn grammatical structure. Can train their communicative competence.
While the Communicative English Teaching in the implementation process as to the existence of such defects, but it is in the current English teaching role is undeniable, and also to other teaching methods can not be substituted. The author believes that the current English language teaching in China, especially the college English teaching reform, we should vigorously promote the use of communicative approach to English language teaching in order to improve students overall language skills and cultural qualities. In English teaching process, teachers must change our concepts to overcome difficulties, according to the actual needs of teaching and students, as much as possible to organize and guide the students to participate in the true sense of the language of communication, some of the flexibility in combination with other effective teaching methods, not only the language of the students lay a solid foundation, but also allow them to correct and dignified manner to communicate in the language. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com