Literature review of the application of effective teaching in the primary school classroom

Abstract: Effective Teaching has always been a hot topic in the education sector, many experts and scholars have made in the definitions, characteristics, methods and strategies, and the application of a significant contribution with the new basic education reform, it was found inefficient primary school classroom Thus, effective teaching again set off a boom. effective teaching research focuses on effective teaching policy is applied research, pointed out the existing problems and the future direction of development.

Keywords: effective teaching, effective teaching strategies, Research

In recent years, with the deepening of the new round of curriculum reform of basic education in China, through years of efforts, China's basic education classroom has a lot of positive transformation, a new round of basic education reform has achieved important results, however , the reality of classroom education practice there are still many teaching "effectiveness" of the so-called "new class" is still evident with the teachers and students of the script scene performances law, some teachers just blindly pursue teaching dynamically generated, teaching life treatment and to carry out the so-called "study" affected the teaching effectiveness of the phenomenon still abound, the effectiveness of classroom teaching is still missing is urgent and serious problems due to the lack of teaching equipment, the quality of teachers. low reasons, effective teaching in the classroom is difficult to achieve high efficiency, especially in the primary school classroom, the validity of this teaching should be strengthened more so in the context of a new round of reform of basic education, people began to take advantage of research in primary effective teaching in the classroom this study is based on the reality of effective teaching at primary school classroom application, seeks to promote the improvement of the efficiency of the classroom and the overall development of students. presented in order to clearly explain the object of study, you must understand effective teaching the background, development, and related research.

In order to make effective teaching and its application status get better more comprehensive presentation and analysis, the author (CNKI Search keyword "Chinese Journal of Effective Teaching", the time span 1979-2012, select the database as "China's Outstanding Master Full-text Database, Chinese Academy of full papers library data, China Academic Journal ", the search range" Education and Social Sciences total search results is 3071. sorting through analysis and screening, received a total of 25 papers, including outstanding doctoral 6 papers. outstanding master's thesis 15. Reference monograph on effective teaching.

1, the background and development of effective teaching in the formation of effective teaching theory experienced a long historical stage, a summary of teaching experience to the formation of the theory of effective teaching to teaching mature in this process is the deepening awareness of teaching practice constantly rich and systematic process of systematization of which is a sign of effective teaching theory.

Effective Teaching (Effective teaching philosophy stems from the first half of the 20th century Western teaching scientific movement, especially in American pragmatism philosophy and behavioral psychology impact the effectiveness of teaching approved after exercise, the concept frequently appear in English education literature, and aroused the concern of the world colleagues. effective teaching proposed is "Teaching is a product of the art or science of the dispute. Teaching is art, which is dominated by the concept of teaching before the 20th century in Western Educational Theories It advocates teaching is a personalized teachers, there is no "public" behavior, a kind of "act according to their conscience" of the "conventional" behavior, advocates the factors that influence the teaching process is complex, the results of teaching is rich difficult to use the scientific method. However, with the development of the influence of ideas of science, and psychology, especially behavioral sciences since the 20th century, it was clearly put forward, teaching is the science that is, teaching is not only a scientific foundation, but you can also use the scientific method to study a result, people started to pay attention to the teaching of philosophy, psychology, sociology theoretical basis, as well as how to use observation, experimentation and other scientific methods to study the problem of teaching, such as programmed instruction, classroom observation system, teacher and student behavior index system approved by the effectiveness of teaching and learning as well as teaching behavior - outcome variables. effective teaching is in this context, it is the core issue is the effectiveness of teaching, what teaching is effective? efficient, inefficient or ineffective?

2, all aspects of colorful Status of

(1 effective teaching basic definition of the concept

1 Definitions may wish to discuss the application of effective teaching, we can not lose sight of the core definition of the concept. Defined for this current academic multiple perspectives to look at what is effectively a look at the definition of effective teaching.

The so-called "effective", mainly refers to the teachers after a period of time teaching students the specific progress or development that is, students with or without progress or development is the only indicator of teaching effective teaching effective and not referring to teachers did not finish teaching content or teaching seriously not serious, but the students did not learn anything or poor students learn better if the students do not want to learn or learn no gain, even if the teachers teach very hard ineffective teaching Similarly, if students learn very hard, but not been properly developed, is invalid or ineffective teaching.

First, from the practical point of view of teachers, effective teaching, teachers can effectively teach effectively ask questions and listen effectively motivate students to teaching. "To teachers teaching the dominant, so this concept is widely accepted.

Second, from the perspective of student development, the "effective teaching core issue is the effectiveness of teaching and the effectiveness of teaching, the key depends on whether the student progress or development, rather than finished teaching teachers to teach content. Teaching students subject, from the student's point is defined to effective teaching, effective teaching can be explained more fully.

Third, the "effective teaching teachers and students to follow the objective law of the teaching activities, the optimal speed, effectiveness and efficiency to promote students 'knowledge and skills, processes and methods, attitudes and values' three-dimensional target integration, coordination, sustainable progress and development, so as to effectively achieve the desired teaching objectives meet the needs of the educational value of social and individual organization and implementation of teaching activities. "
Fourth, the internal structure of the effective teaching, "on the surface, effective teaching is a form of teaching, it is both the external characteristics of all good teaching, middle, effective teaching is a teaching thinking, is hidden in the teaching teaching logic behind, deep, effective teaching is a teaching ideal, the realm of effective teaching practice, it is to the "ideal" into "thinking", and then transformed into an effective state " .

The formation of effective teaching theory has undergone a long historical stage, a summary of teaching experience, teaching mature to effective teaching theory of the formation of this process is deepening understanding of teaching practice, and constantly enrich and ongoing systematic process, systematic is a sign of effective teaching theory, but the definition of effective teaching, academia has not been determined.

Features: benevolent see benevolence and the effective teaching characteristics, but different opinions. Professor Yao Limin characteristics of effective teaching grouped into nine nine are: the right target, fully prepared, scientific organization, clear explanations, full enthusiasm, promote student learning, harmonious teacher-student relationship, efficient use of time, motivate students to learn.

The Professor Song Qiuqian There are five characteristics of effective teaching: default dialectical unity and generated the development of students, the teaching objectives, teaching effective amount of knowledge, teaching ecological harmony and balance, student development oriented teaching behavior.

Some scholars believe that the characteristics of effective teaching can be summarized in six. Attention to students all concerned about the effectiveness of teaching, attention to side quantify the implementation of reflective teaching, effective teaching core of effective teaching strategies.

(2 factors affecting effective teaching effectiveness of teaching can not rely on to take some of the strategies or teaching skills, many factors affect the implementation of effective teaching first teachers. Teachers is the dominant of effective teaching, so teachers plays a crucial role for effective teaching, in order to the effectiveness of teaching, teachers must first become an effective teacher Gary D. Baoli Qi that teaching is a complex and difficult task, which requires coaching have some special the ability, that is, the effectiveness of teachers must become an effective teacher, a sound personality, positive and optimistic attitude, rich experience, strong ability teaching skills to good to interact with students and produce good impact, followed by the concept of teachers teachers to become an effective teacher with the conditions for effective teaching, effective teaching must also spawned a valid concept in terms of ideology, effective concept gave birth to effective teaching in the classroom in order to play, which is the internal .

Yuexiu District, Guangzhou overturned primary and secondary school teachers Su beauty more according to their own teaching practice effective teaching is a concept rather than a teacher can direct manipulation techniques to apply them in the classroom teaching effectiveness of height scenario effective teaching are not asking teachers to follow a rigid set of rules of conduct, but requires teachers guidance based on the concept of effective teaching, use their professional judgment to make professional decisions, namely the right place at the right time, in a specific scenario , in an appropriate manner, the appropriate people to do the appropriate thing. specifically, teachers are required to design good teaching and learning activities, co-ordinate arrangements for a good convergence, so that students feel that have something to do, something to do, want to do something only the teachers themselves the heart of the concept is valid to take effective teaching methods, students feel that they can improve teacher teaching in order to achieve the effectiveness of teaching students also affect an important factor for effective teaching teaching than teachers simple dissemination of knowledge to the students, but the interaction between teachers and students, the students are the subject of teaching all students the object of education, there are a large number of individual differences among students, these differences will impact the teaching effectiveness of teachers to make the teaching adapt to the individual differences is necessary for teachers to make many of the learners decided to give full play to play to the initiative of students. Fourth, the external facilities, such as the arrangement of the classroom, learning preparation. Gary D. Baoli Qi that the texture of the material in the classroom, the diversity of visual effects can increase the diversity of the teaching, thereby enhancing effective teaching effectiveness. effective teaching in primary school classroom must With these considerations in mind, otherwise the good teaching techniques can not achieve effective teaching.

Cao Xia, Yao Limin, yellow book really three discussed << theory teachers, students, school factors impact the effective teaching of the College Classroom >> reveal College Classroom teaching college classroom teaching to achieve the desired teaching effectiveness research confirmed , by the teachers themselves, students, schools, and other factors. teachers by teachers teaching philosophy, teaching responsibility, teaching inputs, teaching knowledge, teaching efficacy and learning, practice, reflection and research and teaching to achieve; students impact by students with effective classroom teaching, encouragement and investment to achieve; school through the school emphasis on effective classroom teaching, encouragement, support, and other school teachers on classroom teaching to encourage, support and help to achieve.

(Meaning, features and concepts of effective teaching strategy of effective teaching, in the final analysis is to find the implementation of the policy, and applications in the classroom, to improve the efficiency of the classroom, to promote the development of students, our educational career leap for effective teaching the policy is applied, the education sector has been proposed method policy.

Cui Yun Kuo considered "effective teaching must concern four aspects: First, the cause intention that caused the intention of student learning, teachers must first of all stimulate students' motivation, teaching To expand on the students" want to learn "the psychological basis. Two clear To specify the targets to be achieved by the students and the content learned, the teacher let the students know to learn to what extent and what to learn, students only know their own what to learn or learn to what extent, there will be active participation. coping behavior. teachers easy way students understand and take effective strategies and teaching language based on the response of students in the classroom to promote student understanding. Fourth, focusing on results. need to evaluate the degree of achievement of the goal of teaching teachers should have the time and the concept of effective, specific evaluation criteria can be measured, in order to adapt teaching behavior based on the results in a timely manner.

Gary D. Baoli Qi studies suggest that there are five key behaviors contribute to effective teaching, a clear instruction is to make the point easy to understand, clearly explaining concepts to enable students to develop an understanding of the logical order the teacher content, diversified teaching. presents flexible classroom content, enrich the teaching of one of the most effective way is to ask questions., task-oriented. This refers to the number of classroom time for the professor teaching the mandate of the academic disciplines. professor Features classroom teachers for more time, the more learning opportunities for students. task-related problems, teachers must be answered: (1 lectures, questions of how much time? encourage students to consult or independent thinking and how much time? (I organize teaching and students ready to learn how much time? (3 assess students' behavior how much time? Fourth, to guide students into the learning process. lies in increasing the number of students learning academic subjects time of the Evertson (1995 & Tauber (1990 has been proposed some useful advice. enable students to meet the needs of individuals and procedural rules do not always have to get the teacher's permission, teachers walk around to monitor students' classroom work and show that the same student exchange Have you noticed their progress to ensure that independent job is interesting, it is dry, and simple enough so that every student be able to complete without the guidance of teachers, write the date on the blackboard schedule, so that the time-consuming activities minimize, for example, issue commands and organization of teaching, make full use of resources and activities, or for slightly higher than the existing level of understanding of the students, to avoid timing errors, prevent the onset or worsening of misconduct, so as not to affect the other students. ensure the success rate of students is to ensure that students understand and accurately complete the exercise ratio, resulting in a higher success rate of teaching, to help improve students' self-esteem, and enhance the positive attitude of the students on the subject matter and school.

In addition to the overall discussion of effective teaching strategies, many educators from a variety of different subjects to describe the application of effective teaching. According to the characteristics of their subjects to study the measures taken to achieve effective teaching, to improve the efficiency of the classroom. Official thinking The transition from middle school music teaching and the angle of the response to illustrate the application of effective teaching, analysis and evaluation of the actual case of the teaching teachers how to grasp and use class standard version of the materials, how to develop a scientific and effective teaching objectives, how to design effective teaching how to lesson the underlying philosophy to shift for their own teaching behavior and other aspects of the guidance. Xue Ping Kwan in normal primary school classroom teaching practice conduct of painstaking research, and strive to solve specific problems in teaching, including Our goal where exploring the footprint, the attempt of the teaching mode, the pinyin teaching strategies, teaching of reading, writing and exercises, boutique lesson plans appreciation.

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3, the lack of research and Prospects


(1 less than

Throughout recent years, research and education status quo will find:

1. The results of the study can not be effective use of many of them on the shelf. Since the founding of New China, although China has seven basic education textbook reform, but this seven reform, the main emphasis on the teaching reform, especially in the teaching methods teaching methods want a lot of ways, summed up a lot of experience for the course, however, does not have much for materials, reform touches too little, not much intensity, depth is not enough, a number of shortcomings did not eradicate, even not impact on China's reform and opening up and socialist modernization drive has entered a new period, in the face of ever-changing scientific and technological development and the era of the new requirements of the training objectives, the problems of the current basic education curriculum and drawbacks day more obvious. In this context, China began the eighth reform of basic education in a new round of reform of basic education has been found, the base class is still teaching time-consuming, inefficient, "thankless" embarrassing phenomenon. student-centered curriculum requirements, many schools are still high grades, the implementation of the sea tactical, simply do not consider strategies for effective teaching and research, but is still using the original teaching methods. ignored both teachers and students in the classroom teaching process in a variety of needs and potential ability, but also ignore the teachers and students the ability to create groups in classroom activities so effective teaching again a hot topic, the majority of scholars and teachers to promote the transfer of knowledge through effective teaching, development, creation, improve the efficiency of the classroom, to achieve the overall development of students to adapt to the ever-changing modern society. effective teaching research has been very mature, but there are still a lot of controversy and shortcomings.

2 rigid thinking of teachers, instructional technology is not strong, the lack of flexible diversity. Teachers are teaching the dominant, leading the development of classroom teachers remain stick to the original method of education of the drawbacks of the educational evaluation, but a lot of teachers has been formed its own set of teaching theory, unwilling to accept the new teaching methods and teaching reform. due to economic and other factors, many parts of the quality of teachers is not high, so the teaching ability is limited, it is difficult to achieve effective teaching, as well as the efficiency of the class of improved.

3. Strategy, but lack of practical operational. Although a lot of knowledge of the application of effective teaching strategies many different strategies, but still too theoretical in our country, more primary school teachers with practical skills, theoretical knowledge, so they requested that the the limited teaching strategies with practicality and maneuverability and such a wide place in our country, there are many differences between schools, there is a huge difference between teachers, these theories of the strategy is not suited to hardware facilities, quality of teachers in high schools and regions, it should be possible to simplify the application of the methods and strategies for effective teaching, effective teaching methods in the nationwide primary school please Only then can it truly improve the efficiency of the classroom to enhance students' learning efficiency, to promote the development of education in our country.

(2 Prospects

1. With effective teaching methods and strategies in the status of research in a lot of the methods and strategies ignore the differences of local teachers, effective use of time is difficult to get, so teaching methods and strategies to make it simplistic, visualize, do not worry due to various differences result in some places, some teachers can not be implemented, leading classroom inefficient. ask questions in class, understand their students, teaching strategies, classroom management to start in this regard we can learn from research. the Liu Taochuan author of << effective method Complete Works >> Gary D. Baoli Qi build effective teaching strategies, and ask questions in class, understand their students, directly or indirectly teaching strategies, classroom management and other aspects of classroom teaching. >> Helie governance << effective teaching strategies teaching guides, are very suitable for primary school teachers to learn from.

2. Transforming the ideas of teachers, contributing to its effective teachers so that teachers no longer stay in a rut, but to advance with the times, to accept the concept of effective teaching, this concept for the pilot to guide their teaching for primary school teachers important is to develop their theoretical knowledge, social, educational departments, schools as much as possible on primary school teachers training to improve their teaching theoretical level, so that it can better understand the concept of effective teaching, and can consciously use Su beauty valid concept gave birth to effective teaching, effective teaching is a set of teaching strategies adopted to encourage students to learn, to achieve teaching objectives it emphasized the effectiveness of teaching, teaching effectiveness bottom line is that the achievement of the goals of teaching, but at the same time, effective teaching more emphasis on a reasonable time, fully utilized to maximize the development of students to pursue a limited time. journal Science the new curriculum requirements of the three courses target areas ---- knowledge and skills, processes and methods, attitudes and values This means that effective teaching must encourage students to receive comprehensive full development in these three target areas, effective teaching requires teachers to the value of the subject is positioned in the complete human development the core of effective teaching requires teachers to have a valid teaching concepts, according to the actual situation of their own students, depending on the learning content, careful selection and design of the investigation activities, scientific organizations teaching process, and to continue to reflect on their own teaching, and continue to find new teaching methods, so as to maximize learning arrival.

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