Restructuring and development of the basic problems \ a breakthrough and cost to resolve carrier

[Abstract] academic consensus that China will continue to develop we must change the mode of development, which is to implement the restructuring and development, academic discussion only mode of transformation and development goals, with little discussion of the restructuring and development path that is, how to achieve the target model from the original model. Article use argue << migrant workers, time and space, polity features and "China's development of the mystery" - the development costs to resolve theoretical discussion >> understanding to discuss several important issues about China's restructuring and development path, that the restructuring and development of the basic problems planted, a breakthrough and cost to resolve body.

[Keywords] restructuring and development, a breakthrough, the cost of the basic problems, to resolve the carrier, people of migrant workers, the construction of small towns, land, home

First, the problem of the proposed


Statistical bulletin released by the National Bureau of Statistics show that in 2009, China's GDP reached 33.5353 trillion yuan (RMB), the country's population of 1.33 billion, per capita income of close to $ 3,700, according to World Bank statistics, the middle-income countries in 2006 per capita GDP of $ 3,051, which indicated that China has entered the ranks of middle-income countries. many scholars based on the lessons of the development of the countries in the world, China will face a "middle-income trap" on how to cross the "middle-income trap" many policy recommendations. these policy recommendations, summed up mainly in two aspects: First, adjust the distribution policy, the establishment of the fruits of development sharing mechanism, so as to further expand the domestic market, is to enhance the independent innovation, industrial upgrading, thereby enhancing our industry international competitiveness.

I believe that scholars above explore insightful, gives a revelation, but the discussion also inadequate first policy proposal limited generalization based on data analysis, medium income countries have successfully entered the ranks of high-income countries, Japan and South Korea , "high growth accompanied by or directly brought about the relative fairness of the income distribution, ... more important point is that the high growth and the improvement of industrial competitiveness is highly consistent and long-term national hovering at the level of middle-income countries And thus, such as South America, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Chile and Asia, Malaysia, Thailand, the roots is that "The income gap is too large and can not be achieved" general manufacturing upgrade to the high-end industries and social services ". visible, general policy recommendations put forward by scholars, that is, for any country facing a "middle-income trap" are applicable, I think, has been achieved in China's development miracle odd because of (special reasons), then continue to develop will odd title (special issue), suggestions scholars, however, did not seize the special problems continue to develop in China. Secondly, the policy proposal incomplete. Obviously, the so-called transformation is relatively original development model transformation process is to target development process from the original model of development. explore restructuring and development, we must clarify two issues: first, to clarify the difference between the target original development model development model, so know the transformation of development direction, and the second, to ascertain from the original model of development to achieve the target model of development path, and thus know how to implement the restructuring and development. However, scholars have put forward policy recommendations, namely to adjust the distribution policy, the establishment of the fruits of development shared mechanism, thus further to expand the domestic market "and" enhance independent innovation, industrial upgrading, thereby enhancing the international competitiveness of our industry, just the mode of transformation and development goals, is not involved in the restructuring and development path. Admittedly, it is important to know that the restructuring and development of the target mode For this reason, we believe that scholars meaningful discussion However, in order to achieve the restructuring and development, more importantly, should know that the path to reach the goal of development model from an existing development model, it is in this sense, we say incomplete discussion of scholars.

From the large paper aims to explore the path of China's transformation and development from the original model of development, that is how to achieve the goal of development model. However, this article can not put forward a clear restructuring and development path (This article will talk about later, due to the presence access to information paradox, foreseen in the beginning of the restructuring and development of a clear the transformation development path is impossible), but only to discuss several important issues. Previously, I wrote my article a << migrant workers, time and space poor, polity characteristics with the mystery of China's development "- development costs to resolve theoretical discussion >> (hereinafter referred to as << development costs defuse theory to explore >>), which gained some understanding of this paper defuse the theory to explore << development costs> > get awareness for guidance, analysis of the situation facing the development of China's transformation, which explore the transformation and development of the basic problems in China, a breakthrough and cost to resolve the carrier.

Second, the people of migrant workers - China's transformation and development of the basic problems


Clear the transformation and development of the basic problems in China, is the most important issue to explore China's transformation must be addressed in the development path. Admittedly, it is clear the restructuring and development of the basic problems does not mean to know the development path of China's transformation, however, the restructuring and development of the basic problems of restructuring and development plan, it is possible in practice to achieve the restructuring and development of the optimal path.

To clear the restructuring and development of the basic problem, you first need to discuss the development of China's basic problem I believe that the development of China's basic problem is the issue of migrant workers. Us based on the following two points: First, China's development from traditional agricultural economy to the process of economic development of the modern industrial economy, the dispersed population in rural areas to urban migration, urbanization process, however, from the traditional agricultural economy to the process of economic development of the modern industrial economy, the most important change is that farmers become workers, implementation of rural dispersed population to urban migration, urbanization process, the most important change is the farmers become public. Obviously, these two changes is the basic meaning of the problem of migrant workers in this context, the issue of migrant workers reflects the social nature of China's development. Secondly, the migrant workers and Chinese development process from beginning to the beginning is the date of birth of the migrant workers of China's reform and opening up and the first 30 years of the development of migrant workers to resolve development costs of migrant workers is the main force of China's early development, China's development is complete (ie, China has entered the ranks of developed countries), an important symbol of the disappearance of migrant workers (people of migrant workers) In summary, we should conclude: the issue of migrant workers throughout the development process of China's basic problem.

China's transformation and development of the basic problems with the development of China's basic problem is the same strain, but because of the different stages of development, the basic problem is also a slight difference between the author believes that the restructuring and development of the basic problem is that the people of migrant workers. Arguments the following: first, to this day, the migrant workers have changed, the system of migrant workers can no longer continue. "80 'migrant workers' ...... without the skills and experience of the agricultural production, agricultural production instinctively do not like , and from 80% to 90% of the wages in the older generation of migrant workers send home is different, from 65% to 70% of the income generation of migrant workers, mainly for their own consumption, generation of migrant workers willing to patronize and enjoy 'city people' consumer sites, lifestyle shows, the new generation of migrant workers will no longer be willing to do both "farmers" and "workers" identity "amphibious", they hope that the citizens of. Second, the development of China's transformation must be people of migrant workers, the Chinese transformation and development needs of the people of migrant workers. As mentioned above, the restructuring and development of the target model is summed up in two main aspects: First, adjust the distribution policy, the establishment of the sharing of the fruits of development mechanism, thus further expanding the domestic market, is to enhance the independent innovation, industrial upgrading, thereby enhancing the international competitiveness of our industry, however, China's largest inequitable distribution of unfair distribution of migrant workers, migrant workers in the early development of China has made tremendous contribution, but migrant workers low wages, poor living conditions, not into the city to do the people's qualifications, housing reform, urban residents are mostly cheap to get a home equity, migrant workers and their families paid nothing. adjust the distribution policy, the establishment of the fruits of development shared mechanism, the most important of migrant workers compensation, and the best way is to help the people of migrant workers migrant workers compensation. enhance independent innovation to achieve industrial upgrading, and requires a high technological level and a high degree of organization of industrial workers, which requires people of migrant workers as the main force of Chinese workers, "Without their 'public' and 'industrial workers of' China's industrial transformation and upgrading can only be empty talk." In short, the people of migrant workers, both adjust the distribution policy, the establishment of the fruits of development shared mechanism "content, but also enhance independent innovation, industrial upgrading" an important condition for the third, China's urbanization process, in essence, farmers Public members of the public process. According to statistics, the proportion of the urban population of moderately developed countries is generally about 70%, China's current population of about 1.3 billion, if the press to reach the level of moderately developed countries, the urban population should reach 10 billion National Bureau of Statistics , 2009 China's urban population of 594 million, including the floating population of 1.5 to 1.6 billion, apparently here said floating population of migrant workers, minus 1.5 to 1.6 million floating population, real urban population is only about 400 million As a result, we have come to:

10 million -4 million = 600 million (people)
A population of 600 million, is that our country needs the urbanization of the population, however, China's migrant workers, about 200 million people, 1986-1990 According to statistics, the average rural households and a population of 4.8 to 4.7, taking into account some farmers may be more than a farmer workers, therefore, the average proportion of the population of migrant workers and their family at 1:3 Thus, we arrive:

200 000 000 x 3 = 600 million (people)

That is, the citizens of migrant workers and their families is also 600 million - which happens to need the urbanization of the population in China shows that the process of China's urbanization process, in essence, the people of migrant workers. Fourth, migrant workers Citizens, not only an economic problem, but also a political issue. resolve I argue << development cost theory to explore >> distinguish several development costs, development costs Y social costs incurred for the implementation of rural to urban migration, such costs at the time deferred payment - which is the default in payment of migrant workers. outstanding loans must also, now also the conclusion, we should conclude: China restructuring and development of the basic The problem is that the people of migrant workers to write papers should be pointed out explicitly the transformation and development of the basic problems of the basic problems of China's development and China has a very important significance. argue << development cost to resolve theoretical discussion >> explore the development costs defuse information mechanisms to obtain understanding as follows: first, the development cost mechanisms to resolve problem essentially is the development path problem, to achieve optimal cost to resolve the mechanism is equivalent to the optimal development path, and second, the development costs in the final analysis information costs, obtain paradox, therefore does not exist the information cost logic (clever understanding) to resolve mechanism - In other words, people in the early stage of development, clearly know the the optimal development costs defuse mode due to the presence of information ie the optimal development path, almost impossible, third, there is another (ie, non-logic) the cost to resolve the mechanism: the rulers long as wholeheartedly for the people, from the interests of the people consider the issue, there is logically impossible to obtain information may be obtained as a social process, the so-called basic problem, in the final analysis is to establish what the crowd is the subject of "the people", thus establishing the protagonist of the social process. history is created by people, the social process people self-motion process. although in the beginning of the process, due to the existence of the information paradox, we can not understand all the mysteries of the process, but, as long as clear a historical stage in the main body of the "people" to find a social process protagonist, This is according to plan social development, in practice it is possible to create the optimal path in the democratic revolution, our party is clear that the basic problems of the Chinese revolution, the peasants, and thus find the optimal path of the Chinese revolution - - encircling the city, and ultimately win the revolutionary regime. development costs defuse theory I argue << explore >> explored paradox, due to the presence of information in the beginning of reform and opening up, it is impossible to be made in advance to obtain the task of the development of the Migrant Workers' Information Communist Party of China to rely on the flesh-and-blood ties with the Chinese farmers, relying on its aim of serving the people wholeheartedly, led by farmers to create a contract responsibility system in rural areas, and thus prepare the institutional basis for later farmers work. corollary clearly The basic problem is that China's transformation and development of the people of migrant workers, as according to plan the development of China's transformation, is also possible in practice to create the optimal mode of restructuring and development costs to resolve that is restructuring and development of the optimal path.

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Third, the construction of small towns - a breakthrough in China's transformation and development


In this small town, means the county Chengguan town and county jurisdiction towns on it in contact with the city, the next connected with the village, connecting urban and rural nodes. As the name suggests, the restructuring and development of a breakthrough that is restructuring and development, the first step Therefore, the restructuring and development of a breakthrough development path in the title should be in transition, the basic argument about this: start and accelerate the construction of small towns is a breakthrough in China's transformation and development.

To illustrate the construction of small towns is a breakthrough in China's transformation and development, must discuss in depth the connotation of China's transformation and development. Clearly, the development is not just economic development that the traditional agricultural economy to a modern industrial economy changes, but also social development that is dispersed population in rural areas to towns migration urbanization process of urbanization academia there is a lot of debate, summed up in the following different propositions: First, advocates the development of big cities, Priority should be given to the development of small cities and towns, and advocate medium and small cities and small towns coordinated development. advocate of the coordinated development of the third ie medium and small cities and small towns I agree with. reasons for this claim, the scholars have systematically expounded, will not repeat them here should be pointed out that, after the construction of China's urbanization emphasis development in big cities, to ignore small towns. doing so has generated a lot of problems, such as urbanization, industrialization (mainly migrant workers Citizens), exacerbated by the urban-rural dual structure, urban high prices lagged behind the employment difficulties of College Students etc. Thus I believe that our restructuring and development should include: small towns in transition from the emphasis on the development of big cities to the coordinated development of medium and small cities and small towns in transition. above understanding is correct, then we should conclude The development of a breakthrough.

We say that the construction of small towns is a breakthrough in the restructuring and development, not to say that the construction of small towns is equal to the transformation and development, but that is only to start the construction of small towns in order to promote the restructuring and development.

First, a breakthrough in the restructuring and development of small towns, is an important measure to solve the basic problems of the restructuring and development as described above, the basic problem is that China's transformation and development of the people of migrant workers, but low-income migrant workers, it is difficult to pay their the cost of living in the city. According to statistics, only about 10% of the farmers tools into city public with the minimum economic cost of small towns, people of migrant workers to reduce costs. addition, small towns and rural areas connection, start construction of small towns can be after the development of the industry to solve the housing (migrant workers live in rural areas the original home), whereby migrant workers can be the first workers money and later buyers sequential completion of the public task short, only the development of the city, not solve the problems of the people of migrant workers, only to start and accelerate the construction of small towns, in order to effectively address the people of migrant workers.

Second, small towns for a breakthrough in the restructuring and development, is a key link to achieve development goals in transition mode As mentioned earlier, the target of the restructuring and development mode, adjust the distribution policy, the establishment of the fruits of development sharing mechanism, so as to further expand domestic market, enhance independent innovation, industrial upgrading, thereby enhancing the international competitiveness of our industry. Clearly, the need to start the construction of small towns to huge investments, which in itself is a big market, start small towns, will greatly expand development space, which provided for the transfer of existing industries in China's cities and coastal places, and also enhance independent innovation to achieve industrial upgrading and provide a vast market for urban and coastal. shows start and accelerate the construction of small towns, the goal of China's transformation and development mode significance.

Finally, a breakthrough for the restructuring and development of small towns, is conducive to breaking the restructuring and development of the most important "lock", thus speeding up the restructuring and development. Argue << development costs to resolve theoretical discussion >> use of natural energy science concepts and evolutionary economics "path dependence" and "lock" the concept of the development costs to resolve the energy principle, obtain the following understanding: social self-development capacity, because there is always a difference in the process of social development, and social differences in the social development, energy, social development development costs did not exist, or the so-called development costs are caused by man-made (anthropogenic lock), therefore, the means to promote social development, in the final analysis, is to break the human lock Well, the most important "lock" What? answer: urban and rural locked. causing this lock reasons, our emphasis on the development of big cities, to neglect the development of small towns. Perhaps this is necessary in the early stages of development, but has caused a lot of serious consequences. start and accelerate small towns, you can form a variety of energy flow and promote economic and social development of better and faster. mentioned earlier, the construction of small cities and towns will provide the venue, as well as cities and coastal industrial upgrading our existing cities and coastal industrial transfer market, is a flow of energy. addition, start-up and speed up the construction of small towns, employment or entrepreneurship to small towns to attract the number of university students, in order to achieve a reasonable flow of talent. these people will be buyers in small towns, which ranks the city high and house prices eased, the same flow of energy (personnel and funds) In short, the start and accelerate the construction of small towns is conducive to breaking the restructuring and development of China most important "lock" to promote energy flow to promote the restructuring and development.

Fourth, the "land" and "home" - the restructuring and development costs to resolve carrier


This article said "land", referring to the rural ownership belongs to the collective land, homestead this article said "home", not anthropological concept, but a concept in economics refers to the way of life. Has not the public of the farmers, the concept of "home" means is contracted management collective farmland as their main source of survival, on the upcoming public of the farmers, the concept of "home" is to obtain town life based on both the purchase of housing in cities and towns, including their own businesses and rely on skilled employment, so as to have access to the source of life means. As mentioned earlier, the basic problem is that China's transformation and development of the people of migrant workers, China's urbanization the public process of the the process substance of migrant workers in this sense, China's restructuring and development of the so-called "transformation" can be understood as the transformation of the "home" of migrant workers, that is in transition from collective arable land contractual management as their main source of survival into town their own businesses and rely on skilled employment as their main source of survival. shows that the "land" and "home" is the important issue of China's transformation and development, we need to be discussed.

Land to provide space for the development of the cities and towns, and thus is the most important resource of the cities and towns in the process of urbanization, agricultural land into construction land land differential exists after the road, are taking the country in China's urban construction land requisition low prices from farmers land acquisition, longer follow market-oriented way to sell high-priced, in this process, the government became the biggest beneficiaries of the land differential income. According to statistics, the eastern city construction funds constitute about 30% of the land transfer income, the land mortgage finance about 60%, the Midwest city funds for construction, land transfer revenues accounted for about 20%, the land usufruct pledge financing about 70%. should be noted that this practice is contrary to the rule of law. because of the original agricultural land not the basis of the "home" of the farmers of the public, and therefore take for granted and farmers' access to urban security "home" of the original capital, the government on what basis monopoly land Peasants transactions, thereby depriving the farmers into urban security "home" of the original capital? This practice is harmful. mentioned earlier, the essence of urbanization in China is the people of migrant workers, the Chinese transformation development can be understood as the transformation of farmers 32 "home", if we deprive farmers into urban security "home" of the original capital, Peasants transactions will inevitably result in the farmers into the cities and towns can be attributed to the "home", and harm social stability this practice is illogical. Obviously, the original land Peasants to promote urbanization process, however, the government monopoly on land into town security "home" of the original capital, thereby depriving farmers, farmers would be unable to Citizens - which is equivalent to the arrest of urbanization. Such practices do not even meet the political moral. Admittedly, the development of cities and towns need to build water supply, power supply , hospitals, roads, schools and other public facilities, and in this sense, as public infrastructure investment land Peasants differential income seems to be God the righteous However, I argue << development costs to resolve theoretical discussion >> explored the development of cities and towns The required investment in the construction of public facilities are development costs Y, part of the cost when the migrant workers have created, but deferred payment, therefore, the development of small cities and towns need to input in the construction of public facilities, supposedly from the repayment of the debt (repayment is deferred payment payments) to complete, and can be used without depriving farmers into urban security "home" of the original capital.

Of course, the land as peasants security "home" in the capital, but also the need for restrictions. Ours is a large and populous country, food security is a big issue, therefore, we need to uphold the protection of farmland to the red line. However, urbanization, land intensive, and thus, in theory, is to save farmland under the Planning Act, urban land use standards the 100m2 / person (including residential, industrial land and other public land), and the rural homestead on only up to 150m2 / person (in reality generally more than this - number) In this sense, our country is not a lack of land, but the effective development and utilization of land resources policies and systems. Therefore, as long as adhere to the principle of dynamic equilibrium of the total arable land in this condition, should allow farmers to homestead capital to participate in the construction of urbanization, the implementation of the urban and rural construction land with the same rights and the same price, so that farmers share land Peasants differential income as capital in urban security "home".

I argue << development cost to resolve a theoretical discussion., Had the first 30 years of development, the development of cost resolution mechanisms were discussed. Resolution mechanisms found to exist in China nearly 30 years of development practice development costs development cost mechanisms to resolve Bb, which an effectiveness-resolution mechanisms, the "free lunch", this carrier to resolve the mechanism is the "land" and "home". This paper discusses the show that restructuring and development of the so-called "transition" can be understood as the migrant workers' home transformation and the "land" is the capital of this transformation. thus, we have reason to believe that the "land" and "home" is the transformation the development costs defuse the carrier. creativity of migrant workers in China is huge, the first 30 years of development, China's migrant workers to "land" and "home" as the carrier has created a development miracle in the restructuring and development in the future of China, as long as we are still given to "land" and "home" of migrant workers, they it is possible to create a new miracle of transformation and development in China. posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

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