On international trade and environmental rights can be coordinated

Abstract: Since the 1970s, international trade relations and international environmental rights rules more attention from the international community, many environmental rights rules directly or indirectly affect international trade activities. These rules not only to participate in international trade economic agents have a certain binding and provide guidance for the development of international trade and its rules. In fact, many of the rules on environmental rights have been accommodated international trade rules, and the focus of the dispute lies in the relationship between what exists between them what kind of relationship with the development of economic globalization, the conflict between the two can No coordination. From the legal effect of rank, the international trade rules and rules of international environmental rights belong to international law and neat rows of independent law department drive system generally does not exist hierarchical relationship, but does not preclude some has become customary international law environmental rules have the right to trade higher than the international rules of law. The return of both the purpose of both is to improve the level of human life, so the rules of international trade rules and environmental rights should be possible through constant conflict, running and eventually reached the coordination and harmonization.
Paper Keywords: protection rules of international trade, human rights, environmental rights of international trade rules and environmental rights is closely related to the relationship between the two in recent years, many academic articles and reports issues discussed keen, from these articles and reports you can see, the problem for scholars did not reach a consensus view or a mainstream point of view. Many environmentalists in breach of international trade environment raised harsh criticism that the relationship between environmental protection and free trade are in conflict, exclusion, trade liberalization policies will promote mining, metallurgy, manufacturing, chemical industry, etc. scale development of polluting enterprises, resulting in further environmental degradation; the same time, there are many liberals to pursue trade that trade does not necessarily lead to environmental problems, and eventually be able to help protect the environment, as BDGardner said - only when we are wealthy enough we care about the environment can assume luxury.
Free trade has long been considered beneficial, it can improve the welfare of the countries concerned, promote economic growth. Although the current international community to this phenomenon mixed, but this does not change the international trade in free trade and open markets as its ultimate goal to pursue. In contrast, the international environmental rules, as a new thing, what is involved in environmental issues is a matter of major problem throughout human survival and development. In today's globalized environment, a general increase in awareness of environmental protection, environmental issues will play an important role in international trade negotiations and the final process of signing of the agreement in smooth.
This article will focus on the above issues will be the article is divided into five parts: The first part describes the development process of environmental rights; the second part describes how to generate international trade environment; the third part of the analysis of international trade rules and environmental measures contents; s four parts about the international trade rules and environmental rights and conflict resolution, and try to reveal a trend it embodies; the fifth part is the possibility of international trade rules and the coordinated development of environmental rights argument.
First, the human rights history of the development of environmental rights is bourgeois first proposed, but it is by no means the monopoly of the bourgeoisie. Early in the feudal period, the working class began for their survival and freedom struggle, they are under the leadership of the bourgeoisie, in human rights, equality, freedom to pursue an active struggle over life, eventually overthrew the feudal ruling class, but they not enough time to enjoy the fruits of victory of their compatriots in exchange for blood and life, he found the environment are eroding their victory. Dust clouds the sky, the ground sewers across the ocean tide, forests and plant and animal species plummeted, desert expansion, both in the threat to human survival. It is increasingly clear recognition that the enjoyment of all human rights and environmental issues are closely linked. If the right to life is a prerequisite for all other human rights, the environment is the right carrier, deterioration of the environment the right to life, to destroy not only the individual to life, and even affect the survival of mankind as a whole, 'not in the skin, hair adhere attached. ' Therefore, environmental protection and gradually enter the international human rights protection perspective, people have begun to realize personal growth and happiness depends on a healthy, natural and not destroyed the environment, which is the foundation of human rights, so they can promote a the new generation of human rights - the right environment.
Environment as a human right was first presented in 1960, the former Federal Republic of Germany a doctor for international trade papers to the North Sea dumping of radioactive waste conduct complaint to the European Commission on Human Rights, he considers such behavior violated its basis 'the European Convention on Human rights' enjoyed 'good citizen has a right, a suitable environment to live', which would lead to the international community's concern for the environment right.
The United States and Japan are the world's first environmental rights into domestic law in the country. 1969 United States, 'International Environmental Policy Act,' the first chapter of Article 3: 'The state believes that everyone should enjoy a healthy environment, but each person has a responsibility to contribute to the maintenance and improvement of the environment.' In 1969 the Japanese ' tokyo Metropolitan pollution prevention Act, 'provides that:' All citizens have the right to health, right to a safe and comfortable life, this right shall be subject to pollution violations 'subsequently, countries around the world to environmental rights as a fundamental right of citizens to write its own. constitution. Chile in 1980, as written into the Constitution article 19, paragraph 3, of the Constitution article written in 1980, South Korea 33, 1982, in the Constitution of Portugal 66, 1987 Philippine Constitution Article 16 is written on the Citizens' Environmental Right provisions.
The first environmental rights as an international issue in the international community appeared, is the 'International Symposium on pollution problems' in March 1970, held in Tokyo, Japan. Meeting published in the 'Tokyo Declaration' fifth put forward: 'We ask everyone to enjoy their health and welfare and environmental rights and other elements of contemporary heritage passed on to future generations should be a natural beauty rich natural resources rights as a basic human right, it is determined in the legal system down. 'in 1972 opening of the Stockholm Conference on the human environment United Nations is considered by the international community pay attention to ecological and environmental protection mark the first milestone, the meeting adopted the' United Nations Declaration on human environment ',' human environmental action plan 'and other documents. 1982 UN General Assembly adopted the 'World Charter for Nature' and its Article 23 provides: 'Everyone should have an opportunity in accordance with national legislation, individually or collectively, directly participate in the development decisions related to their environment; damage or degradation encountered such an environment should have the means to sue for redress of the Rio Declaration on environment and development 'in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the World environment and development adopted by the General Assembly', 'the first one provides as follows:.' are entitled to human health in harmony with nature and abundance of life . 'the document describes the environment by right as an important component of human rights has caused widespread concern in the international community, also it means that the international community began to use legal means to protect the global environment.
Second, the trend of liberalization of trade conflicts and environmental rights of international trade on the impact of environmental rights in international trade but can coordinate the focus of many scholars dispute, environmentalists believe that international trade will have no control of the global environment cause serious damage, and this damage is irreparable, so it should be strictly limited, and even abandoned if necessary. While liberals argue that trade liberalization is beneficial in terms of fundamental environmental protection, because it can increase the gross domestic product, so as to raise funds for environmental protection provides a reliable source. There is also a compromise view that: Trade liberalization is a worthy goal, but this should be limited to the pursuit of a certain framework, or shall comply with minimum human rights and environmental protection.
Some scholars believe that between the two is an absolute shift in relations, which are bound to develop respect for harm other hand: the more strict environmental control, the more you will hinder free trade; on the contrary, the more free trade developed, environmental pollution and destruction of the natural environment will be more severe. International trade and environmental protection can not be denied the existence of conflicts but these conflicts can not be resolved in a short time, but if it as either-or relationship-related scholars have said it? I have reservations about this. Throughout the moment, the international community generally agreed that the impact of international trade on the environment, mainly through the following three ways.
(A) a commodity trading. Developed by a large number of resource-intensive products imported to developing countries, with the expansion of demand in foreign markets for this type of resource-intensive products, it stimulates the production of more large-scale exporter. This endangered wildlife (ivory, skins) impact especially, rare species of wild animals themselves have a higher value, too frequent or large-scale import and export of rare animals, it will lead to the extinction of many species of wildlife, so species diversity throughout the world suffer.
Another example is some foreign bottled water supplier, usually they will by virtue of their strong economic strength to buy the land in a large area of the country to control the entire water inside the region to prepare for their production, in order to obtain profit, it does not local people will consider whether there will be water available, it will not consider the protection of local water resources, which also affects the interests of the indigenous inhabitants of causing serious damage.
(B) trade in services. According to statistics, more than half of marine pollution is caused due to the maritime transport services, only about 10% of the pollution is due to an accident caused by navigation. As countries there is a big difference in the environmental protection requirements of the standard, if the law in the waste-producing countries is very tight, resulting in the present domestic waste disposal costs are very expensive, companies will choose to waste destined for those laws are relatively loose of State. With the same time, a number of developed countries for short-term economic interests, ignoring the importance of environmental protection, so to make this trade to exist, and the transport process itself is a mobile source of pollution, will cause pollution of air and water . According to a survey report by Greenpeace, developed countries are in the scale of 50 million tons per year to developing China conveyance of dangerous substances. Seen this problem for developing countries is especially grim.
(Iii) the international investment. The current environmental standards around the world is different, and this difference between the developed and developing countries especially, there is no doubt that this gap will lead to some high-pollution industries in order to avoid legal sanctions, or to save the cost of production of these industries to developing countries, which will directly affect the environment in developing countries. Faced with such countries and multinational investment, developing countries in a dilemma, on the one hand developing countries urgently need to use the opportunity of economic globalization to introduce its own funds to solve the problem of lack of funds, and thus to promote domestic economic development, solve the basic food and clothing nationals; on the other hand, developed countries transfer industry, mostly highly polluting industries, but these companies are Romans with a kind of state of mind, and did not do its utmost to maintain the local environment, which makes It was a dearth of economic strength and technological strength of developing countries to solve environmental problems worse. Legal papers, such as December 6, 1984, Union Carbide (Union Carbide Corporation) located in the central Indian city of Bombo Parr pesticide factory methyl - isocyanate leak within an hour, the concentration of toxic gases over the entire city of more than 1000-fold safety standards, within a few days resulting in 2500 deaths and more than 3,000 endangered, more than 50,000 people a lifetime of blindness, 125,000 people are subject to different degrees of damage, resulting in world history the most serious toxic chemicals leak contamination.
Through the above analysis, we can see that international trade is indeed one of the causes of environmental problems, but this is not equivalent to as long as international trade is bound to cause environmental problems, countries are quite clear, take as long as international trade appropriate environmental protection measures can mitigate or even avoid many of the environmental problems and environmental problems occur frequently because of market failure, multinational illegal operation or host weak environmental awareness, simply due to various factors and other immediate benefits.
Third, the contents into the international trade rules and environmental measures analysis first, clearly defined environmental protection and sustainable development of the international trade rules aim.
Preamble 'Establishing the World Trade Organization Agreement' clearly stipulates: 'Members should deal with the relationship between trade and economic matters in order to improve the standards of living, ensuring full employment, to ensure the continued growth of real income and effective demand, the expansion of trade in goods and services as a precondition ; while allowing accordance with sustainable development objectives, optimized for the world's resources; according to their actual needs and level of economic development, seeking both to protect and preserve the environment, but also the means to achieve these objectives 'obviously can be found, compared to 1947 preamble 'General Agreement on tariffs and Trade', the agreement between the biggest difference is that, for the first time very clear environmental protection and harmonious development of international trade as a common theme, the preamble to the agreement, 'the General Agreement on tariffs and Trade' in 'make full use of the world's natural resources,' the pure incentive target has been restricted to 'take advantage' to 'fair use', it means that international trade is no longer just the pursuit of maximizing benefits, but the pursuit of the world's limited resources in a rational, optimizing the use of, WTO's Committee on Trade and environment will be working between trade and the environment to establish a constructive relationship, in order to not undermine the multilateral trading system in a fair, open, non-discriminatory characteristics on increasing protection efforts to promote sustainable development.
Second, given the Member States' right to environmental protection exception. '
GATT Article 20 (b), (g) subsection provides that: the provisions of this Agreement shall be construed as prohibiting members to adopt or strengthen the following measures, but countries where the same conditions, the implementation of measures shall not constitute arbitrary unreasonable difference treatment, or a disguised restriction on international trade: ...... (b) 'to protect people, animals and plants health pepole measures necessary' (g) 'effective measures to protect exhaustible natural resources' as free trade exceptions. For this sentence, I think we can be understood in two steps, the first part is the preface, which requires member states as long as the 'same situation Member States' does not constitute arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, or 'constitute international trade under disguised restriction 'on the premise that member States have the right to take necessary measures for the protection of people and their animal and plant life and health, showing its preface these exceptional measures aimed at limiting abuse; and (b), (g) the you can see is a licensing provisions, when the conditions laid down in line with the preface, and also the measures taken comply with the provisions of this clause, the country has taken measures to protect legality, legitimacy. Therefore visible, in the trade and environment conflict, WTO still based on free trade for the purpose of, and protection measures can only be operated in compliance with its provisions apply only prerequisite possible.
Third, it allows members to protect the environment for the purpose of using preventive measures in trade.
'Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement' (SPS Agreement) further elaborated provisions to protect animal or plant life or health aspects related to quarantine measures, relaxed members of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures requirements. The agreement Article 2 states: 'Members shall ensure that there is not enough scientific evidence shall not maintain any sanitary and phytosanitary measures, except as provided in paragraph 7 of Article 5.' Article 5, paragraph 7 states: 'Insufficient about scientific basis case, a member State in accordance with existing relevant information, including information from international organizations and other members of the implementation of sanitary and phytosanitary measures in the interim to take some kind of sanitary and phytosanitary measures. 'this provision is actually given to the members of the take temporary precautionary measures based on the objective situation right. Compared with other agreements, SPS agreement is more flexible, which on the one hand and actively promote international standards adopted by States, guidelines and recommendations; on the other hand, also allows the Member States in the ability of the situation and take measures to higher standards as long as the country can implement these measures have scientific proof, or it is not sufficient scientific basis, but the country that under the national circumstances that national measures taken are appropriate and can be used as a preventive reason, but the member States to fulfill transparency obligations, the timely disclosure of information relating to quarantine and health regulations.
Fourth, to allow members to take green subsidies.
'Subsidies and Countervailing Measures Agreement' in Article 2 (c) provides that, under certain conditions, all members due to the implementation of new environmental regulations and increased the financial burden on domestic companies to provide subsidies. However, this subsidy can not cause two effects: First, this is conducive to export subsidies, but harm the interests of an industry of the importing country, and second, the subsidy in favor of domestic industry, but harm the interests of other countries in accordance with GATT deserve or trade interests of other countries.
Fifth, if the destination countries for the application of environmental protection deems appropriate domestic measures.
'TBT Agreement' (TBT Agreement), in its preamble states:. 'Can not stop any member thinks appropriate level, to take measures such as life and health and the protection of the environment to protect human, animal and plant necessary' as long as these measures 'members of the same situation does not result in arbitrary discrimination or unfair treatment,' or 'does not constitute a disguised restriction on international trade', and 'in line with the provisions of this agreement.' The agreement explicitly protect the environment, human rights, animal and plant life and health gives countries allow Member States outside the international standard, select the appropriate domestic measures to meet the special needs of their own, as long as it considers that the measures are appropriate, but must follow the principles of transparency and notification, modern enterprise management papers to minimize the impact on trade, both as to the implementation of WTO members are inconsistent with international standards or technical regulations review process, it must inform the other members in advance at the appropriate time. Meanwhile, the members also should be quickly published the relevant provisions of the official technical regulations and assessment procedures, the establishment on the relevant inquiry point to answer questions and provide information to interested parties other members.
All documents listed above are related to trade and environment issues, although the content of the relevant provisions are vague in many respects the provisions is not very mature, but still showed the influence of the environment on the gradual increase in trade; in global trade integration process, both of the system become more and more integration of these global environmental protection and regional cooperation will lead us to find a comprehensive, harmonious approach to protecting the environment ecosystem.
Fourth, the resolve and the development trend of international trade rules and environmental rights conflict with the right depth awareness of environmental recognition and attention, more and more environmental regulations are developed or even be incorporated into the content of international trade rules to go, but they contradictions in practice operations, conflict remains an unavoidable problem, perhaps the same dispute to resolve these conflicts do not have the binding force of the future, but it reflects the entire international community in dealing with this issue of values.
Such as non-discrimination principle of conflict and environmental rules. The principle of non-discrimination in international trade as a fundamental principle, the basic requirement is to treat similar products as well as the implementation of the measures should not constitute discrimination. The focus of environmental rules conflict with the non-discrimination principle is that what is meant by 'the same product', according to the principle of non-discrimination in international trade, no matter what kind of production or processing methods, whether it is by both serious environmental pollution, destruction of the natural ecology production methods produced products, or the use of environmentally friendly technology to produce high-end production out of the product, as long as the final product and use the same physical symptoms, should be treated as the same product. From the environmental point of view, even though the final product use and physical symptoms may be consistent, but because of the different production processes or process to which it is taken, may have very different effects on the environment, it should not be both regarded as 'the same product.'
The earliest history of controversy about the 'same product' appeared in 1949, 'Chile v Australia subsidies sulfate case', similar and 'Federal Republic of Germany v Norway sardines tariff case', but in dealing with these cases are avoided on the ' same commodity products 'make a clear explanation, but on' Brussels tariff classification of goods ', came under the same heading either for the same product, and vice versa for different products.
And this difference in the case of the United States and Mexican tuna has been further explanation. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the presence of dolphins and tuna a wonderful symbiotic relationship, like dolphins in waters where tuna swim top, tuna fishermen catch dolphins they see activity on Shi-net fishing, but at the same time catch tuna has also led to many dolphins died. Therefore, the United States enacted in 1990, 'Marine feeding animal protection law' to prohibit the use of captured tuna net method is applied in order to protect the dolphins, and banned the import of Mexican tuna. Mexico accordingly filed objections to the GATT, GATT Panel experts believe that the US measures violated GATT principle of non-discrimination, that the capture of tuna two methods can not distinguish between different products as a basis. If you allow a State with its domestic environmental standards to restrict imports of other countries, it would seriously undermine the purpose of the GATT free trade. So in that case, the Group believes that the US trade restrictive measures taken to PPM based on breach of their obligations should be undertaken in the GATT. Visible, GATT LEG very pragmatic, it does not allow for an overall objective of environmental protection and trade restrictions in other countries. Point of view in respect of settlement of trade disputes, GATT in dealing with these types of cases are not inclined to environmental protection.
Similarly there are 1998 'shrimp - turtle 'case, but with the difference is, WTO Dispute Settlement Body attitude of PPM standards changed. Turtle is a protected rare animals, in the shrimp fishing, often harm sea turtles, sea turtle scientists believe that as with isolator, is able to effectively prevent injuries to sea turtles during shrimp fishing. In 1989 the United States issued the 'Endangered Species Act', in which 609 provisions in the country to ban the import of unused turtle isolator shrimp boat captured shrimp. In 1996, India, Malaysia and Pakistan's domestic shrimp exporters for failing to use turtle isolator, and the United States banned the import, so the three joint request to the WTO. The Appellate Body acknowledged the US section 609 is 'the protection of exhaustible natural resources-related measures' and recognize different shrimping methods have different environmental impact, but also affirmed that States were free to determine their own environmental policies, to achieve environmental conditions target should comply with their obligations under international Trade organization agreements. This is the first time WTO PPM accreditation standards, which indicates the position of the WTO change in the application of PPM standards. From the current WTO concerning environmental issues of international trade disputes attitude change process point of view, it is indeed institutionally focused on the protection of free trade, but with the growing environmental voice in the system design increasingly reflects the environmental protection requirements.
Fifth, the international trade rules and environmental rules right harmony possibility I do not think that there is a fundamental irreconcilable international trade rules and environmental rights protection, in other words, the development of international trade does not necessarily lead to environmental deterioration, on the contrary, economic growth is bound to improve people's ability to resist environmental issues.
First of all, the ultimate pursuit of human rights as a people and a maximum value set forth, should become the primary driving force of all human systems and construction of purpose. Therefore, the requirements of international trade need to consider human rights, taking into account environmental protection, and environmental rules in harmony is beyond doubt. Development of international trade not only communication technologies to save resources, reduce energy consumption, and ultimately to promote their economic development and improve the living standards of human beings it can be said that the ultimate goal is the pursuit is consistent with the environment right. Correspondingly, the pursuit of environmental protection and sustainable development, and ultimately settled on human rights, no human presence, no matter how beautiful environment is also meaningless. If the one-sided pursuit of quality of the environment rather than on the quality of human existence, then environmental protection will lose its real value and significance. This is the international trade rules and environmental rules on the basis of mutual coordination lies.
Secondly, the nature of trade and the environment with a unified relationship is the relationship between environment and development, environmental protection, whether or not free trade is the ultimate goal of medical test papers but only a means to reach the ultimate goal. Therefore, the relationship between free trade and environmental protection is not to take the question of who who homes, but to make better development of human society in a coordinated manner by which both. It declared as 'Establishing the World Trade Organization Agreement,' the preface adjustment of economic and trade relations, 'aimed at raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing real income and effective demand, to expand production and trade of goods and services, for the purpose of sustainable development to expand the full utilization of the world's resources, the protection and preservation of the environment, and in a manner consistent with the different levels of economic development under their needs, strengthen take all appropriate measures. 'this declaration will indicate the content in the development of international when trade rules and norms of international trade order, the international community has taken into account the protection of human rights, especially where the environmental protection of the right. Just at the same time implementing the right environmental policies and free trade, environmental and economic well-being will simultaneously achieve optimal efficiency.
Again, both illegal trade and trade liberalization have a qualitative difference, many current scholars are easy to trade liberalization and illegal trade equated precisely because some scholars equate the two will come to international trade and environmental protection opposed conclusions. That the growth of international trade can lead to environmental levels of backwards is not based on adequate, and many phenomena that the current environmental problems are mainly due to the illegal trade caused. The so-called illegal trade is to pursue its own interests, ignoring the environmental interests of his country and some destructive development and plunder. Of course, market failure, an important reason for the abuse of power and official corruption also environmental degradation, resulting in the illegal exploitation of ecological zones, the enterprises of water, land and air pollution laissez-faire, the continuing deterioration of the environment and ecology. Which refers to the so-called market failure, the market can not correct valuation and allocation of environmental resources, such as refrigerators and air conditioners freon producers do not need to destroy the ozone layer and payment of a fee. Thus, the environmental problems caused by the course of trade were some irregularities, national market economic system and administrative management system is imperfect, and other problems caused by an inevitable links with international trade itself does not have. In contrast, the development of international trade can bring more wealth to countries to enable development of environmentally friendly technologies, the development of alternatives to non-renewable resources has provided a guarantee of funds.
And there is a premise of mutual relations of international trade and environmental protection. International trade smoothly and ongoing need to have an appropriate environment and adequate resources for the premise; on the contrary, the protection of the global environment, maintaining species diversity and natural resources savings provides an important funding.
Finally, the value of sustainable development of the global economy but the international community today trends, liberalization of international trade advocates and environmentalists began to pay more attention given to each other, trying to look for coordination between the two. Looking at the current international trade rules and the development process of the relationship between environmental regulations, international trade rules do not relate to environmental rules will pursue the goals of sustainable development into international trade rules preamble; provisions dealing with international trade rules continue to environmental regulations It increased; from environmental rules only general, abstract definition to progressively refine and strengthen the requirement for member States, we are to deliver a message that international trade rules and environmental rules continuous integration, or can be said both countries are to coordinate ongoing efforts. And from the part of the environmental measures on the analysis of international trade rules, you can very clearly see the environmental rules of international trade, not just cut cut for point and surface, but a full range of incident, to include the purpose of international trade organization established technical trade, animal and plant quarantine, subsidies and countervailing measures and other aspects. These focus reflects the common understanding of human understanding of the environment and its development rose to unprecedented heights, sustainable development perspective gradually accepted, dealing with environmental issues has become a common proposition worldwide.
Of course, the two currently existing conflict can not be ignored. On the one hand, the irrational international economic order so that the history of the formation of environmental pollution and ecological damage getting worse. On the other hand, the developed countries take advantage of the current international trade rules in the fuzzy definition of environmental regulations, high-polluting industries and high transfer of hazardous wastes to developing countries; while improving domestic environmental standards in order to build a very reasonable sense of the word, depending on the 'green barriers' to the development of the country imported products refused outside. Despite these many inconsistent with international trade rules and environmental rules, but any kind of system construction must go through a stage from immature to mature, we must face the relationship between the two, they face up to the problems, we need a policy neither for the environment at the expense of the business, but not for business at the expense of the environment. We should strive to promote coordination between the two, let common interests and ideals of service to mankind.
Conclusion This paper argues that international trade rules and environmental protection of the right has made a certain degree of coordination, and this coordination will be the direction of future development of their relations, and acknowledged in today's stage to achieve a more effective and rational coordination conflicts exist between the two certain difficulties. That the international trade rules and environmental rules establish antagonistic relationship that the two are an absolute non-relationship with each other both in this is not rational. International trade is a product of history, civilization and progress of human society is the inevitable trend of its aims is to achieve the liberalization of trade, but free trade is not an end in itself, but only by means of voluntary, mutually beneficial to the promotion of global economy development to the benefit of the entire human society, which ultimately must serve human rights, the right to protection of the environment which is coincide. So, no matter what kind of rules are applicable in order to better safeguard human rights; moreover, no country or nation can not because of the need to protect the environment and to stop economic and trade activities, ignoring the environmental point of view as long as the development is unrealistic only in developing economic and trade while strengthening environmental protection is desirable States Road.

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