Abstract In order to effectively mitigate climate change, an increasing number of trade policy instruments are used, international trade rules and agreements has thus changed. We can say that the future relationship between climate and trade will become increasingly closer. Carbon footprint, carbon labeling and other trade policy tools will be a hot issue in international trade, a tremendous impact on the development of international trade. This article describes the carbon labeling and carbon footprint at the international usage, and the impact of this new trade policy tool of international trade development might have on the analysis, with a view to the sustainable development of China's international trade policy advice.
Paper Keywords: carbon footprint, carbon labeling, low-carbon economy, sustainable development of a definition of international trade in carbon labeling (a) carbon label called carbon labeling (Carbon Labeling) refers to mitigating climate change, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the promotion of low-carbon technologies, the greenhouse gas emissions in the production process commodity quantified emission index marked on the product label use, in the form of carbon labels to inform consumers of the product information. In other words, the use of filling carbon footprint labels on merchandise manner to guide buyers and consumers to choose more low-carbon goods, so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change mitigation purposes. Within the UK supermarket, each item on the shelves have a special label, the label shows the amount of carbon dioxide consumed in the production of such goods. A bottle of beer cans in the packaging, you can clearly see the carbon consumption of beer is 120 per g; carbon emissions box of 250 ml of milk is 360 grams, which is 'carbon label.'
(Ii) the relationship between carbon labeling and carbon footprint 'carbon footprint' mainly refers to the total amount of gas associated with climate change in the production and consumption of human activities in the emissions, the concept originated in the 'ecological footprint.' The first refers to a product or service throughout the life cycle (from the acquisition of raw materials to production, distribution, use and disposal after treatment) of the total release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, called carbon footprint; second refers only Companies in the production process leads to greenhouse gas emissions, referred to as corporate carbon footprint.
'Carbon labels' that is 'carbon footprint', by the calculation of the product life-cycle analysis of carbon emissions, companies can bring their products to carbon footprint labeled 'carbon label' way to inform consumers, in order to guide the consumer The market's buying behavior. Therefore, the carbon label is the product labeling to quantify carbon footprint, 'carbon' is much more consumption, leading to global warming carbon dioxide also makes much more on the big carbon footprint, carbon labeling on the product label greater; on the contrary , carbon labeling is small.
Second, the carbon label worldwide usage more mature carbon labeling is sponsored by the British. Since 2007, the British government in response to climate change carbon fund set up to promote the use of British SMEs carbon label. Also in the French National Assembly on July 12 this year passed a bill called the new environment environmental laws, where the first 85 emphasized the need by marking, labeling, post or any other 'appropriate' way to inform consumers of the product and its the carbon content of the package, and the impact of the life cycle of these products consumption of natural resources and the environment, the bill will begin again next year July 1 to run for a period of at least one year. In Asia, Japan's Ministry of Agriculture in July the same year, announced in April 2011 began the implementation of agricultural carbon labeling system, the requirements placed on the store's produce through carbon labeling to show consumers the amount of carbon dioxide emitted during its production. In addition, in the country to promote the use of carbon labels also include France, the United States, Sweden, Canada, South Korea, Taiwan and other countries and regions. States represented by the implementation of a carbon labeling system requires companies to have awareness of climate change mitigation, and guide consumers to make purchasing decisions as concerned about the price and quality of care as carbon footprint index commodities.
Specifically, starting from January 2007, the UK's largest supermarket Tesco (Tesco) says that the future requires all of the 70,000 kinds of goods shelves filling carbon label, and has been raised on a small airplane airlift goods logo, indicating that air transport is one of the main sources of carbon emissions in the life cycle of the product. French supermarket giant Casino (Casino) uses the concept of food miles to express carbon emissions, and at the same time environment-friendly labels and carbon dioxide emissions of the two logos on its own brand of merchandise. Japan's carbon labeling system will be more marked in the product life cycle carbon footprint of every stage. In potato chips, for example, from potato, processing, assembly, transport to the shelves, and even packaging recycling or waste disposal process, the carbon dioxide produced in each stage are explained clearly in the end to let consumers know which products affect the environment The most serious, and make the choice to purchase low-carbon products in environmental philosophy driven. The United States currently has more than about 20 manufacturers of 75 kinds of commodities have raised the carbon label. PepsiCo's Walkers cheese onion potato chips production is the first to raise the carbon label merchandise, GM, Dell, Home Depot and other US multinational companies have pledged to raise the carbon label on the company's goods, reflecting the mitigation of climate change awareness, guide When consumers make purchasing decisions as concerned about the price and quality of the goods concerned as carbon footprint index. Sweden After the study concluded that in Sweden 25% of per capita carbon emissions ultimately attributed to food production. Request to food labels affixed to carbon emissions, carbon emissions express the food produced in the growing, processing and other process to guide consumers to choose more green food to this end the government. Taiwan also came into effect in March 2010 to start carbon labeling system to encourage the industry to apply carbon labels marked to facilitate people to purchase low-carbon products.
If these plans are implemented, will drive commodity production and supply chain change dramatically. Carbon label on the entire product manufacturing and supply chain a tremendous pressure. Mature consumers will tend to buy products with a lower carbon footprint, which would force the company to reduce carbon emissions in order to adapt to market pressures, thus forming the thrust of the whole society energy conservation. It is foreseeable that future international trade, a growing number of import and export side will call for their organizational activities of the environmental impact of the 'carbon footprint' index, and display the carbon footprint, raise the carbon labeling of goods easier access to international trade areas accepted by consumers in other countries. All these signs are also at the same time show that the carbon label also is becoming a commodity of international passport from a public good sign.
Third, the impact of the application of carbon labeling on international trade in this country will likely pass the threshold of a new international trade. At present, China is the largest developing country and the largest exporter, once the 'carbon footprint' certification, carbon labeling system began to spread, China's export commodities are susceptible to other countries mandatory carbon labeling restrictions that affect trade and sustainable development .
Strong environmental awareness in developed countries, many countries have set up an extensive and rigorous environmental standards and labeling requirements. On the one hand, they are likely to lead to the establishment of a carbon label access system requires all goods sold in stores are labeled carbon labeling, disclosure of its carbon footprint, including both domestic products also include imported goods. This requires filling our country reflect the product throughout its life cycle carbon footprint in the export of goods. In China, due to the low level of domestic technology, commodity production and processing methods used is likely to lead to higher greenhouse gas emissions, has a high carbon footprint, in the export target market does not have a competitive advantage, it is easy to be expelled markets of developed countries; on the other hand, not only in developed countries holds the key low-carbon technologies, but also controls the carbon footprint calculation standards they once set or raise the standard of their domestic companies only need to spend a low cost, relatively easy to achieve carbon emission reductions, while export-oriented enterprises in developing countries have had to spend a lot of time and cost to purchase low-carbon technologies in developed countries. Our merchandise in order to obtain the identification and filling carbon carbon footprint labeling, to be the burden of the cost of a certain time and a lot of money to apply the price, and environment-friendly production methods and technologies require higher input costs, which is rely on low labor force domestic manufacturers to obtain the meager profits difficult to bear, it is difficult to achieve in the short term the introduction of new low-carbon products and technologies, and adoption. China, as a 'world factory', over the years in most developed countries to undertake the transfer of production lines out of high carbon emissions. At present, our country's carbon dioxide emissions, about 7% to 14% is exported to the US for the production of products produced. In Chinese exports to the US commodities, electronics, building materials, chemicals, iron and steel, plastics and other traditional high-carbon products accounted for more than half of China's export market share. And such high-carbon industry in China's national economy and account for a large proportion of these industries to conduct a comprehensive upgrading of low-carbon facing financial, technical and other aspects of restraint, can not be achieved in the short term. If such export restrictions carbon label, it will have a huge impact on China's foreign trade, so that the entire national economy are affected.
Fourth, our response to the rapid development of China's economy is mainly dependent on labor resources endowment, attracting FDI, the development of processing trade, exports of labor-intensive and the results of low value-added processing and assembly of products driven, export tremendous impact on China's economic growth. Once the carbon labeling system began to spread, commodity exports are vulnerable to restrict carbon labeling developed countries, thus affecting the sustainable development of trade. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust policy in advance, push to promote the use of carbon label, while ensuring the sustainable development of China's international trade efforts for the global environment.
First, to strengthen the promotion of environmental protection concepts, enhance environmental awareness of consumers, the implementation of low-carbon consumption three decades of reform and opening up of China's economy has made remarkable achievements, but to a large extent of the ecological damage and has paid a heavy environmental pollution cost. This phenomenon is a common reason for this is not enough for the whole community of the extent of environmental concern. So public opinion need media, NGO, government organizations and even companies vigorously promote the concept of environmental protection in depth spread to all producers, consumer's minds. Such promotion of goods in international trade carbon label will have a certain social base, but also to really achieve sustainable economic and social development goals. In China, the majority of the public carbon footprint, carbon labels are not familiar with, not to mention the implementation of low-carbon consumption. In contrast, the British public's awareness of carbon footprint on strong British supermarket chain of goods labeled carbon footprint labels, most of which are to be implemented by the demands of consumers. Thus enhancing the environmental awareness of consumers, and guide low-carbon consumption in order to make the implementation of a carbon labeling system has a broad consumer base.
Second, improve production processes, promote the development of environmentally friendly technologies from the enterprise perspective, the current export profits are largely dependent on the growth in the number of traditional virtue of cheap labor advantage, it is not sustainable, must to transform a competitive advantage to rely on high-tech level up. In order to cope with climate change, protecting the environment, governments have considered the driving force to promote economic growth in the next round of green energy and technology. Therefore, improvement of existing production processes, the development of environmental and climate-friendly technology to reduce carbon emissions, is economic development trend of the times and the inevitable choice. Chinese enterprises in the future in order to explore the international market, we must increase energy conservation technologies and energy efficient use of R & D investment, to reduce the carbon footprint of products, access to new opportunities and development space.
Third, the introduction of the carbon footprint of international certification standards, establish a carbon labeling system Currently, the most widely used carbon footprint standard PAS2050 standard 2008 British Standards Institution (BSI) and other departments jointly issued ('Product and service life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions specification'). The standard has been piloted in the Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Danone and many other companies about 75 kinds of products. According to the standard, companies in addition to measuring and reducing the carbon footprint of products, but also can provide suggestions for public selection of environmentally friendly products, use and disposal of products. The international standard ISO14067 another product carbon footprint have been prepared in draft stage, it plans to release in 2011. Once the carbon footprint certification of international standards promulgated, add carbon labels on goods will become a trend.
June 2009, China National Institute of Standardization and the British Standards Institute in Beijing, co-sponsored the PAS2050 Chinese version of the conference, in order to promote the establishment of a carbon labeling system pilot project in China. In November 2009, held in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province in the First World Low Carbon and Eco-economy Conference high-level forum, the ministry said it would mark China's environment, based on exploring low-carbon product certification. In January 2010, the National Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine work conference showed that in 2010, China will focus on the development of low-carbon economy, low carbon certification vigorously strengthen food, environmental protection and other fields. At the same time, actively promoting certification and accreditation of international multilateral and bilateral mutual recognition. Visible, China has begun to take measures to determine the implementation of programs and standards to ensure the smooth implementation of a carbon labeling system.
Fourth, the shift of economic growth mode of foreign trade enterprises, the priority in the foreign trade of goods of the implementation of a carbon labeling system can transform the economic growth mode of foreign trade enterprises, low-carbon production. Our country has been canceled, 'two high' (high energy consumption, high pollution, resource-based) product export tax rebates on some of the highlights of the 'two high' products also imposed export tariffs, in order to guide the industry to high value-added and more energy-efficient direction. Our priority in the foreign trade of goods certified pilot carbon footprint, carbon labeling system, although a short time will increase costs, but in the long term, foreign trade enterprises through a carbon footprint assessment, certification, add carbon labels, etc. These 'visualization' of ways to reduce production and business activities in carbon emissions, and ultimately can not only reduce business costs and enable enterprises in the environmental leader. While for these energy saving enterprises or products with low carbon footprint, our government can also give appropriate incentives to encourage more businesses to assess 'carbon footprint' as part of their social responsibility.
Fifth, the implementation of export market diversification strategy and develop overseas emerging markets, with the advent of low-carbon era, the pattern of international trade will be a major adjustment. International trade will increasingly focus on the various internal business groups and various regional economic internal integration. Under such circumstances, China's US, EU and Japan, over-reliance on the export market will be difficult. To this end, China must vigorously implement the export market diversification strategy to reduce dependence on markets in the US, the EU and Japan and other major trading partners, in order to gain more time and room for maneuver favorable for the domestic development of low-carbon economy, the establishment of Carbon labeling system for a favorable opportunity. China's existing industrial structure and energy structure forms a rigid constraints of export structure in the short term, therefore, adjust the structure of export commodities will be a long process. In such a situation, many foreign enterprises itself is only one market abroad, if we give up foreign business, is bound to face the threat of bankruptcy. Therefore, actively explore foreign emerging markets is imperative. Especially those with similar levels of development in developing countries, its level is not developed low-carbon technologies, low-carbon technologies for imported products 'threshold' is low, which creates opportunities for sustained development of China's international trade.
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