US anti-dumping measures on China textile analysis Panzhihua University School of Economics and Management

Abstract: China is now the largest number of anti-dumping investigations of countries around the world suffer, but also by the US antidumping proceedings most countries, anti-dumping has become the most serious problem of Chinese textile exports. This paper aims to the number of US anti-dumping investigation of Chinese Textile, tax rates and final results of the statistical analysis, the influence of the United States anti-dumping on China textile exports to the Chinese textile enterprises, the domestic market and international competitiveness, and the corresponding Measures to help Chinese textile companies to reduce survey by the American anti-dumping cases against Chinese textile products.
Paper Keywords: textiles, anti-dumping, the international competitiveness of a US trade characteristics and the impact of anti-dumping (1) United States increasingly frequent anti-dumping on China Textile Table 2.1 shows that in recent years, the US anti-dumping investigations and final anti-dumping measures against China is increasing year by year This trend should cause us great concern.
Table 2.1 Entry into the United States since China initiated anti-dumping investigations textile comparing the number of the final year of the anti-dumping investigation on China initiated anti-dumping investigations initiated several Chinese Textile count the number of Chinese Textile proportion of China launched China launched several Textiles Textiles China launched several initiate the proportion of the number 2002 11
0
0
8
0
0
2003 11
0
0
11
0
0
2004 6
0
0
5
0
0
2005 6
1
16.67%
2
1
50%
2006 3
1
33.33%
3
1
33.33%
2007 14
1
7.14%
12
1
8.33%
2008 15
0
0
13
0
0
2009 22
2
9.09%
10
2
20%
2010 11
0
0
3
0
0
2011 20
0
0
5
0
0
Total 119
5
71
5
Data Source: China Trade Remedy Network finishing 2002 to 2004 no anti-dumping cases, and since 2005 the United States began the anti-dumping on China textile, mainly based on 'Textiles and Clothing Agreement', after January 1, 2005, textile quotas will be canceled, resulting in China's textile exports to the United States trade volume increased year by year. 2002 total exports were $ 61.769 billion, 2004 was $ 97.385 billion, while in 2005 broke through the $ 100 billion, and thereafter annually to more than 20 billion US dollars in size increasing, therefore, the United States in order to protect domestic industries and to China's textile anti-dumping measures.
(2) The United States anti-dumping on China textile trade a wide range of China's textile industry suffered a US anti-dumping allegations wide range of products, covering almost all areas of textile products, from a variety of traditional raw fabric, yarn and fabric development to each kinds of fabrics, hemp, footwear, clothing accessories and other products.
(3) US China Textile high due to the anti-dumping duty on Chinese textile enterprises are not familiar with the rules of the international anti-dumping, anti-dumping defense awareness indifferent, often impose unjust ruling, the high anti-dumping duties constraints, suffered serious losses. United States on China's textile filing anti-dumping duty imposed higher tax rates, from ten percent to several hundred percent, which directly affect China's textile exports, weakening the competitiveness of our products.
Table 2.3 Entry into the US anti-dumping cases filed product final anti-dumping tax rate statistics final products were given awards treatment time the number of enterprises are ruling the corporate tax rate of ordinary tax rate 2006 Art Canvas 2
77.90%
264.09%
Polyester staple fiber 2 2007
3.47% - 4.86%
44.30%
2008 composite woven 3
74.7 percent
91.73%
2010 blanket 3
93.09%
174.85%
2010 narrow ribbon with selvage 13
115.70%
123.83% ~ 247.65%
Source: China Trade Remedy net two deal with the US anti-dumping measures on China textile antidumping make China's textile export enterprises suffered huge losses in the US market suffered a severe blow. Although China's exports of textile products is growing year by year, but the total proportion is declining, falling from 20.1 percent in 2001 to 13.1% in 2011. Annual growth rate from 2002's 15.76% to 25.18% in 2006, then declining until 2009 or even negative growth. Mainly because in 2009 the United States on China's textile launched two anti-dumping proceedings, significantly inhibited the export of textiles, textile products to China had a tremendous influence malignant, therefore, we should take active measures to protect the interests of China's textile industry .
(1) The fight for market economy status is a non-market economy status of Chinese enterprises suffer unfair treatment. Likely to be an important reason for lifting the anti-dumping proceedings, therefore, is to fight for market economy status for China's enterprises to reduce his country's frequent use of anti-dumping measures to protect the powerful weapons of their own interests. My Government and the people should work through various channels, prompting the United States to confirm China's market economy status.
(2) to adjust the export trade strategy of rapid growth of China's textile exports to the US textile companies have a huge impact, easily become the object of US anti-dumping investigation. Therefore, China should appropriately adjust our foreign trade growth mode. Enterprises should be based on their actual situation 'going out' strategy, the United States to invest and build factories, expand direct investment, products can be sold directly in the US local conducive to expansion in the US market.
(3) enterprises should actively respond to our products when the United States filed anti-dumping lawsuits, Chinese enterprises should actively defend, hire an experienced lawyer to defend us. Fight results in our favor. Enterprises should strictly abide by the respondent time, if the time limit is not followed, then it could lead to an unfavorable outcome for our business. Enterprises in the anti-dumping process, we should make good use of the role of trade associations.
(4) improve the technological content of export products, optimize the industrial structure of China's textile exports are mostly low-tech and low value-added, can only rely on low prices to open markets and thus can easily be suspected of dumping. So Chinese enterprises to improve the technological content of export of textiles, increase value-added textiles.
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China's software outsourcing industry School of Economics and Management of Panzhihua University Wenting Hai Abstract In recent years the rapid development of China's software outsourcing industry, software outsourcing, China's software enterprises have also been a corresponding growth. Therefore, software outsourcing is considered inevitable trend of development of the software industry. This paper systematically analyzed the China's software outsourcing industry in the current development situation and propose solutions to China's software outsourcing industry, the problems of the measures.
Keywords software outsourcing, industrial structure of compound talents as an emerging force in the global software outsourcing, has developed rapidly in recent years. In 2010, the size of the software outsourcing is to reach 275 billion yuan. But generally speaking, China's software outsourcing is still in its infancy, whether it is to undertake the business scale, level or there is a big gap between the quality of the software outsourcing India and other major powers. China's software outsourcing industry problems include the following:
1. A smaller scale, like China and India, since the 1980s, began to undertake international software outsourcing projects, but India in the mid-1990s has been the rapid development, while most Chinese companies are too small in number of software outsourcing companies and practitioners in larger quantities, but the low degree of concentration, lack of strength of strong software outsourcing companies in business scale, the '2007 China's software and information service outsourcing enterprises and talent research report' Survey statistics show that in 2006, China's software outsourcing revenue was approximately 2 billion US dollar turnover of less than 10 million yuan of enterprises accounted for 76.9%, between 10 million to 50 million enterprises accounted for 15.8%, more than 50 million enterprises accounted for 7.3% of the total. India has emerged a number of over 50,000 people, with annual sales income of more than 2 billion US dollars in the outsourcing business.
2. Unbalanced industrial structure of China's software outsourcing business development is quite uneven, then package in the business, the main ITO and BPO, KPO rarely. According to 2010 data Ministry statistics, China's outsourcing business in 2010 amount to about 275 billion yuan, but the ITO and BPO reached 95 percent of GDP, while others such as knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) only about 5%. Overall, China's software outsourcing business contract is low-tech processes, such as program entry, single test. The higher value-added industrial chain links such as creativity, design and other knowledge-intensive processes are still many rests in the hands of foreign companies, in the IC design revenue is only about 3% of the entire software industry. The added value of this model is very low, which is restricting China's development of a high-end software outsourcing enterprises weakness.
3. Focus on regional distribution geographical distribution, concentrated in medium-sized cities, small cities less. China's software outsourcing distribution area is relatively concentrated, mostly distributed in some developed coastal cities, is relatively small in the Midwest. Currently, the service outsourcing business to Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Dalian, Hangzhou, Xiamen, Xi'an and Chengdu and other cities have developed rapidly, forming a large-scale, improve infrastructure and functional industrial agglomeration professional park, attracting US, Japan, Europe and other countries and regions, contract providers. While in other small cities, the software outsourcing industry was relatively small.
4. Overall quality of employees needs to be improved China's software outsourcing industry is very fast, every year to absorb a large number of employees, according to the Ministry data showed that the 'Eleventh Five-Year' period, increasing China's demand for innovative high-tech talent, is expected to China's service outsourcing talent gap about 20 million people a year, and the gap amount is growing at 20% per year growth rate. Outsourcing talent gap from a structural level, the shortage is not a local talent, but lack the full range of supply.
Further personnel structure of China's software outsourcing industry is not unreasonable, showing two small, the middle 'olive.' That is the bottom and top programmer only understands technology but also understands management software management less talent, too many intermediate software project engineer situation, do not meet industrial demand 'pyramid' structure. Not only the lack of domestic software outsourcing industry to grasp the basics of outsourcing software outsourcing junior engineers, but also the lack of practical experience have outsourced projects, outsourcing can lead the team to the mid-level technical and managerial personnel, but the lack of customer language and cultural background familiar, versed in international outsourcing industry rules, with senior personnel overseas market development capabilities.
To promote the development of China's software outsourcing industry countermeasures 1. Create a favorable investment environment favorable investment environment is to determine the rapid development of the industry an important guarantee. China's software outsourcing industry is also inseparable from the good investment environment. Our government should strive for investors to create an open and fair business environment. It is necessary to attract domestic and foreign investors to invest in China's software outsourcing industry, constantly encouraging foreign establishment of a high level of software R & D centers in China, to encourage domestic software enterprises and foreign joint ventures or cooperation.
2. A serious lack of cultivating talent most bottleneck restricting the development of software outsourcing industry is the shortage of talent, especially high-end compound talents, the operational capacity of the existing computer technology, but also to communicate with foreign customers, but also have a certain level of management talent . Therefore, universities should continue to improve the education system, breaking the original school education and business needs with split state, so the development of school education and software outsourcing industry together, students focus on practical skills. This is to promote the development of China's software industry is essential.
3. Strengthening the construction of software intellectual property protection system in recent years, China's software outsourcing business has been receiving complaints about intellectual property rights, which also affected the United States and Europe undertake the outsourcing of business development, so our relevant government departments should continue to improve the legal system, severely fight against intellectual property violations. And step up publicity efforts, so as to work together to protect intellectual property in the whole society, in order to promote the healthy development of China's software industry.
4. Strengthen self-construction of China's software outsourcing companies generally disadvantage is too small, the Neusoft Group, China's largest number of people engaged in software outsourcing, but also more than 4,000 people, the amount of outsourcing contracts in 2006 only $ 100 million. While India's TATA company has more than 30,000 employees and $ 2 billion in sales. This is a big gap. Therefore, China's software outsourcing companies to have international competitiveness, we must first distributed enterprises to integrate, thereby forming a cluster size advantage. So as to enhance the overall strength and competitiveness.
5. Have accurate market positioning relates to the field of software outsourcing industry in general is very broad, including a plurality of sectors of telecommunications, electricity, insurance, administration, transportation, logistics, media, manufacturing, etc., but no one has done a very good field. China's software outsourcing industry is not obvious is unique in the international context, which also affects the software outsourcing industry development and market positioning. In fact, Russia has obvious advantages in the high-end software and assembled software outsourcing business, while Egypt is focused European language call center business, because Singapore has a perfect safety and legal framework to undertake high-security outsourcing When more confidence. China's software companies how to accurately locate our target market, which play their own advantages, the development of outsourcing industry is important.
China is attracting the attention of the world software companies, but also under pressure from international competition. Therefore, exploring the road of China's software outsourcing development is not a simple topic. Needs of government, business, community-wide participation, in order to promote better development of China's software outsourcing industry.

reference
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[2] The Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. 2009 China's software and information service outsourcing macro analysis report [R].
[3] IDC (International Data Corporation). China software development and offshore outsourcing market forecast and analysis report [R].
[4] The Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. 2010 Software and Information Service Outsourcing Industry Development China Report [R].
[5] Zhao Jianfei, Guo Hui. The development prospects of China's software outsourcing industry under the financial crisis [J]. 2009 (9)

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