History of international and domestic industrial transfer

Abstract: The industry is very important to transfer an economic phenomenon, he affects the pattern of the world economy and China's economic development. Industrial transfer industrial layout in space lateral or vertical movement, in essence, productivity, divert factors of production.
Paper Keywords: industrial transfer, the world's industrial center, three-line construction, the Western Development I. Introduction 1. industrial transfer is a very important economic phenomenon, he affects the world economy and China's economic development, especially in our country at present Economic western underdeveloped areas have a big effect. Industrial transfer refers to changes in an industry or industry clusters in the geographical spatial distribution, that is to say from one country or one region to move to another country or region, the inter-regional transfer of industries, industrial transfer industrial space layout horizontal or vertical movement, in essence, that the productive forces, the transfer of production factors. ①
2, the main role of industrial transfer in both directions positive effect and negative effect. Industrial transfer body is different, the role is not the same. Transfer of industrial enterprises or national, regional terms, is a continuation of his active role in the life of the enterprise, to expand the market space, or to enter new businesses or for industrial upgrading and provide a vast space. To undertake industrial transfer of the main terms of the positive role means increasing production capacity in some industries, the extension and upgrading of the industrial chain of industrial structure, enhance the competitiveness of, among other factors, may also speak in order to improve a region or a country economic development and competitiveness. The negative effects of the industry is, and industry to undertake the transfer of substantially all performed for the country or region in terms of countries or regions from developed countries or regions to shift, due to various considerations, such as political, economic. Countries or regions do not want the developed countries or regions rich, so the transfer of industries in developed countries in the industry are mostly a choice, there are reservations. This will result in the country or region to undertake some deviation in the industrial structure, dependence on the developed areas in the core technology, market share is not high, less competitive, so underdeveloped regions is always in a passive position, always restricted in developed regions or countries.
Second, the fourth wave of international industrial transfer of scientific and technological revolution with the arrival of international industrial transfer also will be carried out, the impact of the world economic development, many countries or regions have also been involved in the process of economic integration. So far, the international industrial transfer has gone through four stages, many theoretical circles as 'The Four Waves.' International industrial transfer wave form, there should be two basic judgment conditions: First, the long national industrial transfer time, to continue for a long period of time; the second is the transfer of large-scale industrial countries, industrial transfer all participating countries or regions We have had a significant impact.
It is based on the above criteria, we believe that so far, the national industrial transfer has gone through four phases. Each time the transfer time is very long, large scale; and national industrial transfer has brought every shift 'the world's industrial centers'.
(A), the late 18th century to the 19th century, half of the international industrial transfer occurs late in the first technological revolution, the transfer path is transferred from Britain to continental Europe and the United States. It is precisely because the United States to undertake the transfer of industries, it was laid him later lead material and technical basis of the second technological revolution, and in the 19th century became the world's first industrial power, industrial development in the history of the world's second 'world factory.' After the completion of the first technological revolution, Britain became the first factory of the world. Then British population is only 2% of the world population, but it has controlled half of the world's industrial production, a quarter of world trade. Then this transfer to mainly Europe and the United States, at the time a British colony, natural conditions and resources conditions are good, so in the United States after the Revolutionary War, the British colonies in the United States there are about 200 steel plant, with an annual output about 30,000 tons. The country has become the largest gains.
(B) the transfer of industries in the 1950s --- the 1960s occurred after the Second World War. Industrial transfer path is transferred from the US to Japan ---- Germany, greater impact of the transfer. Germany has become a world economic power, while Japan has also become a 'third world factory.' The main reason for this shift are: 1,20 1950s, the third technological revolution broke out, forcing the United States continue to adjust their industrial structure. He put the domestic iron and steel, textile and other traditional industries moved to Germany and Japan, and the United States Department is mainly committed to the development of integrated circuits, fine chemicals, precision machinery, household appliances and automobiles, capital and technology-intensive industries. 2, the development of science and technology and the increasing cost of labor in developed countries, affecting the developed countries to accelerate the pace of industrial upgrading. So the United States, Japan and other countries to focus on the development of iron and steel, chemical and automobile industries and other capital-intensive and electronics, aerospace and biomedical and other technology-intensive industries, while the outward transfer of labor-intensive industries, especially textile industry, so to undertake The transfer of the country to get a long-term development of the industrial area.
(Iii), in the 1970s --- 1980s. The transfer occurs mainly in East Asia, the shift was mainly dominated by the Japanese, and the East Asian 'tigers' is the major undertaking industry transfer. In this shift, resulting in the East Asian 'tigers' miracle of economic development. The reason of this transfer of industry are: 1, during which time the two oil crises and the outbreak of the world economic crisis implicated occurred, resulting in energy prices and rising prices of mineral resources, forcing countries efforts to develop micro-electronics, new energy new materials, high value-added, low-power technology-intensive and knowledge-intensive industries, then transferred in steel, shipbuilding and chemicals, and automotive part of the capital-intensive industries out. 2,20 during the 1970s, Japan in order to cope with the impact of the appreciation of the yen, but also to deal with the impact of the world oil crisis, chose a rebuild domestic industrial institutions, foreign investment in the international industrial transfer path. 1982 --1986 year at this stage of the industry exporter the United States, Britain, Japan, Germany Foreign direct investment was $ 37 billion, accounting for 65% of the total of the world's total foreign investment in 1987; Year - 1991, when foreign investment It has reached $ 12.7 billion, accounting for 65% of all total. From the industrial undertaking countries concerned, then, in 1982 --- 1986, the proportion of foreign investment import reached 70% in 1987 --- 1991 when should arrive by 81.6%.
(Iv), in the 1990s - now, it is the fourth wave of international industrial transfer. The transfer of industry leader not only of Japan, as well as the East Asian 'tigers' and the US industry to undertake major ASEAN countries, mainly in China mainly. The industry has laid a Chinese undertaking's position as the world's manufacturing power. The reason of this transfer are: 1, at this stage, 'Four Little Dragons' of economic development was soon faced with contradictory domestic market is small and production capacity expansion between the rising costs of production factors and business in order to pursue more profits contradiction, the contradiction between industrial development and resource bottlenecks between environment, it is because of these contradictions it produced a fourth wave of international industrial transfer the 1990s. 2,20 After the 1990s, the economic development of the mainland China has increased in investment environment has been greatly improved, and China's vast market, the rapid expansion of economic development, the demand for natural resources was also the industry shift to China is very important power. 3, since the 1990s, economic globalization and the IT revolution to the world economy has brought tremendous changes. To remain competitive, the US-led developed countries have started a new round of adjustment and upgrading of industrial structure, to begin a large-scale industrial transfer to developing countries.
Great performance during this period of industrial transfer are the following: 1. During this period, the developing countries to undertake international industrial transfer has increased in 1994 - 1999, foreign direct investment flows to developing economies was 30.4%. But by 2005, the proportion actually increased to 36.5%. The proportion of foreign direct investment in developing countries to undertake significantly improved; 2, the global industry to accelerate the pace of adjustment, the level of the international transfer of continuous improvement. The transfer of industries are mainly developing countries in order to transfer innovative industries and technology-intensive industries with high added value; and the outward transfer of low value-added industries and labor-intensive industries in general. After receiving countries to undertake industrial transfer, after play advantage, vigorously develop the traditional processing industry and heavy chemical industry, and to stimulate the development of related industries and services, accelerated the process of industrialization.
Third, the domestic industrial transfer of Historical Review.
Industrial transfer occurring role on the international arena in the country is the same. In China, the vast imbalance in the development of the country, from the founding to the present, a total of 4 times the transfer took place, namely: three-line construction, the western development, revitalizing the northeast, central China.
1, three-line construction 1964 Year - 1978, all to each line as the guiding ideology of the large-scale defense, science and technology, industry and transport infrastructure construction in western China's 13 provinces, autonomous regions and carried out, this is called third-line construction . He went through three five-year plan to invest 205.2 billion yuan, up more than 400 million invested manpower, arranged for 1100 construction projects. After the layout of the national economic structure had a profound significance. Three-line construction is centered on combat readiness, but the objective has changed the country's industrial east, west irrational situation, and built a number of energy-based transportation, national defense science and technology, focusing on industrial and raw material processing industry matched, research and production a combination of strategic rear base, and built a number of important railways, highways and feeder, promoting economic and scientific and cultural development of the mainland provinces, to the west to provide the conditions for future construction. If there had been no large-scale construction to improve the industrial, transportation, and the status of Western science and technology infrastructure, the economic differences between the western and eastern China will be greater, the western development more arduous and difficult. Three-line construction industry undertake to promote the mainland to promote the economic prosperity and social progress. Panzhihua Liupanshui, Shiyan, Jinchang and other places in the past are Barren, it is in the 'three-line construction,' in order to become the now famous iron and steel, coal, automobile and non-ferrous metal industries as the leading emerging industrial city.
2, western vast, rich underground resources, but sparsely populated, and so for various reasons, economic development has lagged behind the eastern region. In order to balance the coordinated development of all regions, optimizing the allocation of resources, promoting and enhancing our economy as a whole, in 1999, the central economic work conference, the western development, stressed the need to play to the comparative advantages of each region, industry and encourage the eastern region to central and western regions , in a wider range of resources optimal allocation. The implementation of the western development, promote China's domestic industry to undertake industrial transfer and promote the strategic adjustment of economic structure, the coordinated development of regional economies, and has very important significance, such as: construction of the Qinghai-Tibet railway, natural gas, electric power, and large-scale infrastructure and so on.
3, Northeast. Western Region during the implementation of the western development strategy, has made considerable progress, also in the central region to undertake the eastern industrial transfer process benefit compared to the Northeast region is still under the old way, heavy industry is China's economic development One bad industry, heavy industry is precisely the Northeast long, so the Northeast, rebuild China's heavy industry base, is a necessary requirement of China's economic development. So clearly stated in the party's 'Congress' report, Northeast, support for resource exploitation is the main industry in the continuous development of cities and regions. Northeast revitalization in recent years proposed, and achieved good results, the purpose of the transfer of industry to reshape the northeast heavy industry base, well after the country's defense.
4, to promote central China. In 2005, Premier Wen Jiabao in central China's Hunan Province, presided over the forum, he noted that the western development should be solved at the same time to undertake industrial transfer and the central region, and so the problem, then central China finally to step forward.
In recent years, we can see the eastern part of the capital has been relatively saturated, the local market has been difficult to meet the needs of capital appreciation, since the combined effects of addition resources, labor cost, market and environmental aspects, the outward expansion of capital needs It is very strong. Eastern region in order to obtain greater development space and market, we must find a new growth point, increase the cost of the various elements has become a major driving force in the eastern part of labor-intensive industries to the central and western regions. At the same time, we want to see the early 21st century, China's coastal industrial expansion abroad and transfer directions: one is the inland areas transferred to us; on the other hand is to transfer abroad. In general, the Mainland of China including the coastal areas, central west region, to develop processing trade, the face of unprecedented opportunities and challenges, namely the transfer of manufacturing the fourth world.
Notes: ①, the transfer of industries in China, Yu Guoqin, 2001.
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