Papers Category:Economics Papers
- International Economic Papers
Post Time:2013-1-31 9:20:00
Abstract: With the easing of the financial crisis, China's foreign trade to recover and get a new development, but also encountered unprecedented difficulties: low value-added export products, the problems caused by low-tech still plaguing enterprises, export products into a trade friction tight encirclement, and trade friction increasingly affected industries and institutional areas, which is not trade big trading powers must be thoroughly embarrassing situation prompted us to transformation of foreign trade development mode, optimize trade structure, vigorously develop the service including technical trade, including trade, while continuing to introduce advanced technology, and actively promote technology and high-tech exports, so that China's foreign trade development to a new level.?
Keywords: post-crisis era, trade friction, technology exports, trade structure
First, the technology export trade friction will break through the tight encirclement of the important path?
Post-crisis era is gradually easing as the crisis enters a relatively stable period, but due to the inherent crisis has not or can not be completely resolved, leaving other aspects of the world economy, there are still a lot of uncertainty and instability. With the easing of the international financial crisis, the Chinese enterprises are facing originally anticipated international trade protectionist pressures but did not reduce, but showing a growing trend, according to the Ministry of Commerce said in August 2010, our country has suffered from 17 countries or regional trade remedy investigations from the case 48, the total amount of money involved $ 6,480,000,000 .2010 years, the United States has launched 337 investigations against Chinese products 13 cases, compared with the year 2009, an increase of 62.5%, and the number of cases is rising. Apart from the above measures, there are other products for the Chinese trade protection measures is worth noting that these trade frictions not only from Europe, America, and quite a few from developing countries, which indicates that trade friction against Chinese products are from developed to developing National Diffusion papers to write.?
On the formation of the reasons for this situation is as follows:?
First, the financial crisis facing the global economy further adjustment, the international financial order is changing, trade protectionism, slowing international capital flows, national economy will face a long period of low growth, developing countries pay more attention to internal and external balance, through restructuring to find new competitive advantages, while China's economy to recover and maintain a high growth rate, a large surplus of foreign trade continued to 2009 China's trade surplus to a $ 96.07 billion, in 2010 January-May trade surplus was 353.9 billion. Accordingly, China's manufacturing exports can easily become the main objective of global trade protectionism.?
Second, with the growing number of developing countries into the economic globalization, participation in the international division of labor, in some industries and developing industrial homogeneity firmer, the competition was extended. Edge of the original is being derived from labor-intensive industries The challenge in these countries, some of the relative competitiveness of industries in decline, exports of these products, and some developing countries are rising competition and trade frictions. Moreover, the financial crisis, developed countries proposed to revitalize the manufacturing sector, some countries also pledged to reduce by expanding exports to domestic trade deficit, which makes our high-end products face direct competition in developed countries, the most typical case is September 16, 2010, the European Commission once again on China's anti-subsidy investigations launched data cards , involving an amount of approximately $ 4.1 billion.?
Third, China's export growth has not free themselves from the increasing number of expansion and extensive growth mode, export quality, structure and benefits are to be further improved, which is mainly reflected in: a lower level of export products, brands Fewer exports, the export price is not high, worsening terms of trade have now, China's foreign trade growth mode mainly rely on price competition and quantitative expansion, and seriously affect China's trade structure optimization. China has a comparative advantage exports Industry is mainly: textiles, footwear, leather and other labor-intensive industries in the international division of labor in most low-end industrial chain, although in recent years, China's exports of electromechanical and high-tech product exports accounted for a large proportion, but is still low additive value links, high-tech products are mainly derived from the processing trade.?
Fourth, the structure of China's trade imbalance and unreasonable a long time, China's trade in goods, trade in services and technology trade three parts can not be synchronized development, foreign trade is still mainly rely on trade in goods, although in recent years, rapid development of China's service trade, In 2005-2009, the total import and export trade in services from? 1,571 billion to $ 2,868 billion, an increase of about 1.8 times the average annual growth of 16.2% of service exports in the world ranking from eighth place in 2005, up to fifth place in 2009, but still lags behind China's service trade overall trade in goods, services, foreign trade exports accounted for the proportion of total exports remained at around 9%, lower than the global average. while China's technology trade development is backward, especially technology exports accounted for the proportion of China's foreign trade is very low in order to permit trade technology exports, for example, in 2009 the exclusive right to use and license fees exports only 400 million U.S. dollars, accounting for 0.3% of services exports, Compared with other countries, in 2007 the exclusive right to use and license fees exports, the United States was $ 28.61 billion, Japan $ 23.22 billion, the United Kingdom was $ 15.13 billion, while China is only $ 340 million, according to Commerce Department data services Trade Division website data collation with technology exports to these countries have very different levels of development, and China's largest trading nation status very inconsistent.? In view of the problems encountered in the development of foreign trade, we must re-examine the future development path of China's export trade.
"Twelve five" foreign planning is the core of structural adjustment, transformation of foreign trade growth mode, then you should pay more attention to the quality of growth, further weakening of quantitative indicators and vigorously develop including technical trade, including trade in services, and actively promote the technology, especially technology export licensing trade, improve patent, proprietary technology and the exclusive right to use the trademark and license fees accounted for the proportion of China's export trade, China's foreign trade development appears to make a qualitative change, breaking the international trade protectionism against Chinese products in Ex.?
Second, technology export industries, trade and income effects: In developed countries, for example?
1 Effects of technology export industries?
Since the 1960s and 1970s, worldwide industrial structure has changed significantly, there has been the focus of industrial structure gradually to the information industry and knowledge-based industries such as so-called "fourth estate," the phenomenon of migration with this adaptation, developed labor and capital-intensive industries have been gradually information, knowledge and technology-intensive industries replaced manufacturing output and employment declining proportion of the service sector in the national economy and the proportion of share is increasing, showing a high-tech industrial structure , Convergence, internationalization, and service-oriented features. In the United States, the U.S. manufacturing output declining, and its share of GDP by the Second World War, 40% down to 13.9% in 2002, the highest employment rose from 35 % to about 10% in 2005 because of its multinational technology and production processes will subcontract or even completely out of production, there has been a "virtual manufacturing phenomenon", such as Nike air cushion system in addition to the most critical all but provided by an external, Adidas 95% of the manufacturing sector has been transferred to other countries, GE clearly put forward to by the manufacturing company into a diversified services company, according to the U.S. Commerce Department statistics, about 2,500 U.S. companies will manufacture and transfer of technology abroad In this transformation, the developed countries in particular, foreign direct investment from multinationals and accompanied by the transfer of technology to promote the worldwide industrial structure changes.?
20 In the late 1980s, the Japanese economy continues to grow rapidly in the context of the yen appreciates sharply, along with a large number of technology transfer, the Japanese foreign direct investment in an unprecedented rapid development In 1990, the Japanese foreign direct investment amounted to 50.5 billion dollars, accounting for the world's total foreign direct investment 21.6% of foreign direct investment in Japan showing a diversity of purposes, for example, expanding foreign trade, the establishment of international production and sales network, access to cheap resources or the use of the host country and factors of production to third countries Export and sold back to Japan, etc. Among them, an international production and sales network has become a new important investment destination in Japan in order to meet the needs of its industrial restructuring, the production of low value-added products and labor-intensive, resource-consuming industries and technology transfer to other countries, especially developing countries, in the country to focus on high value-added products, high-tech production and research and development, and ultimately benefit Japan's international division of labor .
(2) on the export of technology to improve the trade structure?
Since the 1970s and 1980s, developed countries have started to trade structure adjustment, universal attention to technology transfer and exports in developed countries trade structure adjustment of the basic characteristics: First, export of technology has accelerated, two high-tech exports of technology exports including high-tech products and high-tech services exports increased proportion Early in the 1970s, developed countries export trade structure began to develop in the direction technology exports. to the mid-1980s, with the development of high-tech industries, major developed countries have accelerated the pace of technology exports, for example, in 1975, U.S. technology exports $ 43 billion, France $ 1.96 billion, $ 3.08 billion in Germany, the United Kingdom $ 4.93 billion, Japan $ 2.24 billion, respectively, in 1985, the United States 655 billion, France $ 5.09 billion, Germany $ 5.04 billion, Britain $ 9.68 billion, Japan $ 9.82 billion, and by 1993, the United States has reached 2 $ 03.98 billion, France $ 16.5 billion, Germany $ 15.6 billion and Japan $ 36 billion which between 1975 and 1985, the main industrial countries, technology exports an average increase of 73.1%, while between 1985-1993, the average growth rate of technology exports reached 206.5% , until now, the developed technology exports are still of the world's technology exports more than 80%.?
3 Technical exporters gain effect?
Transfer of technology, transfer of technology will bring many side benefits: First, it will bring considerable income returns, and even higher than the transferor's own normal rate of return. Secondly, the transferor companies to maintain their market share and competitiveness Third, through technology transfer expand the company's business conduct to the state and the market is not perfect, because all of the effects of diversification and reduce overall risk. Fourth, through the transfer of technology developed countries or regions, you can make transferor able to obtain or maintain a higher rate of business value. Fifth, the transferor can take advantage of the recipient country's capital market, so that the lower cost to obtain some funding sources, channels, more diverse.?
We use the famous "Gordon growth model", ie the stock assessment model to explain the transfer of technology to the enterprise benefits the company's stock value (P equal to the stock's expected dividend yield (D? 1 and investors, the required Yield (k and dividend value ratio (g ratio of the difference between the complete formula is: P = D? 1 / (k-g. above all about the transfer of technology to bring the following five benefits: First, to help increase the value of P, that the transferor company's stock value, thus increasing the wealth of the holders of the stock value of such transferor enterprises to obtain better returns, will be able to pay more dividends, but also get more of their business rapid growth. these will help to achieve a higher value of the stock. Secondly, technology transfer is essentially a defensive role, you can block D? 1 and g in the business decline, in turn, can prevent the company's stock value P decline in its three, that reduce risk or diversification makes investors reduced, the required rate of return k, which will also lead to the increase of the company stock value P its four, namely by increasing the value of g P-value increase its five, by reducing the k value to increase P-value (as diversification of funding sources, or by increasing the stock Expected dividend yield D? 1 value, to increase the Company's share value P (due to lower financing costs, so when a company found Technology transfer will be more good than harm, or the benefits outweigh the costs will actively use its skills are not involved in the transfer of technology developed countries or regions to go . Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
Third, China's export of technology development characteristics of technology exports from the PRC refers to the People's Republic abroad, through trade, investment, economic and technical cooperation or technology transfer behavior include: transfer of patent rights, patent implementation license, proprietary technology transfer, trademark licensing, computer software licenses, as well as technical advice and technical services, etc. The main trade are: licensed trade, technology consulting and technology services, processing trade, foreign direct investment and exports of high-tech products and equipment, etc. Among them, the license trade is the most basic form of technology trade, mainly around the exclusive right to use and franchise with the introduction of various technologies, China's technology exports started late, it can be said from the reform and opening up before starting development from 1980-2010, 30 years, China's export of technology has undergone rapid development from the exploration stage to stage.?
1 of the three stages of development technology exports? The first phase (1980-1985 is the exploratory stage, which is characterized mainly: unplanned, spontaneous manner.
Exports, mainly to new technologies, new technology and other software technology mainly to industrial countries as the main exporting countries, the state does not explicitly The centralized management, management regulations and the corresponding encouragement, support policies, technology exports is very small, an annual turnover of approximately $ 0,000,000.?
The second phase (1986-1995 are preliminary stage of development, its main features are: determining the centralized management, technology export policy, the approval authority and procedures. This stage begins organized and managed work technology exports, the export amount and variety increases every year, technology export-led project to increase the export of complete sets of equipment, exports expanded to developing country regions.?
The third phase (1996 - now the rapid development stage, this stage, China's technology export trade developed rapidly, especially in science and technology started in 1999 trade strategy, so that our high-tech industry quickly developed high-tech products exports gradually become a new force in exports during this period, technical consulting and licensing trade has also been some developments, according to Commerce Department statistics, in 1997 China's exports to obtain the exclusive right to use and license fees only 5 $ 5,000,000, technical advice Fee $ 346 million, to 2009, the amount of which two were $ 400 million, and $ 18.6 billion, was 7.27 times in 1997 and 53.76 times?
2 The current main features of our technology exports? (A short development time of export of technology, trade patterns is unreasonable.
Recent years, the rapid development of high-tech exports as the main technology, consulting services and rapid growth in technology exports continued to rise in the proportion of contrast, trade patterns of the exclusive right to license royalties and license fees, though growing, but in the technology export and trade throughout the service, but little change in the proportion of, for example, 13 years from 1997 to 2009, China's exclusive right to use fees and license fees accounted for the proportion of total trade in services was 0.2% in six years, six years was 0.3%, and 1 year was 0.4%, basically no improvement. data is based on the Ministry of Commerce Trade in Services Division released statistics calculated .2009 , China's exclusive right to use fees and royalties exports 400 million U.S. dollars, accounting for 0.3% of services exports, imports $ 11.1 billion, accounting for trade in services imports 7% of the $ 10.7 billion deficit, and has become second only to transportation services, the second largest services trade deficit industries.?
(2 Overall, a considerable part of our technology exports from foreign-funded enterprises, especially export of high-tech products, exports of foreign-funded enterprises is much higher than state-owned enterprises and private enterprises, for example, the first half of 2010 exports of high-tech products , exports of foreign-funded enterprises amounted to a $ 81.46 billion, accounting for 83.5% of the total, state-owned enterprises was 15.25 billion U.S. dollars in exports, amounted to 7.0% of the total. foreign exports is much higher than state-owned enterprises and other enterprises and, technology exports is the main body (shown in Table 1.
Table 12010 import and export of high-tech products in the first half Data Source: Ministry of Commerce, Industry Division data collation derived.
(3 of technology export market is relatively concentrated, mainly relies on Hong Kong, China, the United States and the European Union, China and Hong Kong remained the services of licensed technology licensing largest export market, followed by the U.S. and the EU, the three together accounted for our proprietary rights use and licensing services for over 70% of total exports. U.S., EU and Japan are the exclusive right and license to use the main source of deficit in services, consulting services exports are mainly concentrated in Hong Kong, China, the United States and the European Union these three countries or regions, the total Consulting services accounted for over 70% of total exports, the EU and Japan remained the top two of consulting services imports from Hong Kong, China surpassed the U.S. to become the third largest source of imports. together accounting for three total imports of Consulting Services 1/3 of China and Hong Kong, China, the United States showed a surplus in services trade advisory status, and consulting services trade deficit mainly from the EU, Japan and South Korea.
(4 feed processing trade, processing and assembling trade is the main form of high-tech exports. Manner of high-tech exports rely mainly on the processing trade and general trade and other trade during the first half of .2010 in several ways, according to the processing trade Exports of high-tech products amounted to a $ 72.5 billion, accounting for 79.3% of high-tech product exports in general trade amounted to 32.19 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for 14.8 of which feed processing trade and processing and assembling trade amounted to ? 1 $ 51.74 billion and $ 20.76 billion, respectively, over the same period accounted for 69.8% of high-tech product exports and 9.5% visible, present, China's processing trade is the main form of high-tech exports (as shown in Table 2.?
Fourth, the development of technology export policy recommendations?
1 technology export problems?
From the above data analysis, we can see that China's export of technology development is very weak, mainly in: exclusive license fees accounted for too small, the proportion of processing trade exports is too large, foreign-funded enterprises are still the main export of technology for the the main state-owned enterprises, private enterprises and collective enterprises and other small-scale export of technology, technology export market is relatively simple, the expense of developing countries to open up the market, did not play our mature industries and technologies on the comparative advantage of developing countries. I believe The main reason for this situation are: First, the scientific and technological achievements conversion rate is low, the impact of technology export source has been the comprehensive strength of science and technology level continues to improve, but the level of production is relatively slow because of our scientific and technological achievements into practical productive forces The capacity is relatively low, according to the latest forecast from Thomson Reuters, "China will be the next year the world's largest number of patents published state", but the Chinese scientific and technological achievements transformation rate is only about 8%, far below the level of around 50% in developed countries This shows that China's scientific and technological resources idle and there is a huge waste. Secondly, the lack of technological innovation, many technological inventions true value is not high, affecting the export of technology in the international market competitiveness. Again, trade inertia, over-reliance on labor-intensive processing trade, although the total amount of technology exports in the proportion of high-tech products increased rapidly, but mostly just specialization in which labor-intensive processing sectors, the situation has seriously hampered trade structure optimization. Finally, and most importantly The reason is our lack of knowledge of technology export trade a long time, we have a complete lack of comprehensive technology trade statistical system and effective means of technology exports makes the lack of comprehensive and timely understanding we have introduced a number of techniques to encourage mature technology and contain machinery and equipment export incentives, but incentives publicity is not in place, companies can not play a very good policy to encourage and guide the role of technical business personnel training lacks long-term strategic objectives and scientific and professional training methods. Moreover, people technology transfer, intellectual property protection in general lack of knowledge. these problems seriously affect the development of technology export trade, is not conducive to the transformation of foreign trade growth mode and structural optimization.?
2. Policy recommendations? (An actively cultivate and improve the technology export promotion and service system.
Identified a number of R & D strengths or advantages of the industrial base, or marketing advantages to support key enterprises, give full play to the technological superiority exemplary role of enterprises, improve our overall enterprise technology export strength. while further improving our public technical service platform, public business information platform, offshore centers and other intellectual property advisory services building, timely and comprehensive trade statistics do technical work to further improve the state of the technology export business service levels.? (2 improve the taxation policies.
Continue to implement preferential taxation policies for high-tech enterprises, and to strengthen the existing incentives for technology export promotion, give full play to the policy guidance and support effects based on technology trends and international market forecast, the timely introduction The new tax incentives applicable to simplify management procedures. necessary for the export of technology imported goods can be considered for an extension or exit export tax rebate policies.?
(3 funds to support credit and financial innovation from the experience of developed countries, there is no involvement of credit funds, there is no financing support, there is no high-tech R & D and continued rapid industrialization, will not be able to form a new growth point , you can not promote the upgrading of industrial structure. development and transformation of scientific and technological achievements are inseparable from all aspects of financial support, particularly investment and technological achievements into high risk, many SMEs this prohibitive, so our country can conditionally, step by step development of high-tech venture capital, high-tech and financial capital to achieve the integration of financial support should in bank credit, venture capital and capital markets breakthrough direct financing, the establishment of appropriate characteristics of various stages of growth of high-tech industry investment and financing system present, China's venture capital industry accounts for only 0.025% of GDP, with the U.S. venture capital industry accounts for 1% of GDP compared to the huge space for development our country should be strongly encouraged to support the development of venture capital industry, venture capital and to achieve high technology integration, the social hot money directed to high-tech industries in the past.? (4 strengthen intellectual property protection, promotion of technological innovation and technology transfer.
Strengthen intellectual property protection both for the protection of domestic innovation, but also on China's technology and its products in foreign protection. Technology trade transactions in intellectual property as the main content trading activities, the current majority's intellectual property, such as patents, trademarks, proprietary technology and computer software copyright has become a major subject of international technology trade, therefore, intellectual property and technology trade there is a close link between . strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights can promote the development of technology trade. With the worldwide scientific and technological achievements to the commercialization, industrialization and internationalization trends, intellectual property system has become a modern international socio-economic and technological cooperation is one of the basic conditions. not only in the field of international technology trade, in international trade in goods, international trade in services and other areas need to strengthen the protection of intellectual property. should build our country has joined the international protection of intellectual property conventions, in particular the TRIPS Agreement WTO << >> role for multinational mobile technology to create a good environment.? (5 training and introduction of technical personnel.
Enterprises in the export of technology and "going out" to participate in international competition in the market generally felt that the lack of international business professionals, many of the existing foreign language graduates, however hard, business is not fine, but the lack of a sense of competition, such work can not be qualified in accordance on the part of corporate managers survey, international business people not only need to master general business knowledge, especially need to be able to thoroughly understand and skillful use of international trade, corporate finance, international commercial law, international transport, international finance, international tax, international tourism, International Exhibition and e-commerce, but also has a high foreign language communication skills and a strong sense of team competition and our country in the technical aspects of trade development gap with developed countries, in the final analysis is the talent gap in this area, whether it is far term objectives or goals are inseparable from the recent talent, and talent cultivation is not an overnight thing, we need to cultivate their own talents, but also a large number of the introduction of foreign talent through international cooperation and exchanges, please come in and sent on the way, and vigorously the introduction of foreign intelligence, and promote an overall improvement in the level of higher education, and then train more needs to adapt to the international development of innovative international technology trade professionals.
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