Compare US trade in services and the development of China's service trade measures

Abstract: China's service trade with developed countries, especially the United States has been in a bilateral service trade imbalance, on U.S. trade in services, trade in services is important for China enlightenment. Article according to the latest statistics, for the level of development of Sino-US trade in services, internal structure, geographic orientation and comparative analysis of institutional regulations, combined with the post-crisis era development trend of world trade in services, proposed the development of China's service trade-related countermeasures.

Keywords: Sino-US trade in services, the post-crisis era, the structure of trade in services


In the trend of economic globalization increasingly turbulent backdrop, the world economy is undergoing deep structural changes in order to finance the development of globalization and the information revolution is characterized by wave of innovation in science and technology are driving the accelerated development of the World Service Today services sector of national economies increasing over time. According to statistics, service sector output accounted for the proportion of GDP reached 70% in developed countries, middle-income countries close to 60%, while the low-income developing countries has reached about 40%. With services the development of international division of labor, the international exchange of services is also growing scale, in 2009, the world's service exports reached $ 3.3 trillion, the data from the World Bank Database, BEA Database and the Chinese Ministry of Commerce website.

In 1970 compared to less than $ 71 billion an increase of 45 times the current world trade in services exports in total world trade exports accounted for about 1/5 the same time, the face of the financial crisis on the impact of global trade, trade in services accounted for relatively largest country in the post-crisis era quickly emerged recovery, recover faster than rely on its trade in goods in the country. Thus, services trade has become the main trend of world trade is the inevitable result of development of productive forces the world.

A China-US trade in services compared

United States as the world's largest exporter of services trade, services highly developed .2009, its services exports world trade in services accounted for 15.4% of total exports, showing its strong international trade in services dominance addition , China's service trade has remained sustained and stable development momentum, the services industry in GDP average annual growth of 0.6%, but China's service industry and service trade development started late, service products less competitive, especially in developed countries U.S. bilateral trade in services has been in a state of imbalance, China's service trade both in the overall level of trade in services or in the departmental structure, etc. Compared with the U.S. there is a big gap.

1 Compare the level of development of trade in services

(A sustained and stable development of the United States trade in services, a higher degree of contribution to national economy

Services for U.S. GDP and employment greater impact in 2005, for example, the service sector output accounted for 70.93 percent of U.S. GDP, when in the service sector of the population of the total workforce of 72.47% since 1984, the U.S. service sector output value accounting for over 60% of GDP already be seen, with the U.S. service sector development, its trade in services in the United States the importance of foreign trade is increasingly significant.

U.S. service trade import and export volume of four from the 1997 rose to $ 22.02 billion in 2009 8 $ 79.94 billion, an average annual growth rate of 8.3%, of which exports accounted for U.S. service trade export proportion of world trade in services, in 1997-2003 The average remained at about 28% in 2004 to reach 30% and maintained for 4 years, due to the economic slow recovery, increased slightly in 2009, reaching 33%. Overall, trade in services exports, the United States showed a rising trend, there are only 2009 declined slightly, of which U.S. services exports in 1997 to 2 $ 56.09 billion in 2009 rose to $ 09.18 billion in five, 13 years, 1.99 times .2009 expanded trade in services exports accounted for the proportion of world trade in services exports reached 15.4% World ranked one. U.S. services imports accounted for the proportion of world trade in services imports in the 1997-2008 period, the average remained at about 16%, only in 1997, 2005 and 2006 of 16% or less, the rest were more than 16% in 2009 was significantly increased to 19.2% of the U.S. trade in services imports and its exports similar, showing an overall upward trend, of which U.S. services imports increased from 1997 in a $ 65.93 billion up to 2009 3 $ 70.76 billion, 13 years to expand 2.23 times .2009 services imports despite a slight decline, but its share of world trade in services reached 11.9% the proportion of imports, world ranking first.

(2 faster growth in China's service trade, the lower the contribution of the national economy

As the tertiary sector of services to China's GDP and employment has little effect in 2009, for example, the service sector output accounted for 42.6% of China's GDP, when in the service sector of the population 33.2% of the total workforce in China's economic structure , since the first, two industries accounted for a large proportion of tertiary industry is small, resulting in China's service trade, although growing faster, but its contribution to the national economy is low.

China's service trade import and export volume in 1997 to $ 52.23 billion in 2009, rising to 2,868 million U.S. dollars, the average annual growth rate of 34.5 percent, the United States more than four times the average annual growth rate of which the Chinese share of world services exports service trade export proportion, in 1997-2002 the average stands at 10%, and decreased to 9.57% in 2003 and maintained until 2004, 2005 and 2006, dropped again, down to around 8.7% ,2007-2009 and increased slightly and maintained at about 9%. terms of China's service trade exports, showing an upward trend overall, only in 2009 decreased by 12.11% compared to 2008, of which China's service trade exports in 1997 rose to $ 24.5 billion 2009 to 1286 billion U.S. dollars, 13 years expanded 5.25 times .2009 share of world services exports services exports accounted for 3.88%, ranked fifth in the world, however, China 2009 trade in services exports is only one United States / 4 of China's service trade imports accounted for the proportion of world trade in services imports in 1997-2007 by the 16.30% down to 11.91% ,2008-2009 increased slightly to maintain more than 12% of Chinese service trade imports and exports similar showing an overall upward trend. Among them, China's service trade imports increased from 1997's $ 27.73 billion up to 2009 to 1582 billion U.S. dollars, 13 years, expanded 5.7 times, although in 2009 the world service trade import ten countries, China is the only compared with 2008, a decline of the economy did not (Germany and the United Kingdom imports amounted to $ 255 billion and $ 160 billion in second, three, virtue Britain imports about 10% year on year decline occurs, accounting world trade in services imports accounted for 5%, ranked fourth in the world, but the volume of trade in services to the United States accounted for only 1/3.

(2) compare the structure of trade in services

(A U.S. trade surplus in services continued to increase, more balanced development of the various departments
U.S. services trade since 1971 continued to maintain a surplus state which, in 1986 only $ 10.3 billion surplus in services, in 1997 it reached a high historical levels, increased to $ 90.2 billion, an increase of 10 years, about 7 times .2007 Service exceeded one hundred billion U.S. dollars trade surplus for 1296 billion, of which, services exports 5,048 billion U.S. dollars, 29.6 billion U.S. dollars import import .2008 and 2009 U.S. service trade surplus continued to increase in 2009 compared to 2008 services trade surplus Although the decline was 4%, still reached a $ 38.42 billion.

In 2007, the U.S. trade in services export structure, exports accounted for more than 10% of the sector are tourism, other business services, exclusive rights to use and license fees, transport and financial services, which exports accounted for separately from the total services exports 24.17%, 17.63%, 16.75%, 15.65% and 11.82% at the same time, government services, personal, cultural and recreational services, computer and information services, insurance, telecommunications, construction services, respectively, accounting for 4.15%, 3.18%, 2.58%, 2.09 %, 1.75% and 0.24%, totaling less than 15% In 2007, the U.S. import structure of trade in services, imports accounted for more than 10% of the sector are transportation, travel, other commercial services and insurance services to its imports accounted Service 25.27% of total trade imports, 21.62%, 13.91% and 11.31%. Meanwhile, government services, exclusive rights to royalties and license fees, financial services, computer and information services and communications services, respectively, accounting for 9.64%, 6.62%, 5.01 %, 3.92% and 2.09%, while the personal, cultural and recreational services, and a smaller proportion of construction services, namely, 0.45% and 0.16%. comprehensive U.S. service sector export share of each service sector development in line with U.S. economic characteristics, there was no Weighting great divisions, namely inter-sectoral development showed no serious imbalances. Meanwhile, capital and technology-intensive export-based emerging service sectors highlight the proportion of total exports, trade in services in the United States in a dominant position in the export structure.

(2 China service trade deficit continued to widen, somewhat unbalanced sectoral development

China trade in services between 1984-1995 to maintain a small surplus, deficit in 1995, after entering the state continued deficit and trade deficit since 2002, has expanded each year, especially after joining the WTO, services trade deficit is more significant. Among them, 2004 years of service trade deficit amounted to $ 9.55 billion the highest value, service trade deficit since 2004, showing a slight narrowing of the potential, but in 2008 and 2009 to further expand the scale of China's service trade deficit, reaching $ 11.56 billion and $ 29.6 billion, 2008 Services trade deficit ratio in 2007 increased by 51.9% in 2009 compared with 2008 growth of 56.1% In 2009 China's service trade deficit mainly for the transport industry, the exclusive right to use and license fees, insurance and tourism, deficits were 230, 106,97 and $ 4 billion.

China's service trade export structure, the proportion of first tourism service trade, in 2000 reached 53.34 percent, since 2004, after showing a decreasing trend. Transportation services trade accounted for the second, and in 2000-2008 the proportion rising year by year [1] while capital and technology-intensive communications, proprietary rights to use and license fees, computer and information services, financial services trade accounted for the smallest. evident that China has been dominated by the traditional trade in services, capital, technology and knowledge-intensive services Trade development of trade in services, compared with the traditional big gap. Nevertheless, the proportion of traditional Chinese service trade reduced year by year trend, such as tourism and service sectors, while the capital, technology and knowledge-intensive service sector accounted for a yearly basis, especially consulting services, in 2008 China's service trade exports accounted for 12.33% In 2008, China's service trade import structure, imports accounted for more than 10% of the sector is the transport, tourism and other business services, namely, 31.67%, 22.75% and 14.55% , totaling about 70%. Meanwhile, consulting, insurance and exclusive right to use and license fees accounted for 8.52 percent, respectively, 8.02% and 6.49%, while the construction and computer and information services, respectively, accounting for 2.75% and 1.99%. communications, financial, personal, cultural and recreational services and government services accounted for a relatively small, totaling less than 2%. comprehensive import and export accounting for China's service industry, accounting for a great part of the industry, China's service sector exports have serious imbalances.

3 Comparison Service Trade geographic direction

(A U.S. multi-service trade geographic direction, covering various types of economies
Britain, Canada, Japan, Germany, Mexico, Ireland, France, Switzerland, China and the Netherlands in 2008 the top ten U.S. service export market, the United States accounted for 55.19 percent of total exports of services. Top ten export markets, the EU member states occupy five seats, including the UK, Germany, Ireland, France and the Netherlands, the United States together accounted for 27.77 percent of total exports of services. Britain, Germany, Japan, Canada, Bermuda, France, Mexico, Switzerland, India and Ireland is 2008 U.S. top ten great service source of imports, accounting for U.S. service 56.29% of total imports. top ten import markets, the EU member states accounted for four seats, including the UK, Germany, France and Ireland, the United States together accounted for 26.45% of total imports services. In fact, the EU, Canada, Japan, Mexico and Switzerland are the top five U.S. services trade partner.

The EU is the largest U.S. service export target market, in 2008, the EU-27 total U.S. imports of U.S. services 37.3% of total services exports, while the EU is also the largest source of U.S. imports of services the country, the growth rate of imports from the EU are also high service in the growth rate of imports from other countries far as regional, the Western and Central European countries is the major partner in the United States trade in services, trade more concentrated in computer and information services and communications services in Canada and Japan are the second and third U.S. service largest export market, accounting for 8.71%, respectively, and 7.84% in Canada and the United States regardless of geographic location, lifestyle or economic environment has great similarities, and thus Canadian exports of services is not only a major recipient of American States, or the United States imports of services The main source of this in the transport, tourism and other business services reflects particularly significant in recent years, along with the increasing emphasis on the United States in Asia and the Pacific Rim services market development, South Korea since 1987 and gradually became the largest producer services exports countries, meanwhile, Singapore, China, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia and other services market growth soon. According to WTO statistics, in 2008 the United States and China bilateral trade in services was $ 26 billion, up 13.1%, accounting for U.S. trade in services 2.7% of the total, of which U.S. services exports to China $ 16,090,000,000, an increase of 13.3%, imports $ 9.92 billion, up 12.8% on the Chinese service trade surplus with the United States amounted to $ 6.17 billion, an increase of 14%.

Comprehensive view, the EU, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Mexico and China and other countries in the top ten U.S. service exports the list of target countries, but also the U.S. top ten imports of services as part of the country of origin be seen, the U.S. services market dominated by developed countries, but also in developing countries including Mexico and China, showing characteristics of market diversification.

(2 China's service trade geography centralized direction, focusing on countries and regions

In 2008, Hong Kong, U.S., EU, Japan and ASEAN is China's top five export markets services of Hong Kong region, the European Union, the USA, Japan and ASEAN is China's top five service source of imports. Chinese service trade import and export market concentration in Hong Kong and developed countries and regions, the market in China in recent years, ASEAN countries the status of trade in services have been improved.

Hong Kong because of geographical, political and economic factors and other characteristics, has been a major target market China's service exports, tourism, transportation, construction, services and consulting services to reflect particularly evident in the travel services, China's tourism market is mainly concentrated in Hong Kong , China Taiwan, Japan and South Korea and other Asian countries and regions, accounting for about 60%, of which Hong Kong is the largest import and export of tourism services market in transport services, Hong Kong is China's largest export market, accounting for China's transportation 33% of total exports of services in construction services, Hong Kong is not only China's largest export market, is also China's second largest source of imports, second only to ASEAN. Moreover, Hong Kong is China's largest export market for consulting services In consulting services imports, Hong Kong and the European Union accounted for 50% of China consulting services market share in recent years, along with the ASEAN and China increasingly powerful - the signing of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement, ASEAN is not only trade in goods has gradually become a major market for China and gradually become an important partner of China's service trade, including Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam service market faster growth at the same time, along with China's economic growth, the EU gradually overtook the U.S. to become an important partner of China's service trade in the construction, insurance, consulting, and computer and information services increasingly close trade links.

4 Comparison with the Law on Trade in Services System

(A U.S. trade in services improve the management system, relevant laws and regulations more robust
U.S. service sector maintained long-term comparative advantage and the rapid development of trade in services with the U.S. emphasis on service trade development are inseparable, the performance of the United States improve its services trade management system and improve the laws and regulations of view of international trade in services and trade in goods of the differences can not be tariff measures on implementation of the protection of trade in services, trade in services so a country management system and related laws and regulations of the country's service trade development of great significance.

Trade in services management system, the U.S. trade in services management agencies mainly the Ministry of Commerce and Trade Representative Office [2], of which the Ministry of Commerce is responsible for the specific management of trade in services, trade in services, such as statistical data, the development of service trade policy, trade representative office is involved and responsible for specific areas of international trade in services negotiations and coordination matters. Such management system main features are: first, strong negotiation skills can not only benefit their own trade policies of the United States into the world trading system services , but also to strengthen the implementation of the United States on trade in services and monitoring capability and secondly, to achieve trade facilitation and trade remedies combined in actively promoting and expanding services exports, while imports for the service quickly and foreign services companies with domestic services to take a variety of remedies for damage.

Trade in services, laws and regulations, the U.S. services trade laws and regulations to Congress and federal executive orders based [3], including a comprehensive foreign trade some provisions in the bill, the legislation of the various service sectors relevant terms and special provisions for some industries market access system, etc., but also a separate state legislation on trade in services, such as insurance and professional services market access conditions and limitations statute is enacted by the respective states [4] In addition, states will be based on their own advantages to develop service trade industry support policies, such as for securities trading, corporate property rights and other aspects were developed << Securities Exchange Act >>, << Trademark >> and so on.

(2 China's service trade management system that is not relevant laws and regulations are not perfect

The overall level of China's service trade in the world middle or lower level, the reason is that there is imbalance in China's economic structure, supporting the legislative work is not fast, full swing, resulting in China has not yet formed an international comparative advantage in service industries, so China's service trade reform management system, improve service trade-related laws and regulations on the future development of China's service trade has far-reaching significance.

Trade in services management system, the Chinese service trade-related strategies and policies mainly by the Ministry of Commerce, Trade in Services Division through specific development and coordination, under the Ministry of Commerce, Trade in Services Division also undertakes tertiary industry utilize foreign investment, bilateral and multilateral international negotiations and other matters But in reality, most of the work over other ministries by the central and local governments perform. Such management system there are many defects, mainly as follows: First, the overall lack of a unified service trade management departments, each of the relevant functional departments between convergence is not in place, reducing the efficiency of management of trade in services, trade in services is not conducive to China with the international market. Secondly, bull management phenomenon has led to the division of China's service industry standards, such as the lack of statistical uniformity, which is the world's developed economies lack of consistency between the trade in easily lead to friction [5].

Trade in services, laws and regulations, China's service trade legislation to the Foreign Trade Law << >> as the core, the state promulgated the Foreign Investment Law is an important part of the development of each part of the specific provisions for the support, to the specifications of Chinese Service market has been China's service trade-related laws and regulations, formulate serious lag compared to the speed of China's development, China has promulgated in recent years although the Law on Commercial Banks << >>, << >> Insurance Law, Advertising Law >> << , << >> and << Maritime Administration Ordinance foreign financial institutions and other relevant laws and regulations of trade in services, but Internet communications, commerce and many other areas still lack a strong legal support. Moreover, the laws and regulations have been developed between, there are still loopholes, there are contradictory phenomenon, which seriously undermine China's service trade-related laws and regulations of the authority and execution.

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Second, the post-crisis era of world trade in services trends

Compare the above analysis we can see the leading edge of the U.S. trade in services comes from its service industry and service trade has been formed between the mutually reinforcing virtuous cycle trend. Specifically, the United States is highly developed and structured services for the development of trade in services laid a good foundation, and to ensure that the U.S. trade in services continued global leadership. continues to expand exports of services to attract more capital and talent inflow of international various service industries, both for advanced technology and effective combination of various factors of production to ensure that the services maximize competitive advantage, but also further promote the rapid development of information technology. Along with the improvement of information technology, the United States trade in services based on the original gradually tend to networked services trade, service trade in a broad and diverse content of regional and international trade in services, to further improve the quality of service in short, is "leading the domestic economy - developed service sector - services trade development" cycle route, of course, the U.S. trade in services and the global leader in services, and sound service trade management system and perfect services legislation are inseparable.

In the financial crisis, although the global trade in services has fluctuated, but on the service trade itself, by the world and national economies, their degree of influence is much less than trade in goods, in other words, the international financial crisis was only suspended the national service the development of global trade in services booming trend has not changed. postcrisis world trade in services will show the following trends.

1 structure is more balanced trade in services

Research shows that many scholars at home and abroad, the development of trade in services can invigorate the economy, enhance the flexibility of the economy, so that can effectively deal with external shocks, to achieve a balanced development of economic structure through the crisis, countries fully recognize the need for and the development of trade in services urgency, the world's industrial structure will continue to act on trade in services, driving its rapid development. First, with developed and developing countries to accelerate the development of high-tech industries, international industrial transfer speed and scale will continue to expand. First Service industry less developed countries, which shifted its focus from manufacturing to labor-intensive services. Second, there is a certain level of service development countries, the services sector tend to shift the center of gravity shifted from labor-intensive finance, insurance and consulting and other capital-and technology-intensive, these services will become the post-crisis era of global industrial transfer of focus. Secondly, along with technological progress and development of economic globalization, the international division of labor is more refined, and many are dependent on manufacturing service industries gradually independent, to make the world service industry and trade structure has been further improved. Thirdly, 2009 Copenhagen Climate Conference was held marking the worldwide energy competition, environmental problems have become more severe, which gave a huge world trade challenges of trade in services itself low energy consumption, low pollution, high value-added, high economic contribution of employment to absorb more feature fits the sustainable development of world economy, the premise is the countries to develop low-carbon economy, green economy new impetus.

Therefore, after the crisis, along with the increasing emphasis on national capital, technology and knowledge-intensive emerging trade in services, trade in goods and current trade accounts for a large proportion of the traditional services of the situation will be significantly improved, global services trade structure will be more balanced .

(2) services market more competitive

The crisis in the service industry and service trade in economic impetus will be more proactive in enabling developing countries to formulate macroeconomic policies to support development of service industry, and gradually open their services markets, involving tourism, transport, insurance, consulting, finance, Computer and information services markets, attract foreign capital and international talent inject their services, capital structure and enhance the industry through human capital formation, fully integrated into the global services market in recent years, the openness of the Asian region in general policy for the Asian countries themselves services and service trade development has brought opportunities to promote the Asian region has gradually become an important market for world trade in services. post-crisis era, both countries need to take the initiative for their own development and opening up services markets, the role of external factors or passive open service markets, no doubt the service industry will be more open to the world, countries will gradually achieve "services - Trade in services - domestic economic" Trinity positive interaction pattern.

With services export market and import market is gradually opening up the market diversified trend among developing and developed countries despite the competitiveness gap between services, but this gap will eventually become smaller and smaller. Services in order to expand market share, a growing number of developing countries to participate in the global market for services, along with service providers gradually increased, there exists the same market situation of multiple service providers, among developed countries, between developed and developing countries, the development of competition between countries will become more intense.

3 more extensive barriers to services trade

Contemporary international trade has grown from the original traditional trade in goods expanded to cover trade in goods and services trade wider areas. Meanwhile, with trade in services in international trade have become increasingly prominent, trade in services as governments trade protection areas of focus. No. one, the world gradually opening related services, services rising overall openness, accompanied by the development of global services, global services interdepartmental increasing degree of integration, the new service trade frictions have emerged, not only from these frictions developed countries but also from developing countries. Secondly, the international services market in the diversification of the demand for services of the complex, the broad range of services, world-service increasingly fierce market competition, countries for their own economic interests, to protect their own banks, insurance, information and other sensitive sectors have set up trade barriers against foreign competition. Thirdly, crisis in the world economy slowly recovering from recession in the process, because the world's major economies, the recovery process differences, some countries to increase domestic employment and protection of domestic markets, trade frictions are the products from trade in goods to trade in services spread of individual departments and the entire industry, which suffered damage in the future lay hidden industry, thus further reflecting barriers to services trade in a broad trend.

Post-crisis era, whether it is the world service trade development services and services resulting from increased trade friction, or because governments to protect their economies and setting up barriers to services trade in the domestic market, and its contents will be more widely involved in service, the service will be more trade barriers widespread.

Third, the post-crisis era of China's service trade development measures

After entering the era of the global crisis, in a more balanced structure of world trade in services, the service market more competitive, more extensive barriers to services trade in the context of China should be based on national conditions, to accelerate the development of domestic service industry, China's service trade deficit narrowing in improving contribution of the services sector to the national economy at the same time, improve service trade management system and related laws and regulations, China's service industry and really improve the overall competitiveness of trade in services.

1 accelerate the development of the domestic service sector, strengthening the competitiveness of the main micro

China is the service level of development regardless of the service trade development efforts to promote, or service trade development efforts are less than stimulating the economy, the service sector both internationally competitive exports or imports are weak and therefore China wants to fundamentally improve the competitiveness of the domestic service sector, reduce the U.S. trade in services and gaps in services, it is necessary to improve the competitiveness of micro subjects started in the service sector to increase R & D and innovation efforts at the same time, focusing on personnel training services. First, to increase investment in technology services sectors, encouraging innovation. Specific performance technology investments related technology infrastructure, such as economic and technical databases, information sharing system for technological innovation has laid a good foundation. Moreover, the introduction of advanced technical process, the service can not blindly imported without digestion, absorption and re-innovation, to ensure that science and technology advantages into full play, so, combined with China's own economic characteristics, while vigorously on the basis of the introduction of foreign advanced technology and innovation to achieve effective really achieve "Science and technology - Services - Trade in Services" three loop effect. Secondly, pay attention to the introduction of services personnel, intensify personnel training. introduction of advanced technology and human capital must combine in order to play the greatest effect, in order to promote China's service industry and service trade competitive play. Accordingly, one for China's existing multi-level training of service personnel, multi-channel set up vocational training institutions. two services are based on Chinese characteristics and the distribution of the number of practitioners have planned and adjust accordingly universities and vocational colleges professional setting. third is to strengthen international cooperation and exchanges, the introduction of advanced multi-channel shortage of personnel through training, personnel training, introduction of talents and other measures to fundamentally solve the Chinese insufficient number of professional services personnel, the quality is not high.

(2) Domestic services trade deficit narrowing to grasp the speed services liberalization

Service sector's ability to pull the economy is no doubt that the Chinese services only individual sectors, such as tourism, transportation, construction and other developments have highlighted most of the sectors and departments the ability to promote economic development not been fully exploited, which in information technology, finance, insurance and information on classes and other new services is particularly evident, so China should serve to narrow the trade deficit for the purpose of, and actively expand the traditional trade in services exports, hierarchical, to focus on opening up China's capital, technology, intelligence-intensive services [ 6], and control the speed of services liberalization, first, to maintain the inherent advantages of traditional Chinese service trade, and actively expand exports of labor-intensive services. First, increase marketing efforts in the traditional service sector, upgrade traditional service sector competitiveness, improve traditional service sectors capable of pulling the economy, such as tourism and culture will combine with Chinese cultural characteristics derived from tourism service products, with China's rich tourism resources, tourism services exports expanded second is focused on the development of trade in services in the maritime transport trade in services. Transportation services trade is the largest source of China's service trade deficit, while seaborne trade in services accounted for the largest transport trade in services began in 2003 this proportion had more than 60%. Along with China's rapid increase in shipping capacity, and actively adjust marine structure, increase the proportion of maritime domain domestics fortunes in the maritime follow the principle of gradual liberalization, the government through the joint enterprise to guide shipping and restructuring to enhance China maritime transport services as well as the international competitiveness of trade and second, moderately open capital, technology, intelligence-intensive services, to grasp the various service sectors and opening speed. First moderately open capital-intensive industry, in the open at the same time, improve the competitiveness of these industries mechanism under the market mechanism to improve its ability to withstand the test of the same time, through the adoption and introduction of international standards, promote domestic intelligence, technology-intensive service industry standardization of relevant standards. second is concerned about economic security services to control a lot of money, technology, information flow in and out, affecting the stability of the domestic market if their services do not yet have international competitiveness, opening up too quickly may cause serious impact on the economy at the same time, the issue of opening up in the service sector, but do not fulfill their commitments made over the assignment of commitment.

3 expand geographic direction of trade in services, signed a bilateral free trade agreement

Whether China's service trade export market, or sources of imports are dominated by developed countries and regions, showing the single market oriented features, which seek post-crisis era of great development of trade in services is extremely unfavorable, once trading partners suffered serious economic impact on individual regions , China's service trade and related services must be involved, which would hinder the healthy development of China's economy, so we should speed up free trade agreement negotiations and the signing of the process, the effective radius of expanding markets and expand China's service trade geographic direction, effectively dispersed service trade market is too concentrated and single risk, first, who already signed free trade agreements should be strengthened as they relate to cooperation in the fields of trade in services, such as in China and Singapore signed by the government of the PRC and Singapore Government Free Trade Agreement >>, the main areas of cooperation, including medical services, education, and accounting and other services, so China Free Trade Agreement according to different focus, rational use of regional trade cooperation mechanisms to effectively promote Chinese health care, education and financial accounting and other service industries. Secondly, being negotiated free trade agreements, including China and the GCC, Australia, Iceland and Norway, one in the negotiation process, to strengthen and expand the service areas of cooperation to protect both parties in make an important part of trade in services commitments Second, actively promote the process of negotiations for the early realization of the FTA on trade in services to promote the role of the rapid growth of bilateral trade in services, to achieve its economic role. third, for those Deals with China has not yet established a national institutional arrangements, when conditions are ripe positive start FTA negotiations, such as finance, insurance, consulting and other capital-intensive service industries in Japan and Korea have a lot of cooperation with China and Japan and South Korea both sides an international leader in the field above advantages, so China, Japan and Korea in a positive start FTA talks, based on the need to focus on Japan and South Korea and China have an advantage uncompetitive related capital-intensive service industries.

4. Improve service trade laws and regulations, improve the service trade remedy system

China's service trade management system there are many defects, the formulation of laws and regulations, does not meet the requirements of GATS, therefore, to develop and improve not only conforms to China's GATS violation of laws and regulations is China's service trade development imperative. On Trade in Services development of uniform laws, regulations and policies, the realization of trade in services management system and related laws and regulations supporting, while the trade remedy policy development, after the global economic crisis, the Chinese government should be more emphasis on the first, from China domestic economic and employment growth starting to develop those that benefit the environment priority, information, energy, health care, transport and logistics and finance, insurance and other services laws and regulations, in order to improve these services on behalf of the new economy's competitiveness. either for revise and improve existing laws and regulations, or new development of relevant policies, through the introduction of international competition policy needs to facilitate this process. Second, improve the existing early warning mechanism of trade in services, coping mechanisms and dispute settlement mechanisms. First, risk distribution for Trade in Services major industries, time tracking related industries and departments of foreign policy changes, pay close attention to some of China's foreign trade trends in intellectual property investigations, the rapid dissemination of early warning information to achieve early warning information from the Commerce Department to the local government and then to the smooth transfer of enterprises,同时实现预警信息从地方向中央政府的有效反馈.二是针对国外对中国服务企业贸易救济调查中的不合理、不公正做法,中国地方政府、服务企业应积极利用有关国家和地区的司法制度进行申诉.三是中国政府应积极争取国际谈判主动权,要求外国取消具有歧视性的服务贸易保护措施.同时,对国内不具有竞争优势的服务业和敏感性服务业制定具有保护性质的法律条款,达到保护国内服务业和就业的目的.

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