Abstract With China's rapid economic development, how to avoid environmental degradation effective energy conservation, and promote healthy economic growth, the government and the public has become increasingly concerned about the issue. This article Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, for example, the body of its emissions trading system to do a thorough analysis and elaboration, highlighting how the emissions trading system into operation of the market mechanism, the government's macro-guidance and regulation, relying on administrative and market dual action means to solve the increasingly serious environmental problems, thus promoting the development of emissions trading system for institutional building energy conservation from our long-term mechanism has an important guiding role.
Research Paper Keywords energy saving emission trading
Emissions trading is to control environmental pollution, a new market-based measures in energy conservation has important application value. Emissions trading refers to the total pollutant treatment process within the parameters controllable by means of adjustment and operation of the market and from a legal, laser level to establish a viable method of pollutant emissions system. In the operation of the government and market dual mechanism, the sewage rights as a special trading goods on the market were to go, in order to control the discharge of pollutants to achieve pollutant emissions, to improve and protect the environment.
I. Emission Trading System Overview
(A) the origin of the world's emissions trading system for emissions trading first started in America. The last century, the fifties to the seventies during the development of the capitalist economy is the golden period of rapid economic development, improving people's lives has also brought the deteriorating environment, in the face of industrial sulfur dioxide pollution problems, the Western capitalist countries began Consider saving the sewage problem, the late sixties of last century, the U.S. economist Dales have put forward the famous theory of emissions trading. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency to understand the economic development and environmental protection issues contradiction between the two, introduced the 'Clean Air Act', 'Clean Air Act' in the clear air quality objectives and also raised the idea of emissions trading, and cited the 'emission reduction credits' concept, which was first proposed emissions trading envisaged, it is only at the conceptual stage envisaged. Since 1977, the United States' emission reduction credit 'as the center has developed, including: compensation policy, bubble policy, savings policy, banking policy, including the emissions trading scheme. In 1986, the U.S. EPA has expanded the scope of the policy to allow the mutual transfer of emissions reductions and exchange, which for all factories and enterprises on how to carry out the minimum cost of pollution reduction provides a huge space. Subsequently, Germany, Britain and other Western countries have to follow the implementation of the emissions trading system.
(Two) the main features of emissions trading system emissions trading system to improve and protect the environment as an economic means, not only can the costs of sewage into the production costs, improve business sewage, pollution control related technologies, but also through Adjust the amount of pollutant emissions control plan to achieve the emission of pollutants purpose of government macro-control, so that can reduce management costs, but also can effectively reconcile the growing social production and limited resources, the contradiction between environmental capacity. Emissions trading system, mainly in the following aspects features:
First, the cost of pollution control small. Typically, sewage, pollution control use of lower cost for businesses will feel out of control of pollution than the purchase cost of pollutant emission rights to be more economical and practical; while sewage, pollution control use of high cost that companies often buy emission rights than their own sewage treatment companies to be more cost savings, to achieve the effect is more prominent. Therefore, there will be, sewage, pollution control companies take the initiative to use lower-cost emission rights will be sold through the market to use higher-cost sewage treatment, pollution control business.
Second, effective pollution control. Overall emissions control targets in the same premise, to carry out emissions trading system, the emissions can promote larger enterprises through market operations on their own emissions in a scientific and rational optimization selection, configuration, so that not only achieve the improvement of environmental quality The purpose of the overall objectives, but also allows companies to reduce their emissions to avoid idle resources, waste.
Third is to promote economic growth. Rapid economic growth brought about by increased pollution, environmental degradation, is an inevitable phenomenon. Promote energy conservation at the national context, through emissions trading system, market-oriented operation, when a new source of pollution added to the sewage, pollution control management system, polluting enterprises will take the initiative through government departments or market-based instruments to have entered the market operation sewage enterprises to purchase allowed emissions, so that the environmental quality has been continuous improvement, the total sewage, pollution control targets, pollution load remains unchanged, the new sewage enterprises through licensing transaction has been sustained development, and promote rapid economic growth .
Second, the status of implementation of the Emission Trading System
In this paper, the national energy emission test points Shaoxing City, for example, through the status of Shaoxing City, the introduction of the pilot emissions trading system to analyze the current situation of China's Emission Trading System. Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, is a coastal city located in northern Zhejiang, south of the Yangtze River Delta, economic development, 2011 Shaoxing GDP reached 329.1 billion U.S. dollars, 500 Chinese enterprises have 7 White Shaoxing, rapid economic development, the region is also lower level of industrial structure appear, high energy consumption, heavy pollution and other weaknesses, these phenomena seriously hampered the healthy development of local enterprises. Such as: in 2009, the city's industrial structure with high energy consumption, heavy pollution as the main characteristics of the textile, printing and dyeing, chemical, leather, paper and other industries increased year by year. Currently, the total amount of environmental pollution is nearing maximum capacity environment, energy conservation, environmental pollution has become an obstacle to economic and social development in Shaoxing City, one of the main obstacles. May 2007, the State Environmental Protection Administration and Zhejiang Environmental Protection Bureau decided to explore the establishment of emissions trading in Shaoxing City, the pilot system, the same year in August, Shaoxing City, adopted the 'Shaoxing major pollutants emissions trading approach (Trial)', by the Shaoxing municipal government approved the establishment of reserves emission rights trading center, and successfully carried out the transaction. After three months of trial operation, the same year in November, the State Environmental Protection Administration's support, Shaoxing City reserves emission rights trading center was officially established.
(A) Emission Trading System introduced Shaoxing First, 'Shaoxing major pollutants emissions trading approach (Trial)' main content. Shaoxing cited approach to the Emission Trading System to make specific provisions: From November 1, 2007 from all the city's new construction, expansion and technical transformation projects add emissions of major pollutants have to be obtained through emissions trading. This move free access to all enterprises in Shaoxing City, permit history; also set up a special department of emissions trading 'Shaoxing emission rights trading center reserves' and asked Shaoxing belongs counties (city) combined with the region's real economic developments established local trading center. In the specific emissions trading work carried out during all the city's emissions trading behavior are 'reserve of emission rights trading center' as the basic platform, the center has not been approved transactions are considered invalid. In addition, as the city of Shaoxing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau reserves emission rights trading activities administrative supervision and management departments, with the role of macro-control, emission rights trading center reserves emissions trading activity by the income obtained by all for energy conservation projects in the city.
Second, a clear emissions trading objects. In the pilot process, the city's sewage treatment projects enterprise only after engineering, structural adjustment and other emission reduction measures for emission reduction projects and the remaining sewage indicators, the municipal environmental protection department Panel finds, after examination handed over by the Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau and get confirmation before they can enter into reserves emission rights trading market transactions with related companies. In the emissions trading process, all transactions must be handled strictly in accordance with prescribed procedures; existing emission rights free access to businesses, the event moved him to bankruptcy, insolvency, its municipal sewage emission rights trading center reserves the right to withdraw .
Third, the establishment of emission rights trading department reserves. Work for the implementation of emissions trading, to carry out, Shaoxing municipal government set up a special 'reserve Shaoxing emission rights trading center', by the government's direct supervision and management of the enterprise through the existing excess emission rights repeated cleaning, communication, and ultimately, making the city's various enterprises hands of the Lord all the excess emission rights deposited into the reserve of emission rights trading center.
Fourth, the establishment of emission rights allocation and audit supervision. In carrying out emissions trading system before the city's businesses can get free emission rights, the municipal government has not been relevant administrative departments licensing approval and can not be arbitrarily deprived. Sewage, pollution control business transactions that they meet the requirements and reserves by emission rights trading center after examination and verification, can be traded. The enterprise obtained through the exchange of emission rights, environmental protection departments will monitor the system through pollution and sewage, pollution control and reporting system and flight monitoring and other means to strengthen supervision and control, to ensure that the emissions trading behavior can be open, fair and just.
(Two) Shaoxing First, the implementation of market imperfections Emission Trading System analysis, system is not perfect. The Government has just started in the beginning optimize the allocation of resources vulnerable to environmental capacity constraints. Due to market imperfections, emission rights system taking shape, immature, not perfect, but the market itself has a profit-driven features, making part of the business of the future emission targets as you can appreciate the value-added products, leading appeared on the market. ' a ticket is hard 'situation.
The second is difficult to quantify the environmental capacity. Emissions trading system is an important prerequisite to the implementation of environmental capacity and its value can be decomposed and re-sell through the market, but the current level of technology, the specific calculations and operations more difficult, surplus difficult to accurately calculate the environmental capacity, limiting the total control and other related system implementation. In addition, the current government management system and assessment and appointment system, making the term of local leaders often out of political considerations own performance, usually tend achievement, economic development without taking full consideration of environmental quality, and volume control, etc., so that the emission rights permit application, review, distribution, monitoring and management will be a mere formality.
(A) Policy and legal regime behind since the reform and opening up, China's economy has achieved consecutive years of rapid growth, but with suitable laws and regulations has not kept pace. Currently, the legal level of emission rights is not about regime laws, regulations, belonging to blank fields. Therefore, China's sewage, pollution control work, the primary problem is in the law to establish and confirm the emissions trading system, in order to operate it through market mechanisms, distribution. By Shaoxing piloting emissions trading system, we can see that the implementation of emissions trading system is a systematic project, the implementation of the premise that there must be complete and workable legal system to support. In the specific implementation of emissions trading process, from project identification, audit unit, permits certification of the total, trading rights and other work assigned, are related to a large number of legislative work to support it.
(Two) emissions trading market is not standardized At present, China's economy, township enterprises accounted for a large proportion of township enterprises has a 'large number, small-scale, scattered distribution' feature, they cause pollution of industrial emissions accounted for national industrial emissions more than 50%. This determines the basic information in our emissions trading system, environmental monitoring, and other aspects specific implementation operations more difficult. In addition, competition for market considerations, there are remaining emissions targets enterprise refused to get on the market for sale; endemic in some areas protected for the idea, banned the sale of emission rights to other regions and other indicators.
(Three) total control with the contradiction between economic growth, one needs to reasonably determine the total amount of sewage to advanced science and technology support, based on advanced technologies must be guaranteed, but our country in the sewage, pollution control areas Technical research is still in its infancy. Second, China's rapid economic growth, determine the total amount of emissions control and extensive economic growth conflict is inevitable. The current performance of the local government's main nuclear indicators GDP is still dominated, which led to extensive local government sided pursuit of economic, rather than focus on green energy, causing extensive economic growth and sewage managers, total control of pollution control sharp contradiction between.
Fourth, the way out of emissions trading system
Man on the front, Shaoxing, Zhejiang emissions trading systems analysis and elaboration, I believe that emissions trading system has a great market space and energy policy, on energy saving effect is very obvious. Government departments can play as long as attention to emissions trading system, on-demand sought, to develop realistic emissions trading policy, China's energy conservation work there will be a big improvement:
(A) establish and perfect the system of emission rights laws First, the introduction and improvement of our environmental policy is the basic experience of a few points before the election of representative pilot, and then the local demonstration, the final full-scale promotion. Since 2007, the government has in Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, Shaoxing and other places pilot emissions trading system, focusing on strengthening the Taihu Lake Basin COD trading platform for building and power industries the right to compensation for the use and emission of sulfur dioxide emissions trading pilot. Secondly, to strengthen the legal system of emissions trading mechanisms, is our government trying to run emissions trading and other environmental policies fundamental reforms, combined with the actual market, and gradually realize the full emissions trading standardized and legalized. Finally, the revised 'Environmental Protection Law' and 'Water Pollution Prevention Law,' 'Air Pollution Prevention Law' and other relevant laws and regulations, the deal paid to obtain emissions trading emission rights and to give a clear legal status.
(Two) to establish an effective monitoring system of emission rights is a legal right, is a system, the establishment of an effective regulatory system is the fundamental operation of emissions trading mechanism to protect. On the one hand must supervise management and control of sewage, pollution control corporate compliance in their daily work, the implementation of emissions trading system; hand must adopt administrative measures to regulate market order, the lower transaction costs; emissions trading market, if there is no orderly market order, effective law enforcement supervision, emissions trading regime will become a dead letter. Therefore, we must strictly trading rights licensing and approval, intensify supervision and checks and administrative penalties sanctions.
(Three) strengthen the technical support system at present, in particular the process of implementing emissions trading policy there are many technical problems unresolved, these issues directly affect public acceptance of policies, policy implementation effectiveness and fairness, the Government departments should accelerate research and development efforts sewage technical issues for the effective implementation of the emissions trading system, provide critical technical support.
(Four) the initial distribution fair and reasonable because my emissions trading system is still at the initial stage ultra Therefore, the initial allocation of emission rights business is conducted under the guidance of the government. The initial allocation of emission rights will directly affect whether fair trading activity in normal operation. Relevant government departments should introduce relevant policies explicitly emission rights market enterprise 'production, rights, responsibilities,' the division, clearly state environmental protection departments are administrative departments emissions trading market, with the goal of determining the total amount of sewage and the initial distribution of responsibility, science, Determination of the Emission Trading System reasonable conditions, procedures and time limits.
(Five) to strengthen monitoring of pollution sources, the regulatory system fair and effective implementation of emissions trading system, you must make all kinds of pollutant emissions in the range of effective monitoring and management. Therefore, we should strengthen environmental monitoring and regulatory oversight capabilities, such as: to expand the scope of monitoring; ensure effective monitoring of emissions of various pollutants; build sewage, pollution control information data network platform, the establishment of corporate emissions accounting system, Through these various effective management system, technical means to ensure that enterprises pollutants in effective monitoring, control range.
(Six) sound emissions trading markets, optimize the allocation of resources environment, first of all, improve emissions trading two markets, clearly the main target market policies is to optimize the scope and role of the market mechanism configured environmental capacity of the key. For new businesses, the government usually allows access to the sewage or two market indicators in the trading price of the design should be based on the government's macroeconomic regulation and control of the market-based mechanisms to prevent trading monopolies. To track the quota trading supervision, especially for cross-trading, to avoid contamination of sewage in some areas densely concentrated discharge phenomenon. Second, the transfer of emission rights must go through an application by the local environmental protection departments can be included in the EIA approval management procedures. Thus, by strict approval management and legislative means to effectively curb such as: illegal transfer of emission rights; deliberately hoarding, disrupting the market price behavior of emission rights through these measures to ensure the normal on the secondary market trading of emissions trading to achieve true activation market.
In summary, our emissions trading system is still faced with many policies, management systems and technical problems. Government departments should seize the opportunities of China's economic restructuring, combined with the existing pilot experience and foreign experience, step by step, from the point to the surface to practice, the actual construction of line with my situation Emission Trading System.Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com