Based on location quotient Concentration Degree of industrial clusters - in China's textile industry for example

[Abstract] industry cluster is a new model of regional economic development, which promote regional economic development has played a big role. Commercial use of location in on China's textile industry cluster of enterprises agglomeration degree of empirical analysis found: textile enterprises in industrial clusters sustained economic growth, economic development level in promoting the rise and development of industrial clusters has played a certain role, with the textile industry, industrial output location quotient is calculated discriminant concentration degree of China's textile industry cluster is an effective method.

[Keywords:] cluster effect; concentration degree; location quotient; textile industry spatial structure; chain; industrial layout; regional economic development; papers to write an Introduction There are three main theories of regional economic development pillars, namely economic growth pole theory, the park theory and the theory of industrial clusters, these three theories from different angles on the regional economic development provides a guideline. Industry cluster is a new model of regional economic development, which promote regional economic development has played a significant role in the world and has become the focus of research. Industrial clusters (industrialcluster) refers to a particular area (usually a leading industry-based), a large number of enterprises as well as closely related and supporting institutions gather in space and form a strong, sustainable competitive advantage of the phenomenon [1] . American scholar Michael Porter in 1990 published 'Competitive Advantage of Nations,' a book formally proposed the concept of industrial clusters, Porter argued that industrial cluster refers to both competition and cooperation in specific areas, each associated companies, governments, other relevant institutions (such as universities, vocational training institutions, industry associations, etc.) geographical aggregates [2]. Essentially, industry cluster is to create a competitive advantage and produce, and has become the basic spatial structure of the world economy. Therefore, the use of industrial clusters reconstruct spatial structure of China's textile industry, industrial development requirements of both the industry itself, but also enhance the international competitiveness of China's textile industry, an effective way.

From the practice of development of industrial clusters, the cluster is related industry chain competition and cooperation between enterprises on the spatial agglomeration. Industry cluster is the core of enterprise based industrial chain relationships between contacts and cooperation can be achieved, thus the formation of the corporate network. With discrete market transactions, randomized comparison between buyers and sellers, in the space between the close of business or organization is easier to build trust and coordination in trade relations. First, the extension of industrial clusters within the cluster related industry chain, production process development, testing, evaluation, production, marketing, distribution and other sectors have carried out a fine specialization, thus helping to improve product quality.

Secondly, resources can be allocated more rationally within the cluster, which is conducive to reducing transaction time and reduce transaction costs, while production of timely management information quickly between the various economic agents to exchange, making the production process more efficient and rational . Finally, the cluster effect within the cluster promoted the rapid growth of small and medium enterprises, which is the development of enterprises is very useful. Industry cluster aggregation effect makes producing the same type or the same kind of product related companies gathered in a particular region, and thus help reduce transaction costs between companies.

Second, the relevant literature review in recent years, domestic and foreign scholars on issues related to industrial clusters conducted by the growing number of theoretical and empirical research, and the research results show a lot of useful insights. Foreign scholars Morosini believe that companies with a variety of public institutions within the cluster platform through cooperation and interaction between organizations to achieve a collective learning behavior, such behavior is conducive to shared cluster enterprises scattered in clusters of key technical and business knowledge, but also conducive to promote technology transfer between enterprises cluster [3]. Molina  Morales and other traditional manufacturing clusters of the Spanish companies within 288 empirical studies found that although clusters exist between enterprises within a certain degree of homogeneity, but companies have established their own unique network of relationships, these unique network relationships enable enterprises in the cluster for sharing the degree of utilization of resources, these differences can be explained by the different companies to create value [4]. Omokazu such as Japan's three industrial clusters were investigated and verified three kinds of relations and cooperation between business growth, the results found that: with suppliers, customers and cooperative relations between the vertically role in promoting the growth of the enterprise was not significant, while with universities, cross-industry business partnerships between organizations has a positive effect on business growth [5].

Kanda and Deshmukh studies have shown that coordinate the supply chain cluster resources can reduce inventory costs, manufacturing costs and transportation costs, and help improve the competitiveness of the region in which [6]. Sirmon and Hitt study found that the cluster companies will choose a range of resources to support its business activities, as chosen by the company's resources and their ability to reach a certain level, which will help enterprises to achieve industry-leading position [7].

Chinese scholars on the industrial cluster effect is also undertaken extensive research. At present, China's textile industry the application of international, domestic resources to develop the two markets, the domestic market, accounting for about 80%, about 20% of the international market. Some textile enterprises to accelerate the pace going, realized from the processing trade, OEM business to their own brand of change, and further optimize the industrial chain of China's textile industry structure [8]. Kuznets and other groups from the core technology, culture and marketing cluster three aspects of cluster performance were measured, and design evaluation index system model, using two fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to quantify the evaluation, the impact on the core of SME clusters Competitiveness evaluated [9].

Luo Guoxun, respectively, from the product structure, market competitiveness perspective of the enterprise group of small businesses rely on clusters, cluster defender small businesses, small enterprise clusters spatial concentration, market-oriented small business small business clusters and network-based cluster performance were analyzed discussed [10]. Bian Jihong based on stakeholder theory, application performance prism of ideas and methods to build the industrial cluster performance evaluation system, and from the stakeholder satisfaction, strategies, processes, capabilities and contributions of five matched intrinsic dimension of industrial cluster performance evaluation index system preliminary design [11]. Ning Junming believes that to improve the performance of industrial clusters and cluster development, in addition to fostering a favorable external environment, it is more important to optimize the cluster structure and improve the quality of governance [12]. Jiang Xin and Luo Jia study found that Chinese industrial clusters in the structure, conduct and performance in three areas not yet implemented collaborative development of industrial clusters in which each of the one or two aspects of the development of the poor [13]. Wuyi Jie, HE Jian pointed out that the recession in the industrial clusters, some of the key factors in the decline of change in the cluster, so the cluster into maturity, companies must take the initiative to actively integrate into the global value chain to create competitive advantages and explore new market space [14]. Traditional industry cluster upgrading and transformation, as well as strategic and emerging industry clusters cultivation and development of China's industrial cluster development process is the most urgent and important issue, and the only way to solve these problems is to build industrial clusters innovation capability [1516] . Huang Jiankang and Jiang volts heart that industry cluster development is to promote the new industrialization process and enhance industrial competitiveness of the important paths. Wang Jiao Li such that the upgrading of industrial clusters is an important trend that is based on the global value chain from the outside pull steering mechanism of industrial clusters to upgrade the internal dynamic mechanism [18]. Caishao Hong and Lu Lin believes that industry cluster stability condition depends on the dynamic symbiosis Game enterprise income gap between the level of the cluster, to realize their own income changes and other factors [19]. From the existing literature, the majority of scholars from a subjective degree of agglomeration of industrial clusters have been studied, but the textile industry cluster data analysis and application of quantitative methods of research less. In this paper, on the basis of existing theoretical research, combined with China's actual situation of the textile industry cluster, cluster agglomeration effect on empirical research: First, the current situation of China's textile industry cluster description; Secondly, the use of locational quotient around the country's textile industry cluster to quantify the degree of concentration of industrial clusters sort; Finally, the status of industrial clusters in various regions to be compared, and appropriate countermeasures according to the specific issues raised.
Third, the study design (a) Analysis on China's accession to WTO, the textile industry in the market economy to compete. Because cluster industries compete more effectively than a single company, thus enhancing the study of the textile industry cluster is conducive to promoting the textile industry cluster optimization and upgrading, which is the development of China's textile industry has a very important practical significance.

Textile industry is a traditional Chinese industries, with the most complete industrial chain, from raw materials grown to product processing, textiles every aspect of the comparative advantages are obvious. China's textile industry cluster areas are mainly concentrated in the eastern coastal economically developed areas, the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and the Bohai dominated, especially concentrated in Shandong, Jiangsu, Fujian, Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces in five, the overall showing 'East Dorsey little north weak south strong' features. According to the China Textile Economic Information Center statistics, Zhucheng, Shandong Province by China Textile Industry Association awarded the 'China Men's City', Shandong Province, Wang Tai Town by China Textile Industry Association awarded the 'China Textile Machinery Town', Jintan City, Jiangsu Province, is China Textile Association awarded the 'China's export garment manufacturing city,' Fengze by China Textile Industry Association awarded the 'China Children's City' and 'the sixth installment of the textile industry cluster pilot areas,' and so on. In recent years, with the southeast coast of the transformation and upgrading of the textile industry is facing increasing pressure and the Midwest's rapid economic rise of the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta region in the textile industry, the scale of production on the basis of stabilizing start a new industrial location: a respect to accelerate industrial upgrading of the level, the development; hand accelerated shift to inland gradient, especially in the central and western regions have formed a number of textile industry is relatively gathering, some of which is still higher starting point of the textile industry cluster area [20] . China's textile industry cluster of regional distribution shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 China's textile industry cluster area distribution in the textile industry cluster to the Midwest in the process, some of the western provinces of the textile industrial park construction has been taking shape. For example, Xi'an modern textile industrial park in April 2009 approved the establishment, which is based in Xi'an textile enterprises to undertake the relocation of transformation as the basis, the province's textile industry chain enterprises for improvement, based on the southeast coast of the textile industry to attract gradient transfer as the goal of specialization, new integrated industrial park. November 2010, Xi'an Modern Textile Industrial Park by China Textile Industry Association awarded the 'China Textile Industry Base', became the tenth installment of the textile industry cluster pilot area was awarded five new bases, is one of 28 national textile industry only one base in the western region of the base. In the State Council recently approved the 'Western Development' second five 'plan', the modern textile industrial park in Xi'an was first included in the key construction projects [21]. Textile industry is a traditional economic development of Shaanxi Province and an important livelihood sector, but also a competitive advantage is more obvious and relatively rapid development of the industry, but a long accumulation of structural contradictions and problems are also increasingly prominent, the existing economic system and mode of operation has been unable to adapt to government planning and social development needs. In addition, a large number of east coast textile firms are also facing increasing element constraints, costs rose faster, weakening competitiveness and other issues. Thus, the new industrial park to undertake the transfer of the textile industry is a 'homeopathic move.'
At the same time, new construction in Xianyang Textile Industrial Park by China Textile Industry Association awarded the 'national textile industry transfer Pilot Park' title, the Japanese Itochu Corporation, Bond Group (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Shanghai Metersbonwe Group (Group regional headquarters center), Eddie Monto room Ltd. (textile industry projects) and other four key investment projects have been signed admission agreements, four projects a total investment of 60 million yuan, to provide jobs for 1  8 million units completion, the annual output value will reach 20 billion yuan. In addition, the domestic famous enterprises Shanshan Group, Youngor Group, also have investment intentions. Extend the industrial chain of the textile industrial park distinctive to accelerate the process of building industrial clusters foundation. Xianyang emerging textile industrial park in eastern actively undertake the transfer of the textile industry in the process of accelerated post processing in the textile and garment industry, research and design, brand marketing, trade flows and other aspects of development, expanding areas of cooperation and to enhance the level of investment diversification, change their operating mechanism, formed from the spinning and weaving, printing and dyeing, garment design and processing to marketing a complete industrial chain, which greatly boosted the Xianyang textile enterprises bigger and stronger.

Since 2002, China's textile industry cluster begins after the pilot, textile industrial output value of 962.6 billion yuan from 2001 to 2010 of 40839  16 billion. January 2011 to November, textile enterprises above designated size industrial added value grew by 10  5%, growth rate over the first half increased 0  6 percentage points, the textile industry, the country's total industrial added value of industrial added value accounted for 5  7% increase over the first half of the 0  1 percentage point [22]. According to statistics, the 'Eleventh Five-Year' period, the central and western textile enterprises an average annual growth rate of investment in fixed assets reached 41% and 27  5% (higher than the eastern 10  3% growth rate); central and western scale average annual growth rate of industrial output value of textile enterprises reached 27  8% and 25  9% (higher than the eastern 16  6% growth rate). 'Twelve Five' period, the overall layout of the textile industry will continue westward. Expected to 'Twelve Five' period, the textile industry will play a basic form of the eastern, central and western regional advantages of the industrial layout of each system, the textile industry's total economic output in the eastern, central and western three regional distribution will be significantly improved. By 2015, the central and western regions of above-scale industrial output value of enterprises the proportion of the total industry in 2010 will be 17% to 28% [23]. The formation and development of industrial clusters enables external economies of scale regional textile and matching capabilities continue to increase, and to promote cooperation and competition within and outside the cluster, thus contributing to a larger regional economic and constantly improve profitability. The success of the textile industry developed provinces proved that the development of industrial clusters has become the only way for the development of regional textile industry.

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(two) research methods of industrial clusters at the regional level evaluation studies, identify the main methods of industrial clusters Porter case analysis, input-output analysis and location Manufacturers (Location Quotient, LQ) method. Porter case analysis relies on the subjective judgment of experts, which limits the objectivity of the data collection; input-output analysis is based on historical data and data analysis carried out, it reflects the dynamic changes of the industry has certain limitations ; area quotient identify industrial clusters in Western countries the main method is to identify a common tool of industrial clusters, with the cluster of locational quotient calculated to reflect the degree of concentration region's main industry characteristics, and the data easier to obtain, to facilitate the calculation. Therefore, this paper locational quotient to China's textile industry as an example of industrial cluster agglomeration degree of empirical analysis.

Location quotient is the evaluation of regional competitive industries of the basic analysis methods, it refers to a region-specific sectors in regional industrial output value of the proportion of the output value of the sector and the national industrial output in the country the ratio between the proportion of . District quotient is the industrial efficiency and effectiveness of quantitative analysis tools, is a more common cluster discriminating method used to measure a particular industry is relatively concentrated in a specific area of ​​the degree. Generally speaking, LQ = (Eij / Ei) / (Ekj / Ek), where Eij represents industry j in region i's industrial output, Ei refers to the total industrial output in region i, Eki industry j k country's industrial output, Ek refers to the state k The total industrial output value. By calculating the area of ​​a regional industrial location quotient, you can clear the area in the country has a certain status of the dominant industries, and in accordance with LQ values ​​to measure the size of their specialization rate, LQ greater the value, the higher the rate of specialization. When an industry LQ value greater than 1, it indicates that the area of ​​the industry has a good comparative advantage, but also shows the industry has a strong competitive edge. Certain industries LQ value is larger, indicating that the region's comparative advantage in the industry is more significant, the stronger competitiveness.


Fourth, the empirical analysis (a) data sources and data from the hypothesis of this paper from 2010 to 2011 China Statistical Yearbook and provincial statistical yearbook, and select the country 31 provinces and industries as textile enterprises above designated size of the study sample. Meanwhile, based on the foregoing theoretical analysis, we propose the following two assumptions.

Assumption 1: economically developed areas of the textile industry cluster obvious phenomenon.

Assumption 2: economically underdeveloped areas of the textile industry cluster is not obvious.


V. Conclusions and Recommendations In this paper, China's textile industry as an example of industrial clusters identified empirical analysis results show that China's textile industry in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, the Pearl River Delta and the Bohai Rim several regions, especially in Tianjin, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Hubei, Guangdong and Ningxia this eight regions have formed a clear cluster zone, the textile industry cluster economic efficiency of enterprises continued to grow. Location quotient (especially with the textile industry, industrial output value, the location quotient) in identifying Chinese industrial cluster phenomena are reasonable and feasible, and the test results with the actual match, indicating that industrial clusters rise and development, the degree of economic development played a certain role, which can be explained with the textile industry, industrial output location quotient is calculated discriminant Chinese textile industry cluster concentration degree is an effective method.

Practice has proved that the textile industry cluster can effectively promote the formation and development of enterprises in the park continues to grow, driven by regional textile industrial output continues to increase, which is to promote rapid and healthy development of the industry has a very important significance. From the current situation, China's textile industry cluster concentration degree is still not enough, the eastern, central and western regions is very uneven distribution between, for underdeveloped areas should be permitted in the case of their own environment, give full play to their own advantages of industrial clusters developed regions timely lessons of successful experience, put forward for the local textile industry development measures, to accelerate the pace of industrial restructuring, progress in science and technology, brand building, industrial transfer and other aspects to achieve a comprehensive upgrade, in order to better achieve the Midwest with the eastern industrial cluster transition and convergence.

(A) build a platform for industry, science and industry gathered to guide policies and measures as makers, government should as far as possible in the industrial development of enterprises to provide a good environment for development, give full play to its role as a bridge between enterprises. Local governments should build on existing and emerging textile industry cluster as a precondition, the development of relevant programs and measures to achieve the Ministry of Textile Industry Cluster something good convergence, scientific guidance for industry gathering textile enterprises, enhance the company's overall production capacity of the cluster to expand Cluster influence. Government in dealing with the textile industry cluster park construction should be treated differently, especially in response to economically backward western regions in the capital, manpower to give support.

(Two) optimize the industrial layout, and enhance industrial aggregation control various regions of the resources should be based on the actual situation, optimize the industrial layout, adjusting the industrial structure, relying on industrial clusters to enhance the development of the textile industry's profitability and competitiveness, to strengthen cooperation between enterprises awareness, follow industry cluster formation, development, upgrading on the basis of the law, to grasp the characteristics of each stage, the textile industry cluster development process timely analysis of issues arising, and promote effective industrial chain adjustment and structural optimization and upgrading, and thus more achieve a good model to the industry from a single cluster transition.

In the eastern region, industry cluster more mature areas (Tianjin, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong, etc.) to use high technology to transform traditional industries to upgrade the existing textile industry cluster level, nurturing east coast specialty brands , focus on quality and quality improvement, increase brand contribution rate; developing and adapting to regional economic development needs, highly technical, high value-added textile industry, local governments on the eastern region to meet the law of development of the textile industry, the transfer of industries to give policy and funding the encouragement and support. In the central region, has established textile industrial park (modern textile industrial park in Xi'an, Chongqing Fuling District Longqiao Industrial Park) to introduce a large number of regional textile enterprises settled in, and actively develop the county, the town's specialty textile economy, the rational allocation of the resources, the introduction of advanced technology and equipment, to undertake the eastern industrial transfer, strengthening the new base or industrial park infrastructure, and encouraged economic development in line with local leading industries, to attract a high degree of similar and related businesses to the base or focus on parks, promote formation of industrial clusters and upgrades. In the western region, to give full play to labor, raw materials, land, energy and other advantages in the industry cluster pilot area to implement energy saving, green production and other work, and actively develop cotton, wool, silk and other characteristics of the development of industrial clusters, industrial clusters play endogenous power, and strive to catch up in the eastern region.

(Three) rely on technological innovation and enhance the competitiveness of enterprises the government should guide enterprises to increase investment in research to improve some of the advantages of textile enterprises Intramural R & D expenditure accounted for the main business revenue; support the textile enterprises to participate in national science and technology programs and major projects to promote advanced technology in the industry to effectively promote the application; encourage the textile industry chain upstream and downstream enterprises to strengthen cooperation to strengthen joint research with improve collaborative innovation capacity, on this basis that the profitability of enterprises has been greatly improved, thereby improving enterprise core competitiveness.

(Four) to accelerate brand building, promote industrial upgrading First, enterprises should develop brand development strategy, enhance self-created brand awareness, increase brand in R & D, design, production, marketing and other aspects of integration. Second, we should fully develop the brand intangible assets through the introduction of the brand to achieve the brand's expansion and extension. Finally, China's textile enterprises should accelerate the process of branding, create a project to carry out textile brands, improve their market influence to further promote the optimization and upgrading of industrial clusters.

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