Papers Category:Economics Papers
- China Economic Papers
Post Time:2013/5/30 9:01:00
Abstract: The economic form has gone from 'agricultural economy - industrial economy - the service economy - Experience Economy' evolution, following the development of service industries, the experience industry will become the backbone of future economic development. In this paper, the service economy and experience economy made a comparative study with the economic analysis of morphological evolution, marketing model changes occurring on the experience economy enterprises through '6Es' (Experience strategy combination) to implement experiential marketing, to enhance customer value do thinking.
Keywords: marketing Experience Economy mode service economy
Economic formation process of evolution with the consumption patterns change from the past agricultural economy, industrial economy to a service economy shift 'experience economy.' This is the inexorable law of development of human society, is determined by the level of development of productive forces. When economic development reaches a certain level, the human consumer focus from products and services to the experience transfer, which is a natural state of human development papers to write.
As early as the 1970s, the famous American futurist Alvin Toffler • (Alivin Tomer) predicted: pressure from consumers and the economy would continue to increase pressure on people who will promote technological society towards the direction of future production experience ; services will eventually exceed the manufacturing, production will experience over services; certain industries revolution will expand, making them the exclusive product is not shoddy goods, or even general services, but the pre-arranged 'experience.' Industrial experience may become one of the pillars of industrialization super, even after a service economy. • according to Joseph Pine (B. Joseph Pine II) and James • Gilmore (James H. Gilmore) in the United States, 'Harvard Business Review' pointed out: Experience Economy era has come. From the 'experience economy' was aroused widespread concern.
With the technology, the rapid development of information industry, people's needs and desires, consumer spending patterns are affected accordingly. From the economy to provide material goods, goods, services into experiences shape the evolution of the economy also experienced agricultural economy, industrial economy, service economy to the experience economy. This is determined by the level of development of productive forces, is the inexorable law of development of human society. Every change in the provision of physical economy, will lead to fundamental changes in economic structure, thus contributing to the evolution of society from an economic era to another economic era. Changes in the economy to provide material and economic changes of the times, is bound to affect the marketing of concern 'mutually satisfy exchange relations.' Once you change the exchange relationship, marketing model is bound to be adjusted accordingly, with changing times and change.
Service economy to experience the evolution of the economy
Since the mid-20th century, the world economic structure has undergone profound changes since the industrial revolution long dominated manufacturing in Western countries dwindling proportion of the national economy, the role is being undermined, and all kinds of new, wide range of services sector to flourish. Value created in the service sector GDP is greater than the proportion of 50% of the service economy is a recognized criterion. According to this standard, the Western developed countries as early as the 1970s, entered the service economy. In the service economy, the service becomes a commodity instead of the main economic community to provide material. In the 21st century, the experience economy slowly began to emerge.
First, from a macro perspective, the experience economy is because society highly rich, civilized, developed and produced. Development of material civilization, the improvement of living standards, increased leisure time, the continuous development of new technologies and advanced business-to-consumer attitudes lead and demonstrations, have contributed to the service economy to the experience economy evolution. Secondly, from the microscopic point of view, the rise of the experience economy as companies for products and services in terms of quality, functionality has been made very well, features and benefits that customers have faded, and the pursuit of higher-level 'features and benefits' , that 'experience.' Services gradually to the direction of commercialization, commercialization gradually obliterate products and services to bring personalized, unique feel and experience, when the service becomes more automated and commercialization, the experience is separated from the service, has become enterprises to the market, and to provide material for consumer spending. Experience economy era is the inexorable law of development of modern society is the human irrationality memory outside the inevitable result. Currently from the U.
S. to Europe throughout the developed socio-economic, are well-developed service-based economy, and keep your computer information age, to carry out large scale even in the experience economy gradually. More and more consumers eager to get experience, more and more enterprises designed sales experience. Experience economy from industry to agriculture, the computer industry, the Internet, tourism, commerce, services, catering, entertainment (television, theme parks), and other industries are staged experience, especially entertainment has grown to become the world's most fast economic fields. 'Experience Economy' will also become China's economic development in the early 21st century content and form an important one.
Service economy and the difference between the experience economy
The so-called experience economy, is an enterprise to serve as the center of gravity in order for the material goods for the consumer to create a memorable experience. Traditional economy is mainly focus on product powerful, appearance, price advantage, experience economy is starting from life and situations, sensory experience and thinking shaping identity, in order to seize the attention of consumers, changing consumer behavior, and for the enterprise find new survival value and space. Although the service experience economy generated within the economy, but with very different service economy, mainly reflected in the following eight areas.
(A) a different consumer behavior Service economy, stressed the division of labor in the production of behavior and product features, service-oriented consumer behavior places.
When people buy services, bought 'a group according to their own requirements implementing the activities of non-physical form.' Experience Economy in the production of behavior in order to improve service led and commodity-props, consumer behavior is the pursuit of emotional and situational demands, creating memories worth consumer activity, and focus on the interaction with the product. When people buy an experience when, 'he was to spend time enjoying a series of companies to provide memorable events (as in the theater as in) make him immersive.' It is not itself an economic output, is not entirely a way to measure inventory. Experience is an objective existence of psychological needs.
As people's living standards and improved quality of life, people buy goods not only consider the functional value of goods, but also pay more attention to hidden goods symbolism and symbolic function, preferences, those who can show their personalized image, with the psychological needs of self-resonate emotional goods. More and more people not only concerned about access to goods, but also concerned about access to the venue and accessible manner. In the experience economy era, people's consumption behavior will exhibit the following characteristics: From the consumption structure, the increase in the proportion of emotional needs. From consumer content, the products are increasingly popular downfall of personalized products (services) increasingly high demand. From the value of the target view, consumers shift from a focus on the product itself to focus on the feeling of receiving product. From the accepted way of looking at the product, consumers from passive acceptance vendor induced, pulling, the development requirements of individual appearance of the product, and then on the product features individual requirements.
(Two) the customer's different roles
Agricultural economy, industrial economy and the service economy is the seller economy, all economic output have stayed at the customer outside, not a relationship with customers. The positioning of the industrial economy is producer-centric, focusing on quality and price. The positioning of the service economy 'producer + consumer' service economy from the production side to understand and emphasize products 'on-demand', the consumer is not a producer, does not participate in the formation of enterprise value. Service its value after production is fixed down. The positioning of the experience economy is totally consumer-centric, from the consumer side to understand and emphasize product, economist Wang Dingding said: 'Experience is no longer a completely separate consumption and production, experience is the consumer, but it is also produced the process. ' Customers to participate in the formation of enterprise value, the experience itself is the destination, which is the experience economy and the service economy is the biggest difference. At this point enterprise's main job is to provide the stage for the customer experience, real experience to be implemented by the customer. Customers can experience in the realization of the process, give full play to their initiative and dynamism, so that experience goods produced greater value.
(C) to meet the needs of different Agricultural economy, industrial economy to meet the general needs of survival; services to meet the economic development needs; experience economy to meet the needs of self-realization. Toffler explains further development from survival to self-realization historical and logical process. He said: Customers want to live in the environment on the one hand there is a certain degree of stability, repetition and familiarity, but the other requirements to get some thrill and excitement, they want to have a wide range of experience can feel. Experience Economy is the demand from the market perspective emphasizes the unlimited demand 'experience' category demand starts into reality needs, thus becoming the driving force behind social and economic development. Self-actualization needs, customers, is happy, the enterprise, is success. Allowing users to happiness and success is the industrial economy and the service economy price war war service saturated, move up the value chain of the main strategic space. Economic formation process of evolution with the consumption patterns change from the past agricultural economy, industrial economy to a service economy shift 'experience economy.' This is the inexorable law of development of human society, is determined by the level of development of productive forces. When economic development reaches a certain level, the human consumer focus from products and services to the experience transfer, which is a natural state of human development.
(Iv) different functions There is a physical product, the service is intangible, but experience is a memorable one.
Service economy to provide solutions to problems, such as the customer through maintenance services, excluding malfunction. When customers purchase a service, when he actually buy is tailor-made for him a series of invisible activity. Experience Economy does not solve any problems the customer, did not leave any tangible things, when customers purchase an experience, it is time to buy and enjoy, during which time customers enjoy a range of memorable events, that it something more tangible than cherished. Experience Economy and service economy is an important difference lies in the experience economy is to create the climax of the economy. Experience Economy is the climax of these systems, the industry to 'make' them.
(Five) different fees and pricing
In practice, the experience and the service is sometimes difficult to distinguish the essential difference between the two lies: the service economy consumer experience providers not to charge the customer experience activities, and experience economy consumer experience provider of customer experience activities charge. In this case as to provide customers with products and services, if the company charges only for products, which belong to the scope of the industrial economy; And if the business both on the product charges, and fees for services, it belongs to the scope of the service economy. Similarly, the experience originally belonged to the individual's own thing, now let others staged experience for us and pay a fee. In fact, the whole history of economic development is an original free stuff will be paying history. Service economy price change is a considerable extent on the degree predictable.
Experience Economy pricing will depend primarily on customer value obtained without depending on enterprises to pay for the cost of design experience, is the product of the actual value deviates from the rational. Its value is determined by those who experience an emotion or feeling to decide, those who experience that is worth spending so much that consumers are willing to pay for this kind of experience, because it is beautiful, rare, I'm yours, nontransferable, fleeting. So companies have more flexible pricing, pricing, space is very flexible. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
(six) different ways to grasp the value of
Service economy is a rational grasp of the value of the experience economy is intuitively grasp the value that consumer behavior in addition to containing the knowledge, intelligence, rational thinking and other factors, it also contains the senses, feelings, emotions and other emotional factors. Consumers in the consumer before the consumer when the consumer's experience, is the study of consumer behavior and corporate brand management is a key. If we say that the service economy economics can be used to guide, then the experience economy can not even economics, but with the aesthetic guidance. Industrial economy and the service economy just makes it into the realm of necessity, from the realm of necessity to the realm of freedom, must undergo rational economic man from the 'behavioral' changes.
(Seven) different core issues
Industrial economy, the core issue is the quality and service is the core issue of economic management, the core issue of the experience economy is innovation. Innovation is so important, is that the experience economy economy to provide material to the customer must leave a deep and lasting memories, but to achieve this effect, it is necessary to have good themes and ideas. Following the standardization of service delivery after baptism, innovation will be the focus of competition experience. Because today seemingly unattainable services, tomorrow will soon become the industry standard. Moreover, even the service standards themselves need to use innovation to enhance its vitality and to allow innovation to promote the experience to perfection. Therefore, in the experience economy, innovation and important than ever before, the only innovation is the fundamental way for enterprise development.
(Eight) different theoretical explanations
Industrial economy to Taylor, Weber, represented by scientific management theory to explain; service economy opened up to Mayo and other behavior management theory (also known as interpersonal theory, theory of social man) to explain; experience economy futurology the source of Toffler , the source of Maslow psychology, economics, and the source of David • Laibson 穆拉伊纳丹, media sources in Joseph • • Pine and James Gilmore, philosophy is the source of 'alternative' Nietzsche's philosophy, Nietzsche that human nature is unstructured, free to create their own human nature, human beings should also make good use of their undifferentiated, create a stronger and healthier humanity.
Morphological evolution driven marketing model of economic transformation
In the industrial economy, the consumer is completely passive recipient, consumer products, manufacturing processes and for market entry process is not known, the results can only feel the presence of the article. While in the service economy, consumer spending as the main initiative enhanced gradually be able to feel the service process, entrepreneurs are also gradually taking into consumer psychology. Experience economy era, the dominant position of the consumer further to be sure, a real experience to rely on yourself to the customer, that industry experience is a consumer product experience in the process, and its value is not determined by the manufacturer but by businessmen to provide consumers to choose their own design. Therefore, consumers can feel, in the consumption process and the importance of their own initiative and as a master controlling have been affirmed; thus stimulate consumer awareness so as to promote consumption. With the evolution of economic forms, marketing model has also undergone a change, experienced from the '4Ps' to '4Cs' and then to '6Es' changes.
(A) From the '4Ps' to '4Cs' marketing model
Industrial economy of the marketing model to Jerome • McCarthy's '4Ps' marketing mix as a guide, focus on product features and benefits, the customer as sensible purchase decision-makers, to the customer's decision-making as a solution to the problem process, a very rational analysis, evaluation, final decision to buy. Service economy era '4Cs' marketing mix strategy is marketing experts from the United States in 1990, Professor Sprout friends made it to consumer demand, re-set the marketing mix of the four basic elements: the consumer ( Consumer), cost (Cost), convenience (Convenience) and communication (Communication). It attaches to customer-oriented, the pursuit of customer satisfaction as the goal, which is actually today's consumers are increasingly living in a marketing initiative in the market for corporate imperative. In the '4Cs' under the guidance of the concept, more and more enterprises pay more attention to the market and consumers, and customers to establish a closer relationship and dynamic.
(Two) experiential marketing 6Es Experience Economy Environment identified customer value, target markets for each customer's individual value.
It requires economic operation of the enterprise, so that every customer can obtain a satisfactory value, so companies must follow the specific needs of a particular customer tailored. The most important feature is customized personalized, customized experience economy is the only way, and commanding the experience economy running. Marketing experience from the consumer's senses, emotions, thinking, action, association 5, the re-definition, design marketing way of thinking, breaking the traditional marketing 'rational consumers,' the assumption that the consumer experience is the key to marketing . From a focus on product performance and quality into the emotional needs of their customers, from product manufacturer or service provider into the experience of the planners. Therefore, the experience marketing both marketing shift in emphasis, but also marketing perspective transformation; both a marketing strategy, but also a new marketing model. Experience Strategy portfolio consists of the following elements: Experience (Experience), situational (Environment), event (Event), invasion (Engaging) and impressions (Effect) Extension (Expand). These six elements are based on the English word 'E' at the beginning, for simplicity called it '6Es' portfolio strategy.
First experience strategies. Experience the soul of the economy is the core theme ideas or subjective experience design, according to the consumers' interests, attitudes, habits, emotions, knowledge and education, the goods as 'props' service as a 'stage', the environment as a 'scene' and create a Xiang customers have a wonderful, worthy memorial memories, triggering consumers emotional resonance, increase product added value. In the experience economy, should focus on 'marketing + theater stage' concept, 'Work is theater' and 'every business is a stage' design concept in business activities should be widely used. Experience Design Theme developed countries have now become a design industry, successful theme experience design must be able to effectively contribute to the economic development experience.
The second is situational strategy. Context of enterprise customers to create 'performance stage', is generated by the external environment experience. It can be designed to be realistic scenario, also be designed as a virtual world. In the context of the design strategy, you can learn drama theory, psychology, sociology and other aspects of knowledge and service experience strategies. Companies pay attention to consumer scenarios, in order to create experiences to attract consumers, emphasizing communication with consumers and ignite their inner feelings and emotions.
Third event policy. Especially where the event the customer performing a series of procedures to set. If the experience provided by the enterprise fragmented and unable to distinguish, in the minds of customers that will be difficult to form a clear concept and positioning, therefore, companies must conduct the process of performing a special design. Event policy based on performance levels established strict or loose relatively relaxed program. Design strategy in the event, to create a complete experience, not only need to design a layer of positive clues must also less weakened, the violation, the negative transfer subject leads to consider the relationship between customer, coordination between them activity.
Fourth immersion strategy. Consumers are more willing than ever to participate in product design, hopes to reflect the unique creative consumer personality and self-worth, greater sense of accomplishment, satisfaction. Experiential marketing focus on the customer's active participation, immersion strategy is to make customers through marketing tools to the enterprise really immersed in the design of the event, called for the role of design in the customer must make to become a real 'actors.' Customers only genuine participation event, their mental activities really immersed into context, will eventually lead to the generation of experience willing to pay.
Fifth impression policies. Experiential marketing experience to the customer delivered at the same time, pay attention to customer lifetime value problem, the introduction of policies to enhance the impression of customer assets. Experience an unforgettable impression process produces, maintaining long-term customer relationships become an important factor. But the impression will gradually decay with time, if not its management, customer relationship will be difficult to achieve long-term.
Six is the extension strategy. Product development companies will expand into related areas to form a complete value chain, customer experience can be extended to the rest of the enterprise products, extended to different regions and periods, and to spread to others, enabling customers to maximize the value .
In '6Es' portfolio strategy, the close ties between the various E, first of all, experience the strategy is to experience the design process, is situational strategy, event strategy and immersion strategies premise and foundation, other strategies must obey and serve the basic experience strategies content and ideas. Secondly, situational strategies, policies and events strategy is immersion experience of the implementation process, the enterprise through the implementation of these three strategies, the completion of experience in the production and alienation, but also completed the customer experience spending. Finally, the impression strategy and extension strategy is experiential marketing management process, which builds on the results of the previous strategy, and strive to maintain long-term customer relationships, enhance customer assets.
Experience economy not only bring economic characteristics change, change in the way the production, but also changed the way the consumer to corporate values, corporate management, and production and business activities update brings new ideas, It affects the whole society associated industries. In this era of enterprises in order to consolidate and develop, we must re-examine their own marketing ideas. Experiential marketing through additional experience in the product, with the service delivery experience through advertising communication experience, allowing cohesion brand experience, creating a new experience business and other ways to implement. Marketing experience in the implementation of key points when necessary to identify and overcome the weak points, to capture strange point, uncover puzzled points and good convergence point, through the physical interface, web interface, HMI interface with customers and telephone exchanges and communication, in experience acceptable to the customer reception area, providing support for the experience backstage area and provider customers and experience interact directly implement interactive experience area '6Es' portfolio strategy.
References: 1 [America] B • • Joseph Pine, James • H • Gilmore.
Experience economy. Machinery Industry Press, 2002 2 jiangqiping.
Experience economy - a report from the forefront of change in Social Sciences Academic Press, 2002 3 Ma Jianjun, Guo hope based on customer experience marketing perspective embedded in research.
Market Modernization, 2010.1 4 ningyang of China's economic development experience serving trend of Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, 2009.
5. Hai Bao. Experiential marketing types and implemented. Enterprise Reform and Management, 2009.5 6 Yu Jun, JI Cheng.
's Perfect idea Experience Management Act. Enterprise management, 2009.5 7 Liu Yan Customer Experience Theory.
Metallurgical economics and management, 2009.1 8 Dai Jinghong Economic Forms and Experiential Marketing Mode of Huzhou Vocational and Technical College, 2004.
2 9 Wangan Qi.
Experiential marketing and traditional marketing what the difference is. Economic Forum, 2005.23 10 Yin Yu Kai, summer dream.
On Experience Economy marketing theory. China Science and Technology Information, 2005.14 11 Geng Bin attention experiential marketing in China Marketing Communication Network, 2002.
4 12 Zhu LIANG, [America] Bernd • H • Schmidt.
Experience Economy and business management reform China MARKET, 2002.4 13 Fan Xiucheng, Chen Yingyi.
Experiential marketing: new thinking companies to win customers. Economic management, 2002.12 Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com