Comparative analysis of normal consumption and consumerism

Abstract: With the deepening of economic globalization, consumerism, and gradually spread to every corner of the world. Many scholars of consumerism as an incentive to reflect on the financial crisis, post-crisis era to re-examine the values ​​of consumerism and lifestyle, there has been magnified against the phenomenon of consumerism, and even proposed by the Government to address the financial crisis, the normality of policies to stimulate consumption misunderstanding in mentioning
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Abstract: With the deepening of economic globalization, consumerism, and gradually spread to every corner of the world. Many scholars of consumerism as an incentive to reflect on the financial crisis, post-crisis era to re-examine the values ​​of consumerism and lifestyle, there has been magnified against the phenomenon of consumerism, and even proposed by the Government to address the financial crisis, the normality of policies to stimulate consumption misunderstanding as in the promotion of consumerism. How Consumerism and the difference between the normal consumption What is the standard? Paper attempts to clarify the consumerism and the difference between the normal consumption, focusing on the content and features of consumerism and consumerism and the difference between normal consumption standard.

Keywords: consumerism consumption difference between normal


Consumerism (consumerism) began in the 19th century, the technological revolution promoted the development of productive forces, the Western capitalist economy entered a bid farewell to the era of excess shortages, production is becoming more dependent on consumption, consumer determine not only the production, but also determines the production circulation and reproduction. Stimulate consumption cries a wave after wave, promotional tools ever-changing pattern, making the United States of America as represented by the late 19th century to the early capitalist countries the first to enter the consumer society as a mainstream values, fifties and sixties of the 20th century, reached the pinnacle point throughout Europe and Japan and other developed countries. With the deepening of economic globalization, consumerism, and gradually spread to every corner of the world. In the 1980s, with the influx of a variety of Western thought, consumerism and gradually began to affect our country, the impact on people's values ​​and vision papers download.

Connotation and characteristics of consumerism


(A) the meaning of consumerism

Consumption and production are closely related to people's lives, Marx said 'man appeared on earth on stage from the first day, every day consumption, whether in the past and he began to produce during production are the same.' Consumption (consumption) has long been understood as 'exhausted', 'consumption.' After the mid-eighteenth century, as with the production (production) relative concept. Today, the consumer has the broad and narrow sense.

Generalized consumption refers to people in the production and life of the material goods and spiritual goods, labor and services for consumption in the process, which includes the production and consumption and personal consumption (Cheng Yuan, 2003). Production and consumption in the production process tools, raw materials, fuel, labor and other production and consumption of living labor, is the four aspects of social reproduction (production, distribution, exchange and consumption) is one of the ultimate goal of human activities; Personal Consumption people in order to meet their own needs for a variety of material life, labor and the spirit of consumer products, is essential for human survival and practice one aspect.

Narrow sense refers to personal consumption spending (Jiang Lin, 2007). Personal consumption has a dual nature, which has a natural process and the social nature of the process. On the one hand, people consume a variety of consumer information and services to meet the physical and psychological needs, such as consumer food to relieve hunger, consumption of clothing to prevent cold, etc., which reflect the natural process of consumption. On the other hand, people are spending activities are always carried out in a certain social relations, it can not be carried out in isolation from society, so people's consumption activities with social, as Marx put it: 'We need a social nature and to enjoy' .

Usually people are discussing the 'Consumer' means the narrow sense of the consumer, that personal consumption. In personal consumption, consumption is the ultimate consumer, but also what Marx said, 'the original sense of consumption', where the real purpose of consumption that people have been produced daily consumption of consumer information (including information services) to meet their material and cultural life needed consumer behavior, it is directly linked with the reproduction of labor power. Typically, 'consumption' refers to consumption, the consumption is mainly referred to here that people survive and continue to produce in order to meet the sum of consumption activities undertaken, it is a requirement to be met and the realization process.

Consumerism is an advocate and the pursuit of excessive self-possession and consumption to meet life goals and values, as well as in such values ​​govern the behavior of the practice. It is not a mere concept of value, nor is it a purely behavioral practice, but rather a combination of both (Lu Jiarui et al, 2005). As a respected consumption in order to enjoy the above social thought, in pursuit of excessive consumption as a life goal to meet the self and values, and in this infinite values ​​under the domination of the possession of material wealth, greed, excessive consumption as a way of life and the pursuit of values. Scholar Wang Ning (2001) believes that the ideology of consumption, the consumer is no longer the traditional sense of the needs and satisfaction, consumerism represents a sense of emptiness status, and expanding consumer desire and passion.

Modern consumer society, consumption and the relationship between the real needs of people has deviated from the more distant, merchandise and image has become a huge 'symbol vector', continue to stimulate people's desire to achieve a kind of desire to meet, needs rather a simple implementation. French sociologist Jean Baudrillard believes that spending time as a communication system, bear a certain 'self-expression' and 'identity' function. Consumerism to promote 'consumer is the ultimate goal in life,' the cultural ideology, depending on the consumer as the fundamental way to self-gratification, pleasure to put their money based on the unrestrained pursuit of material consumption on luxury, fashion and taken for granted and the avant-garde. In the consumer society, consumer end in itself, so it is self-propelled.

(Two) the characteristics of consumerism

One distinctive characteristic of materialism, materialism all the needs of the people are based on the pursuit and desire for material above the performance of hedonism and endless pursuit of material. Special emphasis on physical possession and consumption.

Two prominent symbol of features, in addition to material goods consumerism as 'substance', the more the commodity as a representative capacity or status symbol. Self-expression and material consumption is the main form of social identity, logo and high quality of life as a symbol of a happy life. Three is extremely infective properties. Achieve tangible material consumption through psychological satisfaction, this overt behavior can easily lead people to imitate, and once accepted the consumerist lifestyles, people would be difficult to get rid of, easy to lose rational judgment and critical force, the consumption of this substance false demand (desire) and personal survival as human nature.

Consumerism and normal consumption


Normal consumption for consumer demand, is an essential, is the continuation of production and living simply; while consumerism, consumer demand has been more than just more focused on consumption spending in order to achieve through such consumption the manifestation of an identity and vanity meet, is an expression of desire for expansion, consumption is not a necessary living and survival, consumption has become a means to satisfy a sense of emptiness and the continuous expansion of the state and the desire consumer passion. Comparing the difference between the two, the key to see if more than the 'degree', consumption more than the 'degree' is consumerism, otherwise normal consumption. How to understand and grasp the consumerism of the 'excessive', Lu Jiarui opinion, in terms of individual consumption of the 'excessive' include: the ability to pay more than I or family (including credit force) consumption; wasteful consumption, including the occupation of a large number of material wealth consumption or consumption and not rarely violated certain minority interests of the majority of the consumer; exceeding the prescribed standard consumer; impact and crisis to people's normal work and physical and mental health spending. As long as the consumer does not exceed the above limits, are normal consumption, it should be supported and protected; while consumption is excessive consumerism, must be opposed.

The author believes that consumerism consumption critical point with the normal 'degree' includes two aspects, one consumer psychology excess demand, consumer behavior over the other. Excessive consumption of consumer psychology refers to the psychological than actual consumer demand, that consumption has not only met the actual needs, but also to satisfy a desire for expansion, growth of one kind of vanity, a status demonstrated. 'Traditional psychology to 'demand' is defined as a state: Once the needs are met, the state will eventually eliminate this tension in the consumer society, the community members' needs on the contrary, it would not even be satisfied after the disappearance - If possible, it will become more intense. ' In the consumer society, consumer purpose has been limited to meet the demand, not only to keep warm dressing, eating just to fill the stomach, when clothed, the people's needs are not achieved, or that person's consumption demand has not then these, but has expanded into consumer end in itself, consumption has become a means to meet the needs of alienation.

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refers to consumer behavior consumer behavior over more than their actual consumption. Marx's spending power, there are two explanations, one people consume a variety of material and labor capacity, called the absolute consumption; Second, the ability to pay people to buy consumer goods, called social spending power. Absolute spending power of a person's actual requirements necessary, as people have warm clothing naked, you must eat healthy operation of the body to sustain life and the reproduction of labor.

Social spending power is in line with individual consumer purchasing power, refers to the income level of the individual matches in the personal ability to pay within the scope of affordable consumer. Meet individual consumer spending power at a reasonable consumption of 'degree' within are a normal consumption, must also meet the absolute power of consumption and social spending two conditions. Many wealthy people have adequate social spending power, but are lavish spending, leading to social resources such consumption idle, causing the structural imbalance between supply and demand of society, causing social disparity between the intensification of contradictions, is a typical consumerism, should take all measures to put an end to. Reasonable consumption refers to the ability to pay in their own ability to repay or credit affordable range, but their absolute demand or real needs, share some consumer goods will not idle, you will not be squandered.

Consumerism and consumer behavior analysis


(A) to stimulate consumption and consumerism

In China, investment, exports, consumption is driving economic growth, 'Troika.' 2009 due to the global financial turmoil, exports stimulating effect on economic growth is slowing down, the state clearly by stimulating consumption, expanding domestic demand to promote economic way of stable and healthy development. However, some people mistakenly believe that the government proposed to stimulate consumption and expand domestic demand policy is to promote consumerism. In fact, stimulate consumption and expand domestic demand, consumption is not advocating people to consume, rather than advocating that people regardless of their own spending power (actual demand and consumption) mindless consumption. The central policy of expanding domestic demand to take, such as 'home appliances to the countryside, home appliances TM' and a series of benefit people's livelihood, promote consumption policy to effectively stimulate the consumption potential of urban and rural residents, and promote the appliance, automotive, housing, energy saving products and other industries production and restructuring, so that the people, especially farmers and urban low-income families receive tangible benefits, steady recovery in the Chinese economy has played an important role. And no apparent rebound in exports under the premise of expanding domestic demand and expand consumption for maintaining sustained and steady economic growth is of great significance, which is to solve the overproduction, irrational economic structure and other issues have an important impact. Visible, stimulate consumption actually protect people's livelihood, improve people's living standards and the protection of national strategic initiatives steady economic recovery.

(Two) and branded consumer consumerism

Branded consumer consumerism is reflected in the prominent symbol consumption as a carrier for the pursuit of conspicuous consumption and brand presumptuous mindless consumption. Symbolic Consumption is consumerism and features one of the essential meaning, means consumption ignore the practical utility of goods, the goods as more symbolic symbols, such symbols in a way symbolizes the person's identity or socio-economic status. Spending time as a communication system, bear a certain 'self-expression' and 'identity' function. In actual consumption, this particular incarnation is the brand symbol. The symbol as a carrier for the pursuit of conspicuous consumption and brands are the mindless consumption presumptuous consumerism performance, is irrational consumption.

Through normal consumption and consumerism distinguishing criteria to measure the judge, the former belongs to the excessive consumer demand, while the latter is the excessive consumption behavior. So, these two things should oppose consumption. I do not oppose all branded consumer. The value of the brand itself is a huge intangible assets; brand often is a symbol of quality, brand-name products in particular is an international brand which have a dazzling aura, sought after by consumers in droves, with high use value. People prefer or enjoy the brand, is a kind of social progress, social development, material wealth, the pursuit of a higher quality of life reflected. Therefore, the brand consumption is not a conspicuous consumption, does make people feel at ease and comfortable spending. In consumer demand and consumer behavior are modest, consumers looking for brands is the trend, you must correctly distinguish the brand consumption and consumerism.

Consumerism and excessive consumption


Excessive consumption is to take the money earned in advance for future consumption. Consumer lending is the most typical, the most common excessive consumption. Excessive consumption - 'spend tomorrow's money round today's Dream' This is a significant feature of consumerism one. The symbolism of the consumer society, material and hedonic nature makes people enjoy reveling in spending to bring their vanity, psychological comparisons to meet people through symbolic consumption highlight the identity, status and value, in this concept of consumption, most people at the expense, liability in the case lived a glamorous, live for today's life, this consumption is excessive consumption should be opposed.

However, should not be against all the excessive consumption, during the boom years, there are certain advantages to borrowing, consumers take a moment not so much money in case you can expect to enjoy their loans early life, which in turn can stimulate consumption , thereby stimulating economic growth. Consumers generally have a fixed source of income through repayment, as economic growth, the consumer's income increases, loan repayment is not a problem. But even in times of economic prosperity, we can not blindly promote excessive consumption, we must grasp the policy between consumption and consumerism 'degree.' In addition to satisfying consumer demand givers, more importantly, to meet the consumer's degree of force, especially the degree of social spending power to do what. This 'force' is the income constraints and credit constraints force the formation of purchasing power and credit, breaking the power of purchasing power and credit constraints blind pursuit of high consumption, this excessive consumption and socio-economic impact on individuals bring serious negative consequences must be opposed. And, subject to income constraints and credit constraints force the formation of purchasing power and credit should not be opposed to such excessive consumption.

Consumerism and high consumption


Consumerism to promote 'consumer is the ultimate goal in life,' the cultural ideology, depending on the consumer as the fundamental way to self-gratification, pleasure to put their money based on the unrestrained pursuit of material consumption on luxury, fashion and taken for granted and the avant-garde. In a consumer society in which people often through the consumption level of their value as a measure of size. However, not all things were high consumption of consumerism, should not be any opposition and restrictions. High consumption is as China's income gap is too large and continuing to expand produced a phenomenon. Since the sustained, rapid development, urban and rural residents' income is generally better, but the income gap is also expanding, two differentiation is an indisputable fact that social stratification thus intensified. Socio-economic structure determines the multi-layered multi-level consumer groups, and consumer groups and multi-layered performance as an inevitable level of consumption, consumption structure and consumption quality multi-layered.

High-income class (here refers to the lawful income of honest labor to obtain high-income) income than in low-income, their consumption levels are naturally higher than that in low-income, their high consumption is normal behavior. Not only for this high consumption should not be opposed and limitations, and to give encouragement and support, and actively expand their areas of high consumption and space, according to their need to improve a variety of consumer grade. There is a demand can be supplied, it must be fed production, expand production and manufacturing innovation. To do so, both to increase employment, but also to expand the demand. Must distinguish between high consumption and consumerism, should grasp the normal consumption and consumerism 'degree' in the moderate and reasonable under the guidance of consumer demand, in line with their own circumstances consumer spending power, even higher than the level of consumption of lower-middle class, as long as a normal consumption, rather than blindly oppose and resist.

References:

1 Ning. Consumer desires [M]. Nanfang Daily Press, 2005
2 Cheng Yuan Students Consumer Research [D]. Master's degree thesis, 2003
3 Jianglin. Consumer Behavior [M]. Science Press, 2007
4 Lu Jiarui, Lv Zhimin Consumer Education [M]. People's Publishing House, 2005

5. Ning. Sociology of consumption [M]. Social Sciences Press, 2001

6 [France] Jean Baudrillard. Liu Chengfu, all Zhigang translation. Consumer society [M]. Nanjing University Press, 2000
7 [English] • Zygmunt Bauman, Huan establish translation. Besieged community [M]. Jiangsu People's Publishing House, 2005

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