Papers Category:Economics Papers
- China Economic Papers
Post Time:2013/5/30 9:04:00
Abstract: In this paper, the context of urban and rural distribution channels of agricultural products in China to explore the problem, starting from the general circulation of agricultural products, agricultural products distribution channels raised the need for innovation, discovery channel reality of the existence of agricultural products circulation problems, through the scientific classification for agricultural products a complete innovative solutions.
Keywords: agricultural innovation commercialization rate of distribution channels
Circulation of agricultural commodities in rural areas has always been the main content will become an important part of urban and rural development. On the one hand, the total circulation of agricultural and structural changes directly affect the flow and circulation of agricultural products flow changes, and circulation of agricultural products can efficiently realize the value of a direct impact on farmers' income level changes, thus affecting the prosperity of the rural household industrial market extent, therefore, is the circulation of agricultural commodities in rural areas of the core; the other hand, urban and rural development in the context of how to build a modern circulation network in rural areas, promote agricultural innovation and distribution channels to meet the development of modern agriculture and the growing consumption needs of rural areas, has been become a focus of the study titles of papers.
Due to the traditional 'heavy manufacturing, light circulation' thinking, China's commodity distribution channels, methods, system construction has been in a backward situation, agricultural commodity circulation levels below average. In terms of distribution channels, distribution channels of agricultural products in the possession of resources among channel members imbalance, leading members of the dependencies between channels showing a variety of forms, thus affecting the efficiency of distribution channels, resulting in low efficiency of agricultural products circulation, cost; agricultural distribution channels by the impact of rural infrastructure, such as transportation, communications, technology and other backward, logistics and supply chain development and market information is difficult to accurately docking; rural distribution channels intermediary body too much and developmental lag, sales distribution chain is too long, each circulation transaction costs and transaction time of severe long, leading to the bullwhip effect circulation of agricultural products, the impact of agricultural products circulation performance. Meanwhile, agricultural production has a regional, seasonal and dispersion characteristics, and consumers of agricultural products with annual ordinary, diversity, change, and therefore require frequent various agricultural products are transported in different regions in order to meet consumers around needs. Produce low level of organization of distribution channels, limiting the circulation of agricultural products radius, improve circulation costs, resulting in an oversupply of agricultural products in the origin market, low price sales, while sales to the market but in short supply. In the new rural construction form, the study of the distribution channels of agricultural innovation issues, help to improve the market value of agricultural products, so that timely and accurate market information and feedback, and can enhance the rural industrial structure, improve rural consumption environment, help to promote the new rural construction .
China's agricultural general analysis of distribution channels Scale of agricultural products circulation.
Agricultural products circulation of commodities, agricultural products logistics occupies an important position. Agricultural logistics in large quantities, varieties, these products are 70% -90% through distribution channels into the national consumer market requires strong distribution channels and improve the distribution network to realize the value and use value of agricultural products. Agricultural commercialization rate.
Namely the so-called rate of agricultural products in total agricultural products into the circulation and exchange ratio, the level of rates on the one hand the commercialization of agricultural products distribution channels determines the scale and efficiency of distribution channels and other agricultural products affect the level and pace of commercialization rate . Since reform and opening, China's agricultural commercialization rate continues to improve, the end of 2009, the average rate of the eastern region commercialization of agricultural products reached a level of 90% (Guer Xiong, 2007), the western region agricultural commercialization rate average is only 60%.
Agricultural commercialization rate and efficient interaction analysis of distribution channels
Circulation of agricultural products, including the acquisition, sale, transporting, storage, processing and marketing of five links, distribution channel members are the main circulation, circulation of products size, quality and variety of distribution channels such is the object of all aspects of the operation will affect the distribution channels of agricultural products efficiency. Agricultural market maturation of objects is essentially the process of commercialization of agricultural products, with the increase of rural surplus products and increased degree of market economy, promote agricultural commercialization rate continues to increase. Meanwhile, the different agricultural products to enter the market in chronological order, basically followed the elasticity of demand and channel-oriented principles. Elasticity of demand for product first commercialization; elasticity of demand for agricultural products underwent minor commercialization. After the commercialization of agricultural products to realize its value must have the appropriate distribution channels to be lost to the market, the different varieties of agricultural commercialization rate also depends on the backward linkages of the agricultural industry more market-oriented. Cotton cocoon commercialization rate is only 50% more, while grain was 80%, only from the elasticity of demand is difficult to explain the nature, mainly due to both the processing industry and distribution channels to build on the differences. Channel-oriented commercialization of agricultural products up to 90%, while a high proportion of households own consumption channels oriented agricultural non-commercialization rate is only 30% (Wong Qing, Yan Jian Branch, 2005).
China's agricultural products distribution channels Empirical Analysis of the problem The scale of the problem the main distribution channels.
As the main flow into the market, market, supply and demand of communication, you need to scale, quality, brand and a variety of marketing tools, need to be able to grasp the agricultural market conditions, apparently scattered, small-scale farmers and industrialized often do not have such strength and conditions. At present, the main body of China's agricultural products distribution channels for agricultural products are mainly farmers and self-employed wholesale and retail, large-scale, specialized agricultural enterprises are still small. China's agricultural production units mainly farmers, small scale of operation, the average cultivated land area of 7.94 acres, the average selling food to 1047.34 kg, 97.62 kg of pork, eggs 55.48 kg, is the world's 'smallest farmers' (Arve Hang, 2004). Whether this scale circulation of agricultural products are not available or the ability to resist risks. Low level of organization of distribution channels.
The degree of organization of distribution channels and channels can be understood as a systematic, any one distribution channels, includes a number of channel members, those members cooperate to complete the transfer process goods, and these channels, the state of relations between members on the performance of distribution channels organization. Therefore, the basic elements of distribution channels - channel members constitute a partnership between channel morphology, determine its degree of organization. Distribution channels of agricultural products in China a large number of members, the scale of uneven levels, mainly in small-scale, and each isolated, showing a low level of organization, the primary responsibility of rural brokers organize smaller scale. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.cominefficient distribution channels.
Channel efficiency refers to the amount of channel investment brought about by the sales and profits. The efficiency of agricultural products distribution channels from the perspective of time and space, from the perspective of time following up with the flow of circulation efficiency to measure the length of time from the perspective of space coexist circulation efficiency of resource allocation can flow situation in which the flow of radius and circulation costs to measure. First, the overall rural circulation time high. Industrial products and agricultural products from the circulation time of comparison, the circulation of agricultural products decreased time, but from the absolute value is still high, mainly due to China's agricultural products distribution channels too many members of the agency, distribution and marketing chain is too long, and distribution channels, poor co-ordination among the members caused by the circulation of each transaction must be time-consuming, so the flow for a long time. Secondly, the circulation of agricultural products radius. Agricultural products with regional, seasonal and dispersion characteristics, and consumers of agricultural products with full universality, diversity and variability of demand, so a variety of agricultural products need regular flow of transport in different regions in order to meet the needs of consumers across . These characteristics limit the circulation of the radius, resulting in an oversupply of agricultural products in the market place of origin, and in sales to the market demand, prices rise in market segmentation situation often. Circulation of the high cost and expense structure is irrational coexist.
Figure 1, Figure 2 shows, the total cost of agricultural products circulation by circulation of agricultural products and other non-comparative analysis of the cost of the basic situation, the structural condition of circulation costs from transportation costs, storage costs and management fees accounted for the three main aspects of the case estimates . Terms of total circulation of agricultural products cost a faster rate of growth in its absolute contradiction occurs, is relatively fast growth of low efficiency. If the price of grain production compared with the international market has a great competitive advantage, but they are in circulation, in the field of foreign trade increased by at least 30% of the cost; while for non-food like fresh produce, far greater than the cost of the intermediate channel production costs. Contrast can explain the structure of agricultural products circulation costs of high transportation costs and storage costs, indicating that China's agricultural products distribution channels in the management problems.
Agricultural products distribution channels depends logistics infrastructure behind. Main features: First, the rural road construction is lagging behind. Nationwide, more than 70% of rural roads are wide and 7 meters below the road, there is no traffic warning signs and other safety facilities, or a variety of hidden potholes unequal country road in the west do not even have a number of remote rural road construction . Overall, rural transport routes deficient, farm lanes equipped lacking. Second, agricultural capacity shortage. The first is less than the total capacity of rural, rural transport and machine power is about 20% of the total traffic; followed by the lack of agricultural transport special technical equipment, backward technology and equipment. Private vehicles are extremely inadequate, resulting in part of the perishable product backlog in origin, resulting in 20% of the goods before delivery spoiled. Container shipping is a better mode of transport, suitable for transportation of agricultural products, but our lack of appropriate facilities, not large-scale use. Third, inadequate storage conditions. Some agricultural products from the production, procurement to end consumer requires multiple storage to regulate the production and demand and the supply and demand balance. At present, China's agricultural storage capacity is insufficient, the library point distribution is unreasonable, unscientific, small scale, and warehouse-type with low levels of mechanical equipment, storage methods and modes of transport suited, unified management difficult. Fourth, the low level circulation and processing facilities behind. Most agricultural products distribution channels need to organize, grading, sorting, drying, cooling, disinfection, antisepsis and packaging processing, and distribution channels of China's agricultural operations in these areas is inadequate. In drying, for example, the acquisition of national annual high moisture grain, use of drying equipment can handle only one quarter, most rely on artificial grain drying, spend a lot of manpower, material and are subject to weather and other natural factors, inefficient .
Chongqing-based innovation model of agricultural products distribution channels
The development of agricultural industrialization and urban medium-sized supermarket chains and other new retail formats to join, so that circulation of agricultural products is gradually fostered modern methods, but each circulation Chongqing Rural degree of organization of the main body of the low level of development of the situation of low wholesale market , inhibiting the flow of agricultural modernization pace. While traditional agricultural products circulation has achieved more detailed division of labor, but too much circulation, small-scale and the nature of agricultural disproportionate. Therefore, to build and improve essential agricultural products circulation model, which made specific exploration of Chongqing. Mode 1: Start the integrated production and marketing distribution channels mode.
New model of integrated production and marketing circulation is used mainly leading enterprises to actively participate in the 'agriculture super-docking' mode, the acquisition of large and medium circulation of agricultural products involved, or to establish a base and OEM directly, through consumer demand information to guide agricultural production structure adjustment, the progressive realization integrated production and marketing circulation patterns. In 2008 the city's 'Ten Thousand Villages,' the contractor leading enterprises through direct sourcing base, straight to build a base, OEM sales, guiding farmers to barter, etc., worth a total of more than 5000 million acquisition of agricultural and sideline products; starting in 2008, organize various kinds of 'Agriculture and Commerce docking' Seminars, online buying and selling of agricultural products Matchmaking, through direct marketing to meet all kinds of intentions turnover reached 1.16 billion yuan, the actual turnover of 380 million yuan, by the agricultural cooperative economic organizations, agricultural products processing enterprises welcome. Mode 2: gradually improve the circulation of agricultural products integrated channel service system.
Circulation methods including integrated service system is perfect. Chongqing is gradually improving circulation of agricultural products integrated service system, the establishment of a variety of agricultural products detection and information release system, such as the prices of agricultural products and agricultural products quality inspection stock trading system; inspection and quarantine of agricultural products, standardization provides the conditions and infrastructure protection; logistics and distribution and the gradual improvement of the cold chain center, making fresh agricultural products has gradually increased, and with neighboring provinces and cities transport of standards, such as the transport of mutual relief road toll and other related products. Mode 3: to strengthen the main flow cultivate, promote the diversification of rural circulation of agricultural products.
Agricultural products through the wholesale market, such as trafficking large rural brokers and sales and circulation of agricultural products circulation of Chongqing focuses on a wide variety of ways, and the cultivation of the body, so that circulation of agricultural diversification, which can promote the sales of agricultural products. According to incomplete statistics, by the end of 2008, wholesale 48 kinds of Chongqing, turnover 34 billion yuan, an increase of 24.
8% over the previous year. The city's various farmer's market reach 1500 or so, the city's main channel for fresh produce consumption is still farmer's market. Meanwhile, the rural agents on the role of agricultural products circulation of Chongqing is also growing, mainly from rural residents of these brokers, specializing in the purchase of agricultural products and long-distance traffic, the city's various agricultural brokers and reached a total of 31,698 trafficking large, a Some of these areas in agricultural marketing broker plays the role of the main force.
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