[Abstract] the development and utilization of nuclear power there are potential safety, environmental protection and other issues, has been much attention. Scientific concept of development China should earnestly learn profound lessons from Japan's Fukushima nuclear accident, correctly handle the nuclear power building good relations with the fast relationship, the relationship between science and technology and culture management, to keep a secret and spread of nuclear knowledge, as well as independent innovation and international cooperation. essence of China's nuclear power development.
[Keywords] nuclear power, scientific development, relationship.
A time when China's nuclear power development by moderate to actively develop the critical period of change, March 11, 2011, Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant occurred a serious nuclear accident, the world of nuclear power, including the development of China's nuclear power into a cusp. Nuclear power exactly safe and unsafe ? reliably unreliable?
Continue to vigorously develop timely "brake"? Chinese nuclear power go from here? Issue of this series before the people can not be avoided.
Given the reality of China's economic and social development needs, we believe that the construction of nuclear power in China is not stagnant, but must make a scientific development, which requires the guidance of the scientific concept of development, to seriously reflect on and learn from the world nuclear accident Japan Fukushima nuclear accident the profound lessons, correct handling of the nuclear power development in several important relationships.
Correctly handle the good and fast relationship.
"Quality, quality, and the connotation of development of things," fast "refers to the scale of things, the number and speed. Correctly handle the relationship of" good "and" fast "in the process of economic and social development, to be" good "Lured "good" and "fast" both coordinated development speed, scale, and efficiency, which is the fundamental requirement to implement the scientific concept of development, and also the comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of the fundamental way to achieve economic and social ever existed in the history of China's socialist construction, over seeking "fast" forget "good" speak the number do not speak quality, they talk about the phenomenon of scale do not speak effective, resulting in a waste of resources, environmental destruction, inefficient results, the economic and social development has been a major setback. lessons of history can not be forget.
Guidance of the scientific concept of development, to promote the sound and rapid development of China's nuclear power, has a particularly great significance. Nuclear power is the basis of the strategic industries of national importance, the development of nuclear power is directly related to national energy security, and related to the protection of the ecological environment China's economic and social ability to achieve sustainable development and the construction of two types of "social relations to the development of nuclear power goes, With the important safeguard China's modernization, the development of nuclear power bad as too slow, can not meet the economic and social development needs. especially in the event of a serious nuclear accident, will give people's lives and property safety and modernization has brought significant losses. therefore, must be in line with a highly responsible attitude of the country, the people, the socialist modernization drive, seriously consider and correctly handle the relations of "good" and "fast" in China's nuclear power development.
First, the development of nuclear power must adhere to the "good" Lured "good" as the fundamental nuclear power development in the "good" word performance is the quality of the development of nuclear power, and efficiency especially safe and reliable nuclear power is different from other industries, and in some sense is a two-edged double-edged sword. "developed well, well, well managed, can benefit the society to the contrary, the event of a nuclear accident, would bring huge disaster of 1986, he The nuclear power plant is considered to be the world's safest, most reliable --- Soviet Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded, causing significant loss of personnel, property.
Strong radiation substances leak, caused severe environmental pollution 20 years have passed and the vast areas of the Soviet Union, the remainder of the Chernobyl nuclear accident victims to date is still March .2011 Japan's Fukushima nuclear accident, its impact comparable to the Chernobyl nuclear accident, "nuclear panic psychology today, people still exist in addition to the two nuclear accident, nuclear power development in the history also occurred in other nuclear accidents, such as Three Mile Island nuclear accident. development nuclear power is not 100% safe and reliable, due to various objective and subjective reasons may still have an accident, even in the most developed science and technology in the United States, Japan, the Soviet Union was not spared the event of a nuclear accident, the consequences will be catastrophic. At present, China's economic and social development is at a crucial stage, the energy demand gap, energy saving and emission reduction pressure, the need to develop nuclear power. As a result, in 2007, the State Council officially approved the << thematic planning of the national nuclear power development (2005-2020> >, China's nuclear power development has entered a new period of moderate development to actively develop new nuclear power projects continue to be launched, nuclear power ushered in a development boom. nuclear accident repeatedly warned us that the development of nuclear power must not blindly greedy big fast hot-headed, we must insist on quality first, safety first. want "good" word in the absolute priority will be "good" to carry out the whole process of the construction of nuclear power for fundamental guiding ideology, ranging from planning and feasibility studies thematic studies, siting, construction, operation to retirement governance. Based on this, after the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, the Chinese government attaches great importance to the safety of nuclear power development on March 16, .2011, Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting, the problem of the safety of nuclear power development. meeting stressed that the development of China's nuclear power must always adhere to safety first, and on the implementation of the idea put forward four demands: First, immediately organized a comprehensive safety inspection of the country's nuclear facilities are running effectively strengthen nuclear facility safety management, a comprehensive review of the nuclear power plants under construction, strict examination and approval of new nuclear power projects to pay close attention to the preparation of nuclear safety planning, so that the development of nuclear power planning and nuclear safety planning simultaneous implementation .
Second, nuclear power development in the "good" as the fundamental basis of rapid development. Overall, nuclear energy is a clean, efficient, and reliable energy, has many irreplaceable advantages of fossil energy, especially in today's fossil energy depletion, nuclear energy is more important to choose people to achieve sustainable economic and social development under the grim situation of the environment is deteriorating, after the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan, the countries of the world, such as France, the United States, Russia, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, , on the one hand, will make every effort to ensure the safety of nuclear power station, on the other hand insisted determination to continue to develop nuclear power does not change our government takes a similar stance. compared with other countries in a sense, the needs of the development of nuclear power in China is more urgent On the one hand, in the face of severe challenges of energy shortage, environmental degradation, we want to ensure national energy security and build a resource-saving and environment-friendly society, it is necessary to develop nuclear power, on the other hand, China's existing nuclear power installed capacity accounted for only a national installed capacity of 1.1%, compared to Japan, France, Russia and the United States, the proportion is very small, there is room for development, ". Based on this, the economic and social development in China announced on March 16, 2011, the" 12th Five-Year " The Plan proposed during the "12th Five-Year" non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption reached 11.4% ...... ensure security on the efficient development of nuclear power, ".
Second, the right to rely on science and technology and strengthen the relationship of the cultural management.
Three large nuclear accident in human history of the development of nuclear power,: One Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident in the United States, and the second is the Soviet Chernobyl nuclear accident, three Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan Looking at the three nuclear accident occurred mainly due to There are two aspects: First, improper reactor design, the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan there site is not enough scientific problems, such problems can be attributed to the scientific and technical aspects of operating mistakes and mismanagement, or "people by mistake" mistakes of the human factors, the core of the core values, employees own quality is a problem, the root of such problems can be attributed to the building of enterprise culture and cultural management issues in other words, the nuclear accident occurred, it is necessary to from the science and technology that the "hardware" to find a cause, but also from a cultural management that the "software" to find a cause.
Therefore, to promote sound and rapid development of nuclear power, must correctly handle the relationship rely on science and technology and strengthen cultural management, so both both indispensable to innovative nuclear power technology to enhance nuclear technology content. Nuclear power industry high-tech industries, especially the technical content of the equipment design and manufacturing, and strict quality requirements. nuclear advanced technology, high or low technology content, to a large extent determine the nuclear power plant safety, the sustainable development state-of-the-art science and technology to promote nuclear power sound and rapid development of the material basis. should attach great importance to the research and development of nuclear power technology and innovation, attaches great importance to the development and manufacturing of advanced nuclear power equipment. Secondly, we must continue to improve the quality of people, continue to strengthen construction of nuclear power corporate culture and cultural management to prevent and eliminate "by mistake" and lead to a nuclear accident. the party's seventh session of the Sixth Plenary Session of the strategic plan of the cultural power. powers can not be separated from culture, culture can power the same strong enterprises "can not be separated from culture, culture can be" thriving enterprise culture management is the highest level of management of the nuclear power companies. good corporate culture, there is a good cultural management, nuclear power companies to do scientific development is impossible Because of the re-developed nuclear technology, nuclear power equipment and then advanced, but also by the people to manage and use. therefore, vigorously strengthen corporate culture construction of nuclear power, nuclear safety culture construction, and comprehensively improve the quality of employees, sound and rapid development for the achievement of nuclear power vital significance this to do the following: First, we must always adhere to the "safety first" security is greater than the guiding ideology of the day, we should vigorously promote the "career above all else, the responsibility is more important than all strictness integrated into everything, progressive achievements of all "the spirit of the nuclear industry, employees continue to build identity and practice the core values, Third, moral qualities upgraded to the center, comprehensive rigorous and realistic nurture employees adhere to the responsibility, to be willing to sacrifice mental quality, four cultural management, especially the management of nuclear safety culture throughout the whole process of nuclear power plant design, exploration, operations and decommissioning governance.
Nuclear safety culture is first of all a values reflects the common understanding of the importance of the safety of nuclear power employees, as well as the status of security awareness in which the nuclear power plant's safety culture more popular in-depth corporate employees a more profound understanding of the importance of safety the higher the security status. nuclear safety culture is also a personal attitude. nuclear power employees attitudes toward safety is first reflected in his system of safety and security, awareness and compliance measures. should security issues everyone's attitudes and habits of mind of the nuclear power companies, as well as units of the style of work is closely linked .Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
Correctly to keep a secret and spread of nuclear knowledge.
In the past, the nuclear energy industry belongs to the military field. Now, the mass transferred to civilian nuclear energy, nuclear power, but is still a national strategic resources, nuclear power technology is high-tech, is one of the country's core technology., Whether past or present, nuclear power technology are the country's state-of-the-art technology, the country's core secrets, not leak once the leak, the construction of nuclear power and the whole economic and social development will cause significant losses in today's world, most countries in order to ease the energy shortage situation and compete to develop nuclear power who have mastered advanced nuclear power technology, research and development of advanced nuclear power equipment, and the construction of advanced nuclear power plants and safe, efficient operations, who will be able to be invincible in the fierce competition in the economic and technological initiative to win the competition , addition to strengthen research and development, from time to time for commercial espionage, deliberately nuclear technology secret theft of other countries in order to strengthen the country's nuclear power development. Given this, an important issue in the development of China's nuclear power must do nuclear power technology, especially the confidentiality of the work of cutting-edge technology of nuclear power, an effort to avoid the adverse situation of the leak.
Nuclear power development is inseparable from effective confidentiality, however, this is just the problem. Another aspect of the problem is, confidentiality is not equal to all confidential, all publicity. Confidentiality of all closed, but only to a certain extent a certain range, the confidentiality of certain areas of the process of development of nuclear power from the Western point of view, of great importance to both confidential work, but also do a good job of outreach and education work of nuclear knowledge, this is one of the keys to promoting the smooth development of the nuclear power and nuclear Use and developed the atomic bomb, "born bad", so that people always feel unsafe nuclear energy, nuclear power and two serious nuclear accident in Chernobyl and Three Mile Island in the United States intensified the fear of the "nuclear". combined lack of nuclear knowledge to the general public, lack of self-confidence and a sense of security and thus the development of nuclear energy, nuclear power, however, in today's society, only a determination of the government in the development of nuclear power and corporate power is not enough, it also needs the support of the general public and involved in the lack of public awareness, recognition, identity and the development of nuclear power is inevitable difficulties. example, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in the United States has shaken the confidence of the American public on the safety of nuclear power, the Reagan administration had a significant compression of nuclear power plant construction plan Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan occurred in March 2011, and again a heavy blow to the confidence of the people of the safety of nuclear power, the people of many countries again raised the banner of anti-"nuclear", some countries such as Germany, Japan was forced to put slow the rate of development of nuclear power. This shows that public attitudes play an important role in the Western countries to develop nuclear power development policy, play an increasingly critical role.
Compared with Western developed countries, China's nuclear power development started late, is still in the early stages of development in the development of nuclear power development plan, the more of a focus on technical and economic factors, fewer consider the attitude of the public, especially the public acceptability of however, with the development of society and the rapid expansion of nuclear power, as well as a general strengthening of the people's participation in social awareness, the public acceptability of nuclear power will be the impact of China's nuclear power development policy can not be ignored important issues. therefore, to promote The scientific development of China's nuclear power, must pass through correctly handle the relationship between the conservative nuclear secrets and spread of nuclear knowledge., do security work at the same time, we should strive to do the popularization of education and advocacy work of nuclear knowledge and nuclear culture, and the public to correct knowledge and understanding of nuclear energy nuclear power, eliminate public fear of nuclear, mystery, and to increase public confidence in the safety of nuclear power, to enhance the public acceptability of nuclear power, so as to lay a solid basis of public opinion and mass base scientific development of nuclear power.
France is the most successful countries in the world nuclear power development, about 75% of its total generating capacity of nuclear power, and nuclear power plants are often close to the densely populated areas of life. Study the reasons for its success, in addition to the outside of the innovative nuclear power technology to ensure safe operation of nuclear power, the French government vigorously promote the popularization of nuclear knowledge, to adhere to the nuclear information open and transparent, and to encourage the active participation of citizens is also an important factor. establish a good communication channels with citizens, enhance the public acceptability of nuclear power, which France's nuclear power policy of long-term get big recognition and support of the majority of the people, even in the occurrence of a serious nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan nor had wavered.
We can learn from the successful experience of France and other Western countries, the emphasis on public attitudes, from China's actual conditions, greatly enhancing the scientific propaganda of nuclear knowledge. Example, the issue of content knowledge to promote nuclear power as manual, to build the theme of cultural products with excellent nuclear culture to organize nuclear power forums and exhibitions, organize public to visit the nuclear power plant. nuclear knowledge through the nuclear culture from the industry to the community, from the elite to the general public, achieve by industry culture to popular culture, so as to raise public awareness of nuclear power can accept and promote the healthy development of China's nuclear power.
Fourth, correctly handle the independent innovation and strengthening international cooperation relationship.
Materialist dialectics is things change based on internal factors, external factors are things changing conditions, external through internal work, which means that things change, internal factors are the primary reasons, external factors are dependent two reasons, internal external factors combine to jointly promote the development of things change. According to this principle, the development of China's nuclear power needs to correctly handle the independent innovation and strengthening international cooperation relationship.
First, China's nuclear power development should first be vigorously strengthen independent innovation. Countries in the world in the field of techno-economic and cultural needs of the existing cooperation, but also for maximizing its own interests and competing even struggle to make their own in the fierce to seize the initiative in the competition, and no country will own core technology transfer or sale to other countries. contrary, will take all the way on its own core technologies to be strictly confidential and highly protected, all means to prevent the outflow of core technology to his country .
Nuclear power in China started relatively late, compared with Western developed countries in terms of technology, management, personnel training there is a larger gap. Zhang Zhu, China Nuclear Industry Association has pointed out: "China's nuclear power's biggest gap is still reflected in the research and development capabilities, nuclear power and the development of new technologies, the development of major nuclear power equipment, technology research and development of nuclear fuel, or fuel reprocessing technology, the operation of the nuclear power plant repair technology and security services level, China is still a considerable gap. " Ministry of Environmental Protection Deputy Minister of National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) Li, Secretary Ganjie, said: "Because we are in the process of nuclear power development and some short board, bottlenecks, for example, the overall shortage of technical personnel, equipment manufacturing, operations management capability is not strong.
This is not easy, and requires a process. " In this case, to accelerate the development of China's nuclear power industry, to seriously study and introduction of advanced nuclear power technology developed Western countries, is undoubtedly necessary, but, one thing we must always clearly recognize that the core technology of the others is strictly confidential and will not easily let's introduction of the. therefore, to promote the sound and rapid development of China's nuclear power, we will not be able to pin their hopes on others, but bear in tight to rely on their own wisdom and strength, and vigorously carry out the research and development of nuclear power technology and independent innovation, to catch up with the world's advanced level. should be said that, after 30 years of development, China's nuclear power out of a road in line with China's national conditions in independent innovation, has made some important breakthrough for example, in terms of engineering design, China has the independent design capacity of 30, 60, ten thousand kilowatts pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant can produce 300,000-kilowatt pressurized water reactor nuclear power generating units with independent intellectual property rights, equipment manufacturers, complete sets of equipment in nuclear power technology research and development, the proliferation of experimental fast neutron reactors and high temperature gas-cooled reactor and other key technology has made encouraging progress, China has made a major breakthrough in the recycling of nuclear materials, and successfully mastered the power reactor spent fuel processing technology, is the second after France, Britain, Russia, Japan, India and other countries and an autonomous country to master the technology. seen, China's independent innovation in nuclear power technology is a strong ability, and achieved good results. We should be confident, nuclear power unswervingly follow the road of independent innovation. innovation is the soul of a nation's progress, is an inexhaustible motive force for the prosperity of a country. Accordingly, it can be said independent innovation is to promote the scientific development of China's nuclear power lies.
Second, China's nuclear power insist on the basis of independent innovation, we must vigorously strengthen international cooperation in the world today is a full of competition and cooperation open world, without which a country from the world out of his country and develop in isolation and thus mutual learning, strengthen exchanges and cooperation are essential for the development of every country, China's nuclear power has achieved good results in independent innovation, but due to a late start, and many other reasons, compared with developed countries there a large gap which we need active learning and the introduction of advanced technology and management in other countries, continue to strengthen international exchanges and cooperation, so as to accelerate the pace of China's nuclear power development is necessary to actively introduce foreign advanced nuclear power technology in the digestion and absorption on the basis of innovation, and to learn from foreign advanced experience in management of nuclear power plants and nuclear power personnel training mode to learn from foreign attention to nuclear and cultural construction, the popularization of great importance to nuclear knowledge, attention to the successful experience of the public to express their opinions, four to the main line in order to protect the nuclear safety, and strengthen international exchanges and cooperation. example, the establishment of information sharing and exchange mechanisms of nuclear safety, judged with other countries to work together and respond to possible nuclear accidents, and so on.
In short, on the development of strategic policy in China's nuclear power, we must first adhere to the principal of independent innovation. While actively learning and the introduction of foreign advanced technology and management experience to compensate for their own lack of independent innovation only, self-development and to strengthen international cooperation combined, in order to promote the sound and rapid development of China's nuclear power.
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