Comparative Literature and World Literature from foreign literature

Abstract: Comparative Literature and World Literature 1997 subjects adjusted, in the atmosphere of globalization of information integration, reproduction vitality, and quickly out of the original state of crisis, after several years of development, master's, doctoral and post-doctoral mobile Station three system to be perfect, comprehensive stimulating deep progress of construction and teaching reform of the Teaching of Science, but the disciplines combined high-level integration is not ideal, the relationship between the two old disciplines and more controversial, teaching specific issues still a lot of articles on the theoretical basis of the the foreign literature teaching reform in the disciplines merge and merge, the concept of goal, to teaching new model construction and teaching reform experiments in recent years to talk about their understanding and thinking.

Keywords: Comparative Literature and World Literature, discipline integration; teaching reform

Zhou Zuoren in 1917 as a liberal arts professor at Peking University First opened European literary history, after the the 1918 first << European literary history textbook advent of Zhu Ziqing the auspices of the Department of Tsinghua University, Chinese .1930 years, clearly from "relatively high level of awareness" Western literature. " Ministry of Education of the Republic of China government in 1938 to adjust to university courses, the Department of Chinese curriculum follows Tsinghua ideas. 1946, as envisaged in the smell more than one: the Department of Chinese Language and Literature, Foreign Language and Literature Department of decomposition recombinant Literature and Language Department, after the controversial failed to implementation .1952 new university subject major adjustment, "Foreign Literature history of "alternative" history of European literature "as the specifications discipline name, the Western literature .1997 Social Science Planning Office of the State Council order to meet the development needs of the new century, the spirit of reducing the old disciplines, the purpose of the development of new disciplines, universities pulpit 80 foreign literature Comparative Literature Development in the 1980s by implementation of the disciplines merge, merge two disciplines under the discipline of "literary" - "Comparative Literature and World Literature, original disciplines only professional nature (professional direction) exist.

Integration of disciplines background and internal relations the clear comparative literature and world literature this is two important concepts of the discipline.

1827 Goethe generally all mankind from mutual tolerance between various national literature "and" works "two" world literature "the (German compound words Weltliteraur idea:" national literature about modern Suanbu Le era of world literature has almost arrived. now everyone should contribute to the promotion of its come early ". ① The researchers concluded that the literature is evolving organisms, from the national literature to world literature, reflects the great progress of the human literature, commentators are convinced that with the approaching of globalization, mutual influence increasingly deep, you have me, I have your world literature is forming.

The Wellek Warren except Goethe the meaning ascribed in world literature also refers to the sum of all ethnic groups in the world literature, or those outstanding works of world reputation, he recognized the earlier world literature for the importance of comparative literature, he This definition of comparative literature: from the perspective of an international study literature from which we can see the two meanings of world literature: a theoretical conception, a focus on the literary development prospects based on the object and the angle of the delimitation of Comparative Literature.

"World Literature" in the country, but not in Constructing the Theoretical really play a role, play a dominant role in the literary relations, "said Chen Tun, Liu like stupid << Introduction to Comparative Literature >> Comparative Literature under a for a complete definition: An open literature study, it has a macro perspective and the perspective of international, cross-national, cross-language, cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary boundaries literary relationship as the object of study, in the theoretical and methodological compare features of consciousness and inclusive. Comparative Literature is defined as the study of various literary relationship ", which is more consistent with the view of the Chinese School," literary relationship is the concept of a difference in the study of literary relations external factors, country, ethnic, and cultural differences is the center of its concerns, its emphasis Digestion of Comparative Literature and World Literature as a subject of systematic and internal homogeneity relations.

Greatly improved due to the birth of the new discipline, the status of foreign literature into the core classes in the University Department of Chinese and foreign literature "in the Department of Chinese Language and Literature" has the legitimacy of the problem can be fundamentally resolved, but merging disciplines, disciplines internal and Comparative Literature contradiction is apparent from the new discipline of naming see, Comparative Literature and World Literature can not substitute each other, but should retain their primitive characteristics, at a higher level of integration, amounted to a new realm of literary studies , but the actual situation is not entirely the case. direction of graduate enrollment has always been a barometer of the development of the subject, via the Internet, only the 2002 National Master enrollment eligibility 50 universities conducted a survey results found that university enrollment direction divided into four types: the first category, such as Peking University, Tsinghua University, Nanjing University, Fudan University, the original World Literature in the direction of the enrollment of new subjects, nor the direction of world literature and comparative literary direction . The second category such as Beijing Normal University, East China Normal University, Shaanxi Normal original World Literature professional disciplines combined, the importance of the direction of the World Literature reduce important focus turned to the direction of Chinese and foreign literary relationship. Third category, such as Renmin University of China, Nankai University, etc., in the two disciplines, did not set a specific direction. these schools before World Literature, disciplines combined unclear in the direction of development, the main existing teachers to world literature. fourth category Shanghai Normal University, Soochow University, Wuhan University, represented by their enrollment direction, comparative literary direction, the direction of world literature, both both new disciplines in research direction is set, Comparative Literature, and foreign relations literature, world literature both, Shanghai Normal University practices closer to this ideal state. (2) in the Department of Chinese Studies, World Literature Foreign Literature. including foreign single writer, the work itself, including the National Literature research, including regional literature (such as the European and American literature, oriental literature, Latin American literature) and overall foreign literature, and at the same time, it also includes contain China's world within the study of literature from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21st century 100 years, the study of foreign literature in China achieved unprecedented performance, comparative literary studies is nearly 20 years before the formation of scale, new disciplines, comparative literary dimension, but also need to have a purely foreign literature the dimension from the overall perspective of the development of the discipline of world literature is undoubtedly the basis of comparative literature, comparative literature, world literature research methods exist between complementary knowledge platform and methodology of world literature in the new discipline not only to maintain its existence, but also to promote its development, therefore, we need a higher level of understanding the meaning of the world literature. regardless of world literature as an object or a point of view, in the specific practice, like Nie Zhenzhao in Foreign Literature 2002 annual meeting said: The History of Foreign Literature itself features and connotation of Comparative Literature, Foreign Literature (World Literature and Comparative Literature in essence is the same.

Curriculum and knowledge systems improve the deployment by the Ministry of Education, from 1999 onwards, the normal universities gradually replaced "Comparative Literature and World Literature" original "World Literature" or "foreign literature. Therefore in the curriculum, teaching content and teaching methods to be adjusted accordingly, of which there are many problems need to study the professional curriculum, professional direction, the content and methods of teaching, such as comprehensive reform should be carried out, but so far do not have a lot of conditions universities and teacher colleges are not yet opened "Comparative Literature and World Literature course we are still under the old foreign literature teaching plans, the operation of the teaching content. course how to design, how to arrange the teaching plan, teaching how to adjust teaching methods improve, which is what we need to explore and urgent problem.

According to the Ministry of Education, the teaching requirements and needs of Comparative Literature and World Literature teaching content in accordance with existing teachers and that the implementation of teaching comparative literature and world literature can be divided into several curriculum subjects on the basis of Chinese Literature Teaching : theories and methods of comparative literature, History of Foreign Literature (part to a pre-war Europe, Eastern literary classics Readings, speaking of the Nobel Prize for Literature election in the 20th century and in the specific content of these courses throughout the Comparative Study of Chinese and foreign literary relations.

1, comparative literature theory and methods (about 34 hours Course objectives and description: This course is divided into two parts: The first part describes the comparative literature at all levels and research impact study of comparative literature, parallel study, interdisciplinary research methods; enable students understanding compare the nature of literature and the ways and means of studying comparative literature, focused on the theoretical description of the methods of learning and study comparative literature. discussed in the second part of Comparative Literature various areas as well as different genres and literary movement and thought, of cases example, will enable the students to know how to read the world famous comparative thinking, in appreciation and research through the analysis of the case.

2, The History of Foreign Literature (European part of about 102 hours Course objectives and description: This course is designed to important works of of Readings foreign literary classics, the students systematic understanding of the world literature, to help students understand the similarities and differences in Western literature. Students from a different perspective of Chinese literature in the literary world of the modern world, in the understanding of World Literature I can also Comparative Literature and its research tend to make more comprehensive contemplation of the subjects will be by the Readings foreign literary classics (poetry, fiction , theater, etc. so that students master important literary phenomenon under the concept of Western culture, major writers, works and evaluation capacity. lectures can deliberately introduced behind the literary and artistic trend of the selected text, literary movement to students of comparative thinking concept.

3, Oriental literary classics Readings (about 34 hours Course objectives and description: This course is designed to focus on learning the classics of Oriental literature, as a necessary complement to the History of Foreign Literature curriculum knowledge system, to enable students to understand the world literature course of development of the Middle East and Western literature differentiation and influence each other. accept works in other than Oriental Chinese cultural background information to form a broader comparative cultural horizons. undergraduate Selected Readings of of foreign Oriental Literature poetry, fiction, drama, etc. will enable students to master the concepts of oriental culture important literary phenomenon, the main writer, works to improve evaluation capacity, and further strengthen the students' concept of comparative thinking.

4, the Nobel Prize for Literature in the 20th century election speak (about 34 hours) Course objectives and description: This course is designed to focus on learning the representative works of the 20th century, the Nobel literature award-winning writer, as a necessary extension of the History of Foreign Literature courses of knowledge, so that students understand inheritance and reactionary in the latest development of world literature and modernism, postmodernism literature and traditional literature. accept closer to our survival spirit of literary works of the era of the information, and updates have a direct impact on our modern consciousness nurture and survival concepts. undergraduate will be a broad and profound impact on the Nobel Literature Readings 20th century, to enable students to master as an important literary phenomena of the 20th century modernist, post-modernist literary concepts and understanding of the major writers, works on the students' innovative consciousness culture to be enlightened.

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Third, the basic ideas and methods of teaching reform in the face of the challenges of disciplines combined human spirit, the face of the campus left out, the face amount of college students Masterpieces the reality of a very small, in the face of the teaching content works, and vast territory, a long time span, how do a good job teaching foreign literature in the new era of the 21st century under the conditions, in order to adapt to the needs of the new situation.

The old holding a yellow sheet of the script, "chalk and talk" teaching mode, used to teach mode, must be replaced by "literary background - writer Introduction - works" full of the spirit of innovation, new foreign literature teaching mode.

Therefore, teaching content, teaching methods and teaching methods reform is urgently needed.
1, new exploration of teaching reform ideas (1 strengthen the human spirit, attention to non-intellectual factors. Contemporary education is the first performance of the overall quality of culture, which play a decisive role, not mere knowledge, but to the human spirit as the core of non-intelligence factors this basic standard to measure college students sound moral character, personality and cultural knowledge, and other aspects of growth, as Enlightenment thinkers John Locke said: a science do not humanistic spirit, only knowledge is not wisdom. humanistic spirit is eternal university teaching theme of foreign literature steeped in the Western humanistic spirit deep meaning, humane care of the "self-esteem" self-reliance, and respect for individual freedom and Contemporary College Students More Signed in ancient Greece to Renaissance humanism people-centered concept, from Rousseau on human nature publicity to Hugo, Tolstoy humanitarian its 20th century literature called for the return of human nature provides us with a rich personality cultivation nutrition. therefore, promote the human spirit, and improve the quality of the students of the humanities should be the teaching of foreign literature Basic values.

Teaching foreign literature, pay attention to cultivating the healthy development of the individual consciousness.
Healthy Personality Development for young students in Chinese culture, individual growth and light weight groups, has an important reference for teaching, for young students through cultural comparison clearly understand: Western culture heavy individual light groups. traditional advantages and disadvantages, and understand how valuable lessons from the Western literature embodies the spirit of individual freedom, while also recognizing the substance of its negative factors of the Western tradition of individual freedom, as well as after the tradition of post-modern interpretation of Chinese heavy groups that have positive value.

(2 teaching content, the implementation of the "boutique" teaching very broad content of foreign literature, genres, the famous Canruo Galaxia, masterpiece voluminous. Teaching content selection based on a new concept, new standards and students' actual: First, sort out clues to help students get the whole concept of literary development, which is the basis for teaching, bold abandon compressed focus on the number of works, upgrade works the breadth and depth of the analysis, we selected more types represent and artistic value writer only alternative Ministry works (with a depth and cultural content to explore analysis Third, pay attention to the academic dynamic, pioneering discovery horizon, to teach own scientific discovery and research methods. therefore, focus on innovative thinking and methodology enlightenment on the commanding heights of the Foreign Literature Teaching the study. object depleted resources, research materials deposited too many writers and their works to guide students in extracurricular learning finishing, in order to reduce the teaching load.

Optimizing teaching content effectively highlight the focus of the teaching content and difficult in terms of the development of the entire foreign literature, the ancient origin of modern times is the key, modern and contemporary is difficult. The lectures focus of times the focus was separated. Greek mythology, humanist literature, Romantic literature and realism literary myth prototype industry Shakespeare, Cervantes, Byron, Thomas Hardy, Victor Hugo, Balzac, Pushkin, Liefutuoer Tolstoy, etc., should be the focus of lectures and students to focus on learning to master writers, like the Bible >> << Romeo and Juliet >> << Pride and Prejudice >> << Jane Eyre >> << Crime and Punishment >> such a strong reading of the works can be regarded as a secondary focus. 20th century literature, focusing on modern literature, works of realism times focus.

Modernist literature distance away from our era, the people of various artistic appreciation also failed to pull the temporal and spatial distance, a lot of problems rarely conclusion, this is the difficulty of our teaching teachers to speak deeply and thoroughly publicize key, difficult and profound students understand and learn by analogy. slightly speaking part, teachers carefully designed assignments and discussion, and urge the students to complete.

(3 to increase the amount of criticism of methods in teaching foreign literature. First, literary theory accurately writer works qualitative orientation as the students read the works before the necessary knowledge to prepare, but also in-depth understanding of the basis of the work. Writer's creation than a certain label or the influence of a certain literary trends, determine his artistic thinking and performance perspective, only understand the works of these content analysis to implement. Secondly, the choice of appropriate evaluation methods for different works such Maas Los personality theory analysis << Hamlet >>, << Notre Dame >> with Christian doctrines theory analysis, feminist theory deconstruction << Jane Eyre ", especially the works of modernism has been very difficult to adapt to the social history criticism must be selected to fit on the new critical approaches. elected representative works as a case, use the appropriate method guidance works of literary criticism analysis, not only to teach students methods, but also stimulate their interest in learning, improve the amount of classroom teaching and quality. again, to promote exchanges with the outside world, enhance the concept of inclusive, eclectic accommodate a variety of different sounds with the deepening of the Sino-foreign cultural exchanges, the impact of the concept of the East and the West and mutual deconstruction, we went into a thinking multivariate method of century, we can no longer people unique way of thinking with the Chinese literary theory to understand the phenomena and problems in foreign literature, foreign literary works should be with foreign literary theory interpretation, a more accurate understanding of the meaning of foreign literature difficult to understand guide the students towards the door to literary theory, and foster their interest in literature and literary theory to improve the theoretical attainments important task, which is of high grade foreign literature teaching.

(4 break disciplinary boundaries, rich cultural content. Integration of disciplines of comparative literature and world literature to open a new horizon for the Teaching of Foreign Literature, teaching should break the disciplinary boundaries, pay attention to literature and history, philosophy, psychology, religion, art, nature the purpose of science links, rich cultural content of foreign literature class and pay special attention to the nation's cultural and literary integration, to enable students to learn the knowledge of foreign literature, to improve the cultural quality, reach to broaden the field of knowledge, and strengthen the quality of education teaching, pay attention to find a meeting point, mining the moral nurture and personality enhance content >> as << Prometheus Bound, << steel >> How to Make strengthen the ideals of education through << Song of Roland >> << suet ball "to strengthen education in patriotism old man through high << >> << American tragedy >> strengthen the awareness of social criticism, through the >> of << wilderness, << to wait Gordo >> understand the modern crisis of faith; love poems in literary works, guide students to establish a correct concept of love.

2, the means and methods of teaching reform (a network resource utilization. Exposure to the Internet age, universal access of modern educational technology in urban high schools, colleges and universities in recent years, teaching evaluation and teaching outcomes assessment of network technology and multimedia teaching extra value, forcing already walking in the middle school behind the college to increase investment to improve facilities and to provide students with more opportunities to better the conditions faced by teaching foreign literature books a serious shortage of resources and lack of full use of network resources to aid learning and research may well be a more ideal choice: First to third-grade students to master this knowledge and technology, digital information is comprehensive, easy to use, can save time, as a the teaching content writer and classic works of network resources very rich choose a good topic and angle the face of a work, students can do to recount, to a large number of materials collected from different sources, and then organize their own digestion elaboration carefully organized to discuss a matter of opinion.

All these windows for Foreign Literature Teaching facilities, if used properly use skilled inevitable is "amazing".

Multimedia classroom teaching (the use of modern educational technology. "Human brain" + "computer" to achieve a graphic panning both the ideal model, classroom instruction to create a democratic, liberal, harmonious atmosphere of teaching, so that students body awareness in comprehensive inspire lively atmosphere of freedom and democracy, in a new, multidimensional thinking space show the process, teachers and students have become active participants really make the thinking type from memory based teaching creative teaching into student is no longer the storage of knowledge, and become masters of learning modern teaching multimedia adjunct, as important scene, highlights the use of audio and video materials, rendering the atmosphere, express his characters and the role of the theme, so students immersive experience works again like to play some poems music, the Poem Recital causes students Robert Burns and Pushkin feel more real, more profound the CAI Courseware intensive teaching content knowledge point to be a very good space compression, chart dealing with text hyperlinks, more convenient, practical and powerful modern camera monitoring system using the multi-purpose room, try to student teachers exit teaching situation, through careful preparation and implementation of the self-organization teaching or discussion, then teachers and students together commentaries real interactive teaching.

Of course, a means, not an end, starting from the people-oriented concept of modern education, foreign literature in the teaching process, due to the flexibility to use a variety of modern teaching media auxiliary, can not become successful computer "chalk and talk" indifferent teachers passion, being so dazzled The students overwhelmed, lose emotional cultivate necessary classroom teaching between teachers and students.

(3 English poetry "bilingual teaching" test. Foreign literature teaching content should have been involved in the original philological "original literary works of a language professional, like a foreign language class national literature is the lack of appropriate, due to the new upgraded College teachers, there is no such curriculum also includes original philology "in the strict sense of the Chinese professional foreign literature, foreign literature courses like the liberation of the Chinese Department of Peking University is served by the Department of Foreign Languages ​​teachers, but the problem suffer languages ​​too, taught without a teacher can pass class natural "Foreign Literature" will become a "translation philology, later and more with the faculty.

Today to promote "bilingual teaching" (non-ethnic Chinese enhance anglicized world of college course construction, and for English international era foreign literature, but has extraordinary significance we positive train bilingual teachers in Comparative Literature and World Literature through graduate education at the same time, in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Languages ​​literary researchers bilingual teaching of English poetry test like Shakespeare's sonnets, English Romantic poetry and modern English novel ( excerpt) Appreciation and other author in recent years, the specialist classes made little attempt, Shakespeare, Burns, Byron, Shelley's poem brought teachers and students to learn together, accept the understanding of the majority of students have no problem with a small number of students even skilled recite Of course, this is not the true sense of the bilingual teaching, remain subject to the limitations of the mother tongue thinking, can not be based on the need to be free to switch between the bilingual acute shortage of bilingual teachers, train difficult time, and very difficult to recruit suitable foreign teachers, the current selection can only lower the standard, and take the Bilingual Teaching the road with Chinese characteristics.

(4 "highlights" analog performances and English poetry readings. Department of Chinese Textbook Plays "performances has a wealth of experience to this previous students showed keen interest and participation in the enthusiasm of teachers according to the actual needs of teaching foreign literature to guide students famous novel "Textbook Plays" and "highlights" analog performances, even pidgin heteroglossia dialogue, to carry out the Department of exchanges, teamed up with the Department of Foreign Languages ​​student activities and requested the Department of Foreign Languages ​​teacher guidance like 2002 << Romeo other drama business cards by the movie observe and carefully drill windfall may have had very good results and Juliet >> snippet performances.

With the full transition school to undergraduate students' English proficiency has increased annually, held in English poetry recitation contest conditions are ripe, and very necessary. Interested in participating in such extracurricular activities for students, teachers need to participate in, not only to expand the teaching space, but also Normal skills, but also provides an excellent example of quality education for university students activities subjects.

Note:
① quoted << of Zhu Guangqian Complete Works of Goethe conversations. >> (Volume 17, Hefei: Anhui Education Press, 1989: 364.

② Liu Hongtao. World Literature: integration of disciplines in the history assume [J]. Foreign Literature Studies, 2003, (the From Foreign Literature to Comparative Literature and World Literature
Abstract: In 1997, after the revision of subjects and in the atmosphere of global information, the subject of comparative literature and world literature become more active and come out of its crisis.For several years, the system of Master, Doctor and Post-doctorate ges complete and promotes deep development of the subject construction and teaching reform.But the high level combination is unideal.There are a lot of differences between the two old subjects and also a lot problems in teaching activities.The paper studied the theory, aim, new teaching construction and teaching reform.

Keywords: Comparative Literature and World Literature; Combination of subjects; Teaching reform

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