Chinese and Western aesthetics suffering with the United States: the lofty areas

Looking deeper connotation of the Western aesthetic ideas, we can easily find a fact: a kernel - the pain hidden deep into the Western aesthetic categories. Beauty is derived from suffering painful emotional burst. Sublimation from suffering for the astonishing beauty of sublimation is that the number of lofty and sublime force, the level of the highest state of that brilliant! Western Religious Aesthetics is closely related with this. crucifixion of Jesus, it is a pain The sublime beauty. 

Produce painful beauty, noble comes from pain, Burke is such lofty define: "Anything in any way cause painful and dangerous concept (the idea of ​​pain and danger) that it is a noble source . "Burke first lofty identified as the pain and fear of sublimation, which makes the sublime and beautiful draw the line, the so lofty truly become an aesthetic category separated from the midst of, and began a new era of lofty theory. Kant and the noble is a pain and fear caused by "negative pleasure" why pain and fear will become a negative aesthetic significance pleasure it? Kant's explanation is: because the noble feeling and sense of beauty is not the same enjoy the beautiful floral pattern, it gives a direct pleasant, has a way of promoting the vitality feeling a noble sentiment, the first was not a direct pleasant, but the fear, pain, in the face of danger exception scary nature, people in pain and fear of experiencing a moment of vitality arrest, immediately followed by a more intense injection of vitality! the painful fear amazed with reverence in the mood lofty image of nature, by the excitement and shock, this is a humbling noble burst out from the pain! Schopenhauer think, Chong Gaoyuan, that can not get rid of the pain, the terrible phenomenon of the objective world to overcome all the advantages of a threat forward to the will of the pain will be the object of infinite compression As for zero people will acquisitiveness Off  to strength to break free of those terrible object quietly watch when this pain on sublimation generated by the pain as a sublime beauty. lofty modern esthetician George Santayana said: "If we attempt to understand why sometimes painful performance can be pleasant, such a pleasure exactly provide what we are looking for value of a priori factors. "George Santayana: >> of << aesthetic, China Social Sciences Press, 1982, page 163." transcendental element? Santayana pointed out that people tend to think: a catastrophic disaster distinctive image and produce the noble sense of the soul of stubborn ego relationship between  is so natural, so sublime is often regarded as a terrorist depends imagine the unfortunate sense hair of course, kind of terror must be stopped and overcome. overcome this and the objective of the terrorist is noble nature usually think even such as Aristotle authority seem to favor this definition, however, in Here, the usual reason for the lofty and noble in itself but was confused. Santayana, the so-called "transcendental element or noble nature should be:" terror tips to help make us retreat automorphic So with the concurrent security or not be tempted the spirit whom Dousou, we have access to the world beyond and feelings of self-liberation in this noble essence. "George Santayana: << beauty >> 163.
Regardless of how Western scholars to explain the nature of the lofty much regardless of their differences, but the kernel - painful - but always there. Thus we can find an interesting fact: Western lofty theory, seem to have a kinds of painful love, especially on the aesthetic and artistic strong preference for the noble sense of the tragedy of staggering beauty and frightening. painful as the core noble aspects of the formation, with Western culture, religion and literature closely related to the artistic traditions. 

Santayana that even Aristotle authority that this fear is noble essence. Fact, Aristotle and not talked about lofty, however, by fear, by the pain into pleasure Aristotle put forward the basic point of view, it is true long before Aristotle, Plato found tragedy caused a bored hobby - "pity addiction", this pity addiction, enjoying the view of the unfortunate, painful things, For example: "When I hear Homer or other tragic poets imitate a hero encountered calamity, say a sad then, but smote upon his chest crying, the best among us feel pleasure, forget its so surface sympathy and appreciation poets skills so moved us. "Plato: << utopia >> ten volumes, see Plato << literary dialogue set >> People's Literature Publishing Society 1963, 85. the pity addiction to get pleasure from the pain of others, Plato disgusted, he thus concluded that: poet "ingratiation humanity in the inferior part" so he advocated poet rush a utopia from the opposite view of Plato, we precisely can be found throughout the ancient Greek society was popular the the "pity addiction, found that people's hobby for the performance of the works of art of the pain and fear. Is not difficult to imagine that the ancient Greek tragedy, brutal, irresistible fate, frightening the genie, painful suffering ... how to arouse pity and grief of the entire theater audience! Aristotle precisely in response to this aesthetic tendencies, proposed a famous catharsis (katharsis). publicly defend for people "pity addiction." Aristotle believed, liked to watch the tragedy, is not "taking other people's scourge to nourish their own pity addiction (Plato language), more than human nature "despicable part." enjoy the tragedy, is a natural requirement of the human nature of human nature, and should not be repressed, and should be met. This satisfaction of human nature, not only harmless, but also benefits from painful tragedy, can arouse people's feelings of pity and fear, and vent out, leading to the purification of these emotions, thus mental health effects of the audience and this is the function of katharsis In a sense, you can say that Aristotle's theory of tragedy, it is established by the pain caused by the feelings of fear and pity, and oriented purify this a cornerstone of the theory. Asperger think, literature and art and real life. gives the painful reality of things, it is precisely what art gives pleasure, he said, "experience has shown that: the thing itself looks despite cause pain, but lifelike images seem able to cause our pleasure. "Aristotle: << the Poetics >> 11. Based on this view, the Aristotelian tragedy must To describe things that can cause people to fear and compassion. He pointed out that the image by some poet to the audience just surprised, without the feeling of fear, to this poet completely do not understand the purpose of the tragedy. "The tragedy purpose?" We should not require tragedy to our pleasure only request it gives us a particular, it can give pleasure "that" the feelings of our pity and fear caused by the tragedy. "Aristotle: << the Poetics >>, 43 in order to achieve for this purpose, Aristotle would provide that the tragedy must write a good person than the average person, but that he has been and shall not be subjected to bad luck, write one suffering, tragic ending the tragic destruction, and should not be good good for a happy ending, comes around. Only by doing so, to be able to truly pain provoked fear and compassion, express their emotions into pleasure. 

Aristotle's theory of the kernel, Longinus, medieval theologians, and Burke, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, modern and contemporary Santayana et al further elaborated and deepened, and finally theory of sublimation and the end-result of being in the "sublime" aesthetic category. fact, "love pain", not just lofty areas of the kernel, but also highlight the characteristics of the entire Western literature and art and aesthetic theory. Nietzsche < <The Birth of Tragedy >> It is this feature theoretical summary of this masterpiece, Niger poetic language, tells this tradition laid down by the ancient Greeks - the reality of painful transition aesthetic pleasure.: Greeks are keenly aware of the existence of fear and distrust of the tremendous power of the natural, performance among those painful tragedy, greedy vultures pecking Great Prometheus, smart tragic fate of Oedipus, the Oder Lester into the murder of his own mother's murderer ... all of this terrifying plot makes Olympus from the original huge terrorist group, slowly, little to change a happy group, like roses in spiny Tau poly Yang Pa Tuyan. Besides, what might this case nervousness, such strong emotions, so happy afflicted nation born down? also due to the same driver of the art as possible. "according to Nietzsche seems even pain into pleasure, deep pain still hide which, "when a painful blow to a pleasant experience, when an absolute triumph from the heart caused grief callsign when, in a rich pleasant we heard the mournful lament of terror crooning with a sense of loss, no recovery. "Nietzsche: the << The Birth of Tragedy >> Hunan Literature and Art Publishing House in 1986, page 29, 34. 

All in all, the pain is the true source of the literary and artistic aesthetic pleasure, is the real source of the lofty areas, from suffering the level of happiness, sublimated by the pain as lofty, this is not only the spirit of the tragedy of ancient Greek art, Western religious aesthetic spirit, lofty Western the core argument of the theory. Schopenhauer precisely from the pain of the tragedy argument to respected religious Nirvana? Wang Guowei worship doctrine of Kant and Schopenhauer, it is from this perspective to understand literature and art, he believes that life is suffering, "Alas, the universe, a life of want it! Desire live sin, that life of pain penalty, namely the universe forever justice. since the crime, since a further penalty, since repentance, self-deliverance "literature and art, is to depict the pain of life, seeking their liberation, sublimation aesthetic contemplation "The Art of Service, describing the pain of life and liberation Road" ("A Dream of Red Mansions comments >>) This painful as the core concept art, exactly of Schopenhauer my view pirated. Wang Guowei sublime (sublime) view is this: "If this matter is big is not conducive to I, whom I living will rupture consequent will to fled, conceivable force independent to deep and watch what was, I called this matter, saying the sublime. "Wang Guowei caused spectacular things are extremely painful thing of fear, such as" hell disguised form of Figure duel dying elephant, Lu Jiang Xiaoli of poetry, Yanmen chancery song, its solid rogue Shu of the total of pity its case of brutal husband whom runny nose. (<< Dream of Red Mansions) 

Let's take a look back In addition to of Wang Guowei this from the West trafficking to the Sublime similar lofty concept of pain for its absence, with the West? Should be said that China is not no such pain sublimation of Literary and Artistic Works, elevated to the lofty realm of theory. 

Sima Qian's jealousy when people in the face of adversity, in pain, frustrated when the book says, is an example. Sima Qian that the literature is that people harbor stagnation, not through its channels painful emotional eruption. Often jealousy books to Qu Yuan, for example, pointed out: "husband days, as the beginning of the parents, the also poor people is Coming to the origin, it labored Juanji, not a bad idea to call heaven also; disease pain miserable distressed, not a bad idea to call parents. Qu Ping Masamichi straight, dried loyalty do intellectual things Qijun to slander human's, can be described as poor men. letter and see the suspect, loyalty is slander uncomplaining almost? Qu Ping for << Lament >> also cover self-hatred. "(<< Historical Records Qu Yuan Chuan") by pain and sublimation for the theory of literary works, in fact, it is also Sima Qian appreciate Sima Qian by castration, pain extreme, he thinks the curse is greater than the desire to Lee, Mok pain in sad sad line Mo ugly in disgrace before, the sense of shame is greater than castration he intestinal day while nine back, ranking the Huhu if death out you do not know to. every concept Slovakia shame, Khan did not withhold Zhanyi also hair back! "the (<< reported any security books >>) 

Mr. Qian Zhongshu in << poetry can complain >> article says: "Nietzsche once described of the crow Mujixiadan and the poet's singing the same breath say are painful nature of this homely and vivid analogy is precisely in line with China's literary a tradition of popular opinion: pain than happiness more productive poetry, good poetry is mainly unhappy, distressed or 'poor worry' performance and vent. "<< Comparative Literature the Proceedings >>, Peking University Press, 1984, 32 page. Indeed, in ancient China, advocated pain poet On behalf of no lack of people. "Chanting the >> assessment Shipin Li Ling said:" Man multi sad sad, blame those of his ilk. Mausoleum, famous sub, special only life Discord, the sound decadent body funeral, so the mausoleum not been hard, Wen Yi He can to this! "Han Yu proposed" Outcry Against Injustice "point of view" songs thinking, crying pregnant who contrary to mouth acoustic, its Jieyou between Eph level! "(Meng Higashino sequence >> << send) this Geku the Thought and pregnant, not exactly painful dictates what Lu You said with deep feeling:" cover people feelings, grief plot in silence, originating for the poem. Otherwise, no poetry men. "(<< Weinan anthology >> Volume) 

Pain of the poet, jealousy is a book, at this point, the Chinese and Western does have things in common, that is sublimated by painful tragic sublime realm. 

Huang Zongxi very much in favor of Han Yu "weak peace through music, Grief Voice wonderful joy of words difficult to work, easy to good and poor the words" argument. Those handed down for, are gradually minister, abandoned wives, The Outsiders, labor people, speak to grief off, painful, very product And that gallant as it is extremely painful and miserable DA, the plaintive indignation among the burst. said he reduced fasting anthology sequence >> rating his brother Ze Wang , Ze Wang people ANGER must, anxious crying in the mountains and rivers in Nan on the occasion. "Yu pain in the hearts and its the works then sublimation gallant realm: iron wall Guigu, like Falls chaos reef, such as Fox Naruto owl tsunami, like the stork crane crocus laugh. "Huang Zongxi think, this article is like heaven and earth, yang, magnificent is vigorous today Ze Wang Zhiwen, yang also, ignoring Jia gray tantamount pressure also supremely!" << Ancient Chinese literary theory election >> three Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1980, 260. Not only personal pain so that the pain of the entire era can also lead to the beauty of a gallant husband article, heaven and earth vitality vitality in peacetime, the majestic Kunlun, harmonies shun gas, seen odd. In painful times, will be gushing out, sublimation gallant masculine beauty: "arrest Fue shipped crisis, heaven and earth occlusion, Gudang out vitality, owned Yong Yu containment, anger cynical criticized them, and then to Wensheng Yan. ibid., 264 this also fit perfectly in the era of unrest Jian'an Jian'an. to advocate this beauty from pain blame indignant perspective, and more than Huang Zongxi one, many Chinese literary critic of this have been recognized. Liu Xie said: "Ya Zhuang Liu Kun and windy, Lu Chen love hair rationale Zhao trace case of the times also. (<< the only slightly Wenxindiaolong >>) Liu Kun comes just the Yongjia Sangluan country break death of family and cherished stagnation, but could not wish to show their Kuang World Economic vulgar ambition, an air of aspirations blighted, agitation of mind, made for the poetry, the inevitable sky and shouts, vehement, its forceful and sublime poetry, elegant strong windy advocated by people such as Li Zhi, more anger anger ran high, Yusha want to cut, mad shouting, runny nose, crying the vent. posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
despite in the West have pain of the poet said, suffering produces sublime beauty of the theory, but we are still not difficult to feel Sino-Western the painful attitude is not the same as Westerners have a special love of literature and art in pain, they believe that the intense pain scary pain, where is the artistic charm, it is also true source of lofty Western religious thought is this consistent with the West, China is not exactly the same, even though China has the "Lamenting books," said, the theory of "Adversity Reverals", "mad shouting the words, but these are not the orthodox theory. calm and Chiang Kai-shek," Music without prostitution, sad but not hurt "theory is the orthodox theory, intense pain, thrilling, frustrations cynical pry, these are too much things are "injured", "kinky" genus. Accordingly, when the grief is too hurt, pain excited to criticize one's for almost all orthodox scholars object of attack. Qu Yuan and their works, is the prominent one case. 

In the history of Chinese literature, Qu Yuan can be said to be the most full of tragic poet whose works are full of the sublime beauty of exciting change my life. Thus Lu Xun respected in the >> << Forces of Poetry said Wei Qu Yuan Lu Xun 's Rhapsody, although the final chapter to the lack of "resist the challenge" of the words, but the "write pumping grief, depression as queer vast ocean front, scruples are go hate secular muddy, Chung relies instead on the repair can be suspected from then ancient the beginning until the end of the soaring of petty boasted no dread, words predecessors dare. "But the pumping wrote grief, boasted no dread tragic poet, was later orthodox literati fierce attack. Yang Xiong Qu Yuan inner pain. Jiang vote suicide is extremely unwise the the gentleman should listen Cheonan life should not be cynical, when the gentleman was accusing him of shall when Tatsuhebi. case is not the case, life also, why Cham body, holy! "(<< Hanshu Yang Xiong Chuan >>) Ban Gu is even more intense criticized Qu Yuan radical advocate safe life automorphic should Lucai Yang has worry God trying to come up," and the gentleman Road poor, life carry it Qianlong seen without boring << >> sorrow thoughtful Guanju without injury Qu Yuan held Huaizhi Chi, the Ningwu Paul as stupid Nourishing, salty full life, do not by World suffering so Daya said: 'cum Ming and philosophy, to security of their bodies', Sri Lanka for your men. "Ban Gu believe not shall have pain, more does not should be performance out, even no matter by what is not fair encounter also should be safety of if life suffering does not sadness. Qu Yuan precisely does not comply with the "no nausea" and "does not hurt" his heart is extremely painful, and works extremely presumptuous outspoken, extremely strong emotional resentment Ever since of Ban Gu fierce attack said: "Today, if Qu Yuan, Lu Cai Yang has competition between crisis between the country the N group, blame evil away from slander thief contingent select few huai pepper Lan worry God if thinking, its strong non-anger hate can not Shen Jiang died Ban Gu such derogatory Bai the Maniac Kageyuki scholar also said the multi-Kunlun Mi Fei ghost marriage nothingness language, none of the testimonies of political righteousness contained. "the (<< Ban Gu << Lament sequence >>) hardly near human requirements, fully embodies the Chinese ancient orthodoxy. The idea to treat painful attitude, should not be in too much pain, because the the excessive pain will produce the indignant Hatefury for will too kinky, too much damage, not only to "civilize" the ruling is adverse, adverse, and also detrimental to the physical and mental health of people. << Lok Kee >> said: "The sound of chaos color, do not stay smart, Yinyue evil thought the ceremony will not receive telepathic idler slow Xiepi of gas, no body." Chinese people respected suppress the desire, extremely painful and tragic scenes of anti-love and Chi, not the performance the audience thrilling, but the performance of almost and Chiang Kai-shek, not sorrow not blame people calm, law-abiding, "twenty years before: the music, music so-called music (referring to a kind of music, dance, poetry, triple ancient music and dance), is to make people happy, but not painful, control desire, rather than give vent to their desires, so to say, "gentlemen happy to on their way, the villain music lent their desire to the desire of the channel system, the music instead of chaos, to want to forget Road the confusion without music. anti actual occurrence gentleman situation to chi Guangle to into their teaching ". "Anti-love" Kong Yingda sparse: "anti-love to chi, the feelings of lust against already to concordia Deyi ambition also." That abstinence the emotional make it But prostitution was wounded, will be able to maintain a calm and law-abiding state , so that the country statesman rather physical health. "so the music line Lun clear, intelligent eyes and ears, blood gas peace, to change our habits, the world is all rather." (<< Record of Music ") 

Orthodoxy "Music without prostitution, grief without injury, for thousands of years, has been the Chinese literati regarded as sacrosanct concept of tragedy in the Chinese literature, largely submerged curb lofty the further deepening of the concept. Both scary "music without prostitution, tearjerker tragedy or a frightening and painful literary works as well as noble, are called noise engorgement mad shouting revolt challenges which inhibit emotional grief without injury in Homei erase the edges and corners, arrested confined to a "motivated by love, being ended Yi" invisible imprisoned and lose the vitality of its life, and eventually lost power among the tender and gentle sermon No wonder Liang said the Chinese Literature "carry forward dance vigorous gas especially missing." orthodoxy "tender and gentle" domination and oppression, all rebel attempts are doomed to failure, Li Zhi's death is a great testament. even find such a normal phenomenon, closely related to the ancient Chinese writers' works, many with noble color, are heretics. example: Qu Yuan boasted no dread, Sima Qian's jealousy books, the Jian'an poet wine pen intoxicated Song, Li Bai refused to destroy the eyebrows bow down to the Li Zhi mad shouting, Gongzizhen the Loud shouting ...... Although people have to admit that these writers and works great, but in the orthodox literati seems that most of these people Maniac Kageyuki people in Qu Yuan by scolding, Sima Qian was said into is for "slander book" Cao Cao as "male", Li Bai is crazy students, Li Zhi, etc., more is to make orthodoxy will not be tolerated. As for the proposition keenly aware of the lofty theory, also not orthodox content, such as Han Yu and his disciples strange Kiki theory, Li Zhi, the runny nose crying, Yusha's say you want to cut. 

Over the past 100 years, Chinese academia has been arguing why the Chinese religion is as good as the West and India developed, whether or not the tragedy?, If any, why the tragedy and the West is not the same? If not, why not produce tragedy? These issues long-term has been plagued Chinese academia. In recent years, he caused a dispute whether the lofty areas I think, a lot of people to explore these issues, forget the ultimate source - Western pursue their passions, especially the different attitudes of pain. 

Why China does not have the thrilling Western kind of gives is to destroy the sense of tragedy? Most important reason is that the formation of Chinese culture such emotional suppression "tender and gentle" said Westerners prefer to depict in art pain at work. Appreciate destruction of pain, and the Chinese people to avoid pain, oppose the sorrow too hurt, but also do not want to see the appalling destructive ending would rather illusory happy ending calm and positive psychological balance, rather than in intense pain the pleasure brought by the pain of catharsis. different literary and artistic traditions and different the aesthetic mentality, is Western lofty areas with gentle and honest poetry teach generated different soil. sense, Western literature artistic tradition has a preference for the pain characteristics, therefore, the Western religions, especially prevalent, Western respect for the tragedy of the highest of the literary genre, the lofty regarded as the highest state of the United States. highest sublimation because they are intense and painful contrast with the West, Chinese literature and art tend to have a try to avoid the intense pain, and a tendency to try to escape the tragedy, even a tragedy, but also added into the gag, even if the outcome is, unfortunately, have to be a bright tail to dilute too sad atmosphere peaceful psychological effect of Chinese people also try to speak righteousness, masculine beauty, without attention to the horror of terror inspired by the pain, the magnificent great. 

It is worth noting that the ancient China this restrained lust, avoidance of pain, a tendency to escape the tragedy, not only by the Confucian music without prostitution, grief without injury "," tender and gentle poetry to teach concepts, but also by the Taoist return to nature Park weak attitude of life, Lotte security life concept. 

Of course, from the philosophical sense, Taoism is full of tragic old, Zhuang are very wise to recognize: the life that is painful, life is a tragedy, I said: "I so large patients, as I pregnant and I no body, I hang it! "(" I >> 13 chapters) because pregnant there is desire, there is a desire to have pain. pregnant is the death of death, there is sorrow. " Life between heaven and earth, Baiju's gap, suddenly. ....... has born, and of died. biological sorrow, human grief of. "the (<< Zhuangzi know North tour >>) views very similar view of Schopenhauer et al., complete with the awareness of the tragedy of life, but the face of the tragedy of desire and death, old, Zhuang, than face the bleak life, but to find ways to avoid it. desire, I advocated restraint it as long as the restraint of desire contentment law-abiding, you can go sad for the music, "Woe is greater than I do not know enough guilt is greater than enriching therefore contented enough often enough" ("I >> aged six chapters)." Contentment is not shame, Zhizhi Scots can be long-term. "(<< I >> forty four chapters) Zhuangzi said:" Ah at Shun dirge not into also. "the (<< Zhuangzi Grandmaster >>) as long as Ah at Shun, contentment the Changle, desire can not be achieved pain suddenly defused the tragedy of death, I advocate "The root of complex life, thus long-term (16 chapters) I >> Zhuangzi advocated a return to nature, nature assimilation (materialized) to achieve "World and I, and Health, and the (<< Equality of Zhuangzi >>) realm of all things and I can get longevity and escape the tragedy of death. 

Laozi kinds of negative backoff philosophy, greatly defuse the awareness of the tragedy of the Chinese literati. Because it is not like the Western tragic consciousness, with the terrible struggle of nature, and the terrible fate proposition, but avoid concessions. "knowing not for the security of if the life of this the Lotte security of Thought, the best air-raid shelter to escape the tragedy of life for thousands of years, how many frustrated literati found a home in the Taoist philosophy, the release level boast escape painful consolation here, you do not need to be a bloody pain manifested desalination of life's hardships, but the security of if the life of the sermon being removed from the tragedy of life. the countless ancient Chinese landscape poetry, idyllic, ink paintings, there are quite a number of those who escape tragedy masterpiece. the of mountains, Huaxiangniaoyu, bitter kill brake Qing Zhong, Baiyun idle cranes in this quiet Apprehension mood, security at the cis and world of fun, eliminate all the troubles of the world, to resolve the pain of life, lifting of the struggle of the will, which is a wonderful escape tragedy Peach Blossom Spring! 

Of course, the ancient Chinese Sad as the literary and artistic traditions of the United States, melancholy full Beiqiu injury, sense sigh death, are not difficult to find the most among the literati works from the Song Yu sad indeed autumn as gas ! "Du Fu" Miles Sad Autumn often a guest, Cao Zhi "high is multi Mening" to Li Bai "Choudao the flow of water, toast pouring worry worry worry"; Li Yu's "ask what can misery, springtime to the east, "Qingzhao" Indus even take rain, dusk, bit by bit this section, Sorrow! "melancholy sad ah! flu yo hurt yo! who said China has no sorrow that painful? However, everyone is not difficult to understand, this sorrow plaintive complain, as Spring River water, like Indus drizzle like sadness, naturally can not people with that Condor in the Western literary pecking liver, son personally killed the mother, the kind of grief frightening par., Sad Autumn recollections in Chinese literature and art, death sigh when the injury hint of sorrow plaintive, became the most fashionable emotional "music and not because it is consistent kinky, sad but not hurt, "the slight sadness and a touch of melancholy, both Buddhism impatient flat boast, psychological balance, and thus escape the pain of life, but also harmless to society, does not produce" music and not for the Road, chaos "effect sometimes, a touch of sadness, even fashionable and drop the cliche, who seem to speak for worry on the non-poetic words do not worry not clever So many of the poet, often endowed new poetry that worry. "this seems Beiqiu, such as running water, such as bits and pieces like the evening rain came to grief, and did not become a forceful areas of the kernel, on the contrary, sadness, sorrow and worry unhappy precisely weakened ancient literature and the momentum of masculine beauty, ancient Chinese literature and art aesthetic color is more feminine, more delicate, more feminine. rough, savage, ferocious something no market here. forceful areas can not from this Beibeiqieqie, desolately into lessons that scary, very excited beauty. sorrow sad to blame the sad the Western tragedy never sad, never forceful lofty sources. "sad but not hurt" sad, some even making a fuss, the feelings of grief for the Man-made just as FanChengDa sarcasm: "poet eventful provoke leisure, made behind closed doors since worry such." << Stone lake poems >> Volume << Lu Service concept <Singing Sorrowful Song> very sad for this Conversely >> 

We recognize that advocate suppress emotion, trying to escape the tragedy of Confucianism and Taoism, have had the concept of beauty but should see the source of these lofty ideas and Western United States is not the same. Recognize this difference has truly recognize ancient China, why not the kind of strong strong religious consciousness of Western culture, not Western-style tragedy, why does not the Western kind of subject and object of intense confrontation, by the fear of pain and sublime (sublime). important of this comparison should be aware of the different characteristics in Western religious and aesthetic categories to admit their characteristics, rather than this law He, Yang this suppression he, or the scope of China with Western standards to rigidly or that something in China are ancient immemorial, insist on the irrelevant things as exactly the same with the Western theory. aesthetic theory of value with chronic illness and thus further reflection, explore ancient Chinese literary theory to the contemporary aesthetic towards the broad way of the world literature. posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

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