Discuss the impact of Chinese literature in the modern Western

Introduction: anxiety and ecstasy

Admittedly, if there is no impact of the modern Western, Chinese literature of the 20th century, will be another appearance, the new era of literature, will also unrecognizable modern Western Chinese literature, especially contemporary literature and penetration is all-round multi-level, everywhere.

The beginning of the 20th century, with China's social transformation from traditional to modern, traditional culture nurtured and developed the traditional literature, has been unable to meet and adapt to new social demand of the people in the mental, emotional and sensory aspects demise. Requirements of the times China literary novelty and change. relying on its economic, political, scientific and technological aspects of pomp In this context, a variety of modern Western inroads into China, traditional Chinese literary vulnerable under the impact of these trends of thought, quickly disintegration, a new generation of writers in the thought of Husserl, Heidegger, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Freud and others, setting off a massive new literary movement .20 century Chinese literature as a starting point, start from the closed to the open world by local writers of this period, all influenced by modern Western: Lu Xun << cry "in the basic spirit of realism and practices In addition, symbolism, romanticism, and a variety of techniques such as drawing, laid the basic character of modern fiction, Guo << goddess >> Tagore, Goethe, Whitman, Shelley, multiple formation Romantic style, Bing Xin, Zhou Zuoren prose, is formed under the influence of Western prose writer own style ... the 1930s, by the doctrine of Freud and the impact of Western Modernist Thought, the Chinese also appear to New Sensation Novel Liu Naou, Mu Shiying representatives. however, this period modern Western ideology of Chinese literature is limited, it is primarily the role of literature in China, but not deep into the bone marrow of Chinese Literature not really affect the spirit of the Chinese Literature Chinese writers of the modern Western learning, but also just to stay in the surface, did not go deep into the depths of the Western Cultural Trends.

Decades after the founding of detention, modern Western shall be blocked in the country, and occasionally as a critical material and a negative example to be translated abroad philosophical works, such as the Commercial Press and Shanghai People's Publishing House published in the 1960s, "Han translated world academic Masterpieces Series "," modern foreign bourgeois philosophy data selections "Series, as well as the writings of Sartre, Heidegger and others, and also by the people's resistance, doubt, criticism and indifference, had little if any impact.

The late 1970s, China adopted the policy of reform and opening up, the door to re-open to the world, a variety of modern Western flood of Chinese intellectuals just struggled out from the decade of the Cultural Revolution political nightmare for cultural resources from the West has a huge thirst for the translator in order to meet the urgent needs of the people of a large number of translation and introduce Western modern thought, the the Press also a large number of published works of Western thinkers and writers. Sichuan People's Publishing House take the lead in early 1980s, publishing hundreds of the "Future Series, most of which are translated introduced in today's world of new technology, humanities, social sciences, and the political and legal writings. Shanghai Translation Publishing House, followed by the publication of the" modern Western Philosophy Renditions, subsequently, Sanlian full launch << Culture: China and the World of "academic library", "Awakening library, translated and published nearly modern western classics unprecedented impetus to the 1980s modern Western spreading in China people are not only exposed to Kant and neo-Kantian Hegel, new Hegelian, also come into contact with phenomenology, hermeneutics, Freudianism, existentialism, Western Marxism logical analysis of philosophy, as well as modern and contemporary political science, law, education, history, etc. Western modernist literary works in the field of literature, translation and introduction. of four Juan Ba ​​volumes Yuan Kejia editor << foreign modernist the literary selection >>, then the rage in the publishing, to become the most popular best-selling book. other publishers competing publishing the foreign literary works, such as the Beijing Foreign Literature Publishing House and Shanghai Translation Publishing House published jointly << 20th Century Foreign Literature Series Portfolio >> << >>, << foreign literary classics Books >>, Guangxi Li River Press Nobel literature prize-winning authors, as well as the Press a large number of foreign literature research data by the readers of the pro-gaze. Western heat, accompanied with intellectual whipping up such as Sartre hot, Nietzsche hot Freud hot, the heat of Heidegger, hermeneutics heat, thermal deconstruction, feminism heat, new historicism heat, Chinese contemporary literature also continue to produce a variety of literary trends, such as "scar literature", "Reflection Literature", "Roots" Literature, "Pioneer novel," new realist novels "," New Historical Novels, "female literature" and so on. China's critics also learn various methodological 1985, was known as the "methodology" phenomenology, hermeneutics, Western Marxism, feminism, literary psychology method Freud German psychoanalysis, Jung myth prototyping, structuralist approach and so poured into academia. reviewers to use these new methods to analyze the anatomy of the internal elements of contemporary works, reveals the psychological structure of the Chinese people, showing the deep unconscious of literary works, Mining ideological power operation mode.

The face of the Chinese literary criticism, from brand new Chinese writers have also absorb nutrients from the avalanche of modern Western writing skills they learn to use and be inspired by the renowned writer of their creation .80 works basically with traces of imitation and learning, such as Wang Meng in the early 1980s created a series of experimental nature in short works by the profound impact of the "stream of consciousness" novel, Yu Hua works inspired in Kafka, Yasunari Kawabata and Rob - Grillet, Sun nectar, Gefei works, wafting the shadow of Borges Mo Yan's works by the influence of magical realism, the impact of foreign literature in the late 1980s, the Chinese writers feel deep anxiety, as they mature in creative 1990s, these writers gradually emerge from the shadow foreign writers find yourself feeling great ecstasy.

In the 1990s, China's society and culture continues to occur quite complex and volatile "transformation", once all the rage in modern Western heat gradually cooling, community values ​​antagonistic changes: With the literary sensation effects disappear and the collapse of the Enlightenment project, leads the way in the privileged position of the spirit of the intellectuals attributed to digestion, is no longer a social elite intellectuals were divided, and a considerable part of the intellectuals farewell idealized 1980s, secularization, criticized the lofty, unassuming private, fled the provision of history and reality, and literature in the 1990s gradually from the center to the edge. Chinese society in the 1990s after the modern tendency deconstructive discourse has become the literary mainstream, postmodernist thinkers such as Foucault, Lacan, Derrida, Roland Barthes's doctrine, the spirit of the times protagonist Chinese literature affected by this trend of thought, "post-modern tendencies". these two thoughts also contributed to China's literary "new historical novel" and "female fad in the 1990s, modern Western feminism and New Historicism. literature flourished.

Modern Western contemporary Chinese literature is multifaceted. Below, we will select the Chinese contemporary literature affect a maximum of six thought: modernism, existentialism, magical realism, postmodernism, new historicism, feminism as research subjects, as the representative to the analysis and perspective of modern Western contemporary Chinese literature.

Modernism: Pioneer dance

China's pioneer literature grew up in the decade of the Cultural Revolution caused beliefs ruins it sprout, grow and fading are closely linked with the spread of Western modernism literature in China.

Decade during the Cultural Revolution of the people, especially the destruction of the beliefs and values ​​of a new generation of young people is fatal once "great" and "noble" concept: they had doubts gradual disappearance of the pillars of the faith of their hearts, they survival Lost determine backing and direction into a confused and hesitant, at a time when China's social and political, appeared in the stability and unity, the center of gravity of people's work and life, turned to the front of the "class struggle" economic construction literary establishment of the principle of the "Hundred Flowers" for people to accept the more advanced Western culture provides a large environment, life-changing reform so that people have a new understanding and experience of the world and the art traditional literary realism mode performance practices have made many people feel the limitations on expression, the Chinese people in the long-term in the closed state, drastic changes in this historical moment, have eyes on the other side of the ocean, and to invest in the world .

It was such a special historical background, modernism based on a crisis of faith, alienation and self-worth lost to the unstoppable trend influx of Chinese.

From the start of 1978, the domestic variety of literary magazines began a large number of papers published to introduce Western modernist literature, various publishers of modernist works and the publication of the research works of modernism, but also become a common practice, and the formation of a considerable scale which affect larger book: the Foreign Literature Series >> << 20th century (Foreign Literature Publishing House, Portfolio >> << Foreign Literature Series >> (Lijiang Publishing House << Nobel Literature Prize winning writer (Lijiang Publishing House , research information >> << Foreign Literature (Foreign Literature Publishing House, << European and American modernist works the election >> (Yunnan People's Publishing House, << Western the literary thought FORUM Books >> (China Social Sciences Press, << awareness flow novel theory >> (Sichuan Literature and Art Publishing House, << Narrative Discourse >> (China Social Sciences Press, >> << modern fiction aesthetic (Hunan Art Publishing House << Introduction to European and American modernist literature >> (Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing community, etc. In addition, the classics of Western modernist fiction writers such as Proust << Remembrance water Love >> << Joyce's Ulysses >> To the Lighthouse, Virginia Woolf << go >> << Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury >> the Marquez << Hundred Years of Solitude >>, Yasunari Kawabata's Snow Country >> <<, have also been translated into Chinese, China's pioneer novel the writers the template can learn, has had a tremendous impact on China's pioneer literature.

The late 1970s, early 1980s, the domestic Western modernist theory from the translator who translated and introduced articles, according to statistics, from 1978 to 1982, the publication published paper introduced the Western modernist literature up to more than 400 articles. Yuan Kejia, Chen Kun Qu Shijing represented by critics for the spread of modern Western made an indelible contribution which has had a greater impact translating articles on: Yuan Kejia < <the creation of the European and American modernist literature and theory >> Commentary >> << Symbolist poetry, stream of consciousness · Theatre of the Absurd - European and American modernist literature, the << stream of consciousness is what >>, << Overview of the European and American modernist literature >>, << On the Western modernist literature >> the Chen Kun << Western Modernist Literature Study, "stream of consciousness problem >> Qu Shijing <<" stream of consciousness "thoughts Overview >> << Wu Woolf stream of consciousness novelist, Li Chunlin << Oriental stream of consciousness literature >> more.

With the commencement of the translation work, beginning in 1980, the debate on Western Modernist Literature in the creative community and critics kicked off. Because of this, the long-accepted realism literary nourishment thinking realism literary concept set, therefore, when the anti-realist tradition of modernism abruptly appear in people's vision, a considerable part of the "loyal" realism literary critics would have written articles criticizing the modernist literature, and insist on the point of view of the creative method of realism to deny the creation of modernism. while some critics the conservatives thought firmly refute. generally do not deny the reality of critics who agree with the view of modernism all the principles established literature, such as "Literature is a reflection of real life," Art comes from life, but also that the Western Modernist Literature decadence and the negative side, however, they pointed out that modernist literature than reality The literature provides perspective, the level and side to reflect life, more writing and literature for future novels.

Over time, the mid-1980s, the critique of modernist rhetoric gradually disappeared, critics of modernist literature can explore the development of Chinese contemporary literature, the proper use can enrich and deepen the expressive power of literature this view gradually reached consensus. precisely because critics of modernist literature contribute to the development of Chinese literature certainly make the mid-1980s the Chinese avant-garde literature flourishing moment, it is precisely because the critics ambiguous attitude, as well as the limits of modernism and realism the ambiguity of the concept of "modernism" and "postmodernism", the Chinese writer and critic who produce a "misreading" of Western modernism, make the pioneer of China's literature has become the color with a strong realism and full of Chinese characteristics Pioneer literature.

In 1986, Lu Shuyuan in nghe >>, << on << literature in the new "turn inward" >> article proposed literature and art to turn inward, that turned to literary and artistic presence controversy to return to the true state of the literary and artistic ideas. Lu Shuyuan literary concept immediately met with Zhou Chong Singapore as the representative of a group of reviewers counterattack Thus, a literature Should "turn inward" << nghe >> for the position warm exhibition to open in 1988, controversy Center and transferred to the Literary Debate >> debate has continued into the early 1990s. representative article: Zhou Chong slope << new The literature of the period to be alert to further "turn inward" >>, Tong Qingbing << literary "turn inward with the laws of artistic creation >> Lu Shuyuan << earth and clouds - Reflections on Literary Ontology> >, Wu Linwei << "turn inward" modern literary consciousness "Zhang Jiong <<" turn inward "On the literary and artistic laws >> had Zhennan the << new era literary" inward turn, "I see >> and so this debate was a direct result of the cultural sector" ontological "hot Chinese intellectuals therefore more attention to exist, the value of dialogue, the spirit behind a series of philosophical, aesthetic, literary problems people not only noted that the overall existence of temporal and spatial ontology "of the universe, modern" human body "exists Context and situation, literary works body" and noted that the presence of the poetic representation intersubjectivity exist " value ontology exchange between readers and writers "ontological dialogue", makes literary theory to deepen and to explore the depth of meaning of literary works in the knock-on effect. during the same period, China's pioneer literary movement to a climax .

Directly affected by the the Western Modernism impact of China modernist novel, experienced three stages of development in the new era:

A "pseudo-modernist" period (1979-1981

As early as in the 1920s, the thirties, by Western modernism (Freud's psychoanalytic theory, stream of consciousness, symbolism, there had been "New Sensation Novel" and "modernist poetry literature "as the representative, in the form of literature and writing skills to explore the experimental works on behalf of writers and poets Liu Na in Europe, Shiying, Shizhecun, Dai Wangshu, Li Jinfa, Bian Zhilin works of these writers or novel form, rhythm, the way with the characteristics of modernism, focusing on capturing the strange feeling, to the performance of the writer in the eyes, ears, senses cityscape, or the influence of Freud's psychology, and more emphasis on the psychological analysis. with the hazy imagery and subtle language implies that performance feel and mood .... However, due to the social and historical reasons, they are just as a genre of modern Chinese literature exists, does not have a greater impact early 1980s creative trend of China's literary modernist literature flourished prosperity, nor two, thirties modernist literary trends before and after the simple regression, but after the reform and opening up, the influx of Western modernism product of birth.

Western modernism on contemporary Chinese literature, first appeared in the poetry world. "Misty" Gu Cheng, Bei Dao, Shu Ting et al, in the late 1970s, the Chinese literary scene in the early 1980s to form a powerful literary an unprecedented impact on the trend, initiated the concept of the traditional literature, Misty emphasized "self", also make people start thinking about this proposition, literature also the beginning of the return to literature itself. "Misty", although it is not counted as modernist literature, but it is the skepticism of many creative techniques, it's absurd consciousness, but in concert with one another with the spirit of Western modernism.

When theorists are off the introduction of Western modernist theory climax, a novelist who also can not wait to use these theories has just been introduced to the creative practice has always been regarded as a literary Brother Wang Meng, came back in a conscious creation break through the traditional novel written boldly absorb and draw on some of the performance practices of the Western modernist novel from early 1978 to the first half of 1985, he has published 19 full of the spirit of exploration in the short story, where << Eye of the Night> > << cloth ceremony >> << Voices of Spring >> << kite streamers >> << Sea Dream >> << butterfly >> and other works, it is clear by the Western modernism, especially "stream of consciousness", embodied in the form of a very different characteristics with traditional literature. At the same time, a group of like Wang Meng old writer who had been active in the literary scene in the 1950s have also joined the exploration camp. Ru Zhijuan << clip the wrong story >> combination with a movie montage approach to expand the capacity of the works, the work has a three-dimensional, and dream, breakthrough time and space limitations, gives a whole new feel, Zong Pu The << >>, << dwelling >> the skull >> << quagmire in the works focus on the absurd history, absurd reality, absurd, even ridiculous thoughts, feelings tracing surreal 'approach dug the intellectuals complex spiritual world. , Zhang Jie << love, can not forget the >> << Chen Rong minus the novels of the decade >> are consciously or unconsciously draw on modernist fiction writing skills.

Discussion and Debate on the theory of modernist literature, creative practice vigorous unfolding out of control. The representative article has meantime emerged: Sun Shaozhen << the rise of a new aesthetic principles, Gao Xingjian << modern novel techniques. Xu Chi << >> modern and modernist poetry group >> << XU Jing Asia rise. of these contending explore articles and then translating on together, come together to form an strong theoretical system impact on China's new era of modernist literary creation.

Exploratory work in the early 1980s, although in the form of traditional narrative and structure began to break, subjective awareness of psychological processes arrange narrative time and space, but, on the whole, they did not touch on the deep aesthetic of the Chinese Writers ideas, creative concepts and creative mode called "modernism" just use the symbol of deformation, stream of consciousness of modernist art practices and techniques, and its work as a whole is still filled with a sense of social responsibility and critical spirit "social realist literature, its to express cognitive and opinions of the writers on various social issues, and that subjective awareness depiction services to reflect the objective reality, the theme is worried about the social reality, rather than on performance in the western modernist individual life worries, their creation is in fact still a continuation of traditional realism literary creation. Because of this, their creation has been known as the "the Oriental stream of consciousness" or "psychological realism", it was called "pseudo-modernist.

However, the creation of the writers of this period, but for the subsequent creation of writer wealth of experience, trained a group of modernist affinity groups of readers and commentators. Their works of Chinese literature in the West in the 1980s modern The initial results achieved under the influence of the ideological trend.

Pioneer fiction boom: (1985-1988

With Western Modernism increasingly been translated and introduced into China, modernist and post-modernist literary works, such as psychological analysis of the novel, stream of consciousness, magic realism, the new novel, and theorists formalism narrative science, structuralism, existentialism, and so become a hot one concern and controversy in the mid-1980s, the concept of modern Western literature is catching. in Western modernism stimulus, the pioneer novels in China in 1985 showing a "blowout" situation.

The first to rise to a "blowout" in 1985 and has published two novels: Liu Sola << >> << and Xu you have no choice variations on a theme >>. << You have no choice but to "use" music style "structure and" black humor "language, seemingly absurd plot, to show teaching a Conservatory dead << variations on a theme >> will be psychological fragment and life fragment stifle the mind of students," no theme series, through an automatic drop out by the University and needed peace of mind to do a "do nothing" waiters youth readme show the younger generation lonely, confused state of existence., and Wang Meng, Zong Pu "pseudo-modern send "Compared to the work, these two works has gone beyond the level of exploration in the form of modernism into the spirit of the works, in ideology, literary spirit and performance practices more mature, more characteristics of modernism. precisely because This, critics argue that China's modern literature under the influence of Western modernism, is moving into a period of prosperity. "you have no choice >> also referred to as" the first successful Chinese modernist literary works " , the generation of 'emotional history' is an enrichment. "

After Liu Sola, Xu Xing, Ma Yuan, the flood peak, Ge Fei Xue, Yu Hua, Sun nectar, Mo Yan, Su Tong, Tashi Dawa, Kitamura number of writers have boarded the literary world began pioneer literary Dance in China Pioneer literary first heaven and earth with the traces of the impact of modern literature, such as Mo Yan Marquez and Faulkner likened to "two burning blast furnace" that they influenced him the greatest writer, Yu Hua and Kafka Kawabata the respected times to his novel is full of new novels and the Robbe - Grillet traces the works Canxue waft Kafka's shadow, and Ge Fei, Sun nectar works by Borges profound impact ... Of course, their exploration is not a pure imitation, but also reflects a strong personality and localization features, such as Ma Yuan, Gefei Unlike Borges's fascination with the world of pure fantasy, with Living Color, poetic exploration of the Sun nectar on a traditional Oriental concerned about the "phenomenon" paying no attention to the difference between "true" and "Magic" is also based and focused on the mining of the features of the modern Chinese poetry, etc. and so on.

On the change in the "form", Ma Yuan undoubtedly narrative representative figure of the revolution, the goddess >> of his creative << Lhasa River, the first narrative placed in the story above, several causal link events novel collage together. the temptations >> << Gangdise, << West Sea Sailing >>, << fictional >> << Masters << painted the walls of the weird pattern >> meta-narrative approach to break the novel "plausibility illusion", further confusing the boundaries of reality and fiction, Ma Yuan, which caused the narrative to explore the formation of the famous "horse original narrative trap" and unique the way digestion real illusion caused after people familiar with the realistic approach, later writers imitate the starting point of the object and novel experimental.

<< Mountain hut >> CanXue novels in the world, are deformed, her characters with some kind of "neurotic" lack of communication and trust each other, and there is a "self-flagellation" and "he psychological abuse "of her novels to the accumulation of an ugly image highlights the oppression of the external world, a personal feeling of rising to the level of the fable of the people's living condition.

The cell non novels from the outset committed to the construction of the narrative maze, disorder of the inner consciousness of the characters to build a group of coil-maze ─ ─ wound, collision, and also conscious of diffusion and short-circuit. His short stories >> << brown flock of birds, the first time the use of the "narrative vacancies approach, described in the story of a real magic it broke the traditional literary pursuit of" authenticity ", revealing the modern people "existence" of the nature of reality suspicion.

In the language of the novel, Pioneer novelist who is also a full range of exploration Sun nectar >> << messenger letter "access dream >> << woman guessing >> << I Juvenile wine jar >> works focus on the novel language poetic poetic exploration, the words are cut off and signified relationship with them in an unexpected way, so that self-referential with each other in both his novel language experiments, in fact, the closest surrealist poetry and painting, his novel is a collection of these languages ​​and visual illusion from trance ambiguous dreams and poetry.

These novels, such as << the events of April 3 >> << riverside error >> << Kind of Reality >> << >> escape unscathed, describing in a calm tone death bloodshed and violence, and on this basis reveals the humanity of the cruelty and absurdity of existence.

Pioneer fiction writers in the late 1980s in the the narrative revolution, language experiments with survival exploring three levels of exploration of the deep-rooted and traditional realist writer, most of the pioneering writers trying to pursue a "modern fable effect the deliberate pursuit the desalination and absurdity of the plot, the pursuit of "significant form", the narrative point of view, grammar, rhetoric unique as the creation of the biggest goals. These characteristics, is a pioneer novel to be tired of being different from the traditional realism flourished characteristics the same time, however, these characteristics also contains the creative constraints of the avant-garde, for this reason, "Vanguard Novels Boom "started in the late 1980s and then decline, the creation of many writers also began to shift.

Third, the quiet period (1989-present

The early 1990s, the pioneer writer who works too much emphasis on form and ignore the content gradually losing market readers the pioneer writers therefore have to reduce the intensity of exploration, the narrative style of the works taken is more acceptable to the general reader way, and some even combined and the business culture works transformation to other areas of the novel but not halt the exploration of the Chinese avant-garde fiction, in the 1990s, there are still a number of writers to adhere to the "Pioneer" lonely positions, such as Han Dong, Zhu Wen sea ​​men, Black Boy, they still continue with their own creation pioneer of dance in Chinese literature.

The boom period of the Chinese avant-garde fiction, though short, but viewed from the point of view of literary history, it has broken the monopoly of the traditional realist mode and the mainstream ideology, the end of a political authority control era novel, novels from showing diversification trend, In addition, the results of exploration Pioneer writers, such as spatial and temporal dislocation, zero emotional narrative, narrative trap, also the appropriate writers in the 1990s and skillfully use with Chinese literature, so also injected a new factor, showing a more colorful scene.

Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

Second, the existential: the adventure

Existentialist thought is the most widely spread into China in the 1980s, a variety of western philosophy, one of the the most influential thought existentialism, however, is by no means the end of the 1970s before moving on to China 70 years ago, our translator and published some existentialist writings such as 1955, Sartre's visit to China << People's Daily >> Sartre << >> I am on the look and feel of the new China, in line with his visit << translation >> magazine published his plays the <<-Se >> .60 ', Sartre << dialectical rational criticism >> "Being and Nothingness >>, << >> existentialism is a humanitarian, fiction the set << disgust and >>, and so on, used as a critical material published are very limited due to the constraints of the prevailing political environment, the spread and impact of existentialism.

The late 1970s, had just come out from the decade of the Cultural Revolution, people lingering fear that, in the spirit of the Holocaust has a sense of crisis. Past reflection of reality, full of doubts about the future feel confused confusion, loss, loss and loneliness become a widespread social sentiment It is in this context, the importance of the people in the first place, that human existence precedes essence, advocating freedom, to advocate humanitarian existentialism when re-introduced into China, we have obtained a Chinese intellectuals, especially the young generation spiritual resonance for a time, "Hell is other people." , "was sentenced freedom", "people are thrown into this world for no reason" existential motto became the mantra of college students, a new generation of Chinese people face boring world, guarded precepts, but also have enough emboldened shouted "disgust!" would also have held discussions in philosophy and literary circles, a variety of existentialism, the researchers use a variety of ways, existentialism introduced in various forms, for a time, existentialism became by an over the concern of social thought.

Existentialist mind thirst because people, translators and publishers also began to translate and publishing the writings of existentialism existentialist writings and research have a huge impact in the 1980s of: << Sartre drama set >> (People's Literature Publishing House, disgust << >> (Shanghai Translation Publishing House, << Being and Nothingness >> (Sanlian << plague >> (Shanghai Translation Publishing House, << Camus collection of short stories> (Foreign Literature Publishing House << Sartre and his existentialist >> (People's Literature Publishing House, "Sartre its people and its" human science ">> (Fudan University Press, << Sartre Studies ( China Social Sciences Press, << a desperate hope: Sartre Introduction >> (Shanghai People's Publishing House, << "explore" the mysteries of life: >> (Beijing Publishing House, Sartre and existentialism << Sa Special Topics in Art >> (Shanghai People's Fine Arts Publishing House, existentialist aesthetics >> << (Liaoning People's Publishing House, and so on. translators and critics have made great achievements: Liu Mingjiu, Yuan Shuren, Zheng Yonghui, Aden, Shikang Jiang, Pan Peiqing, Liu Fang tanarius, precursors of temperature, Protesting, Du Xiao Zhen, Wei Jinsheng and so on.

1990s, existentialism is no longer the focus of attention of the society, to the existentialism existentialist writings still continue to be published with valuable research articles continue to be published., Such as 1998 by Anhui Literature and Art Publishing House >> << Sartre collection of short stories (scroll down had become the hotspot of the book world, selling one o'clock. seminar on existentialism, often held, as held in Xi'an in 1994 ' Symposium 'literature and 20th century literature in' exists' problem "exists, and has been a great concern.

The impact of of existentialist thought on contemporary Chinese literature is enormous. Existentialist philosophy emphasizes people's freedom of choice, freedom of responsibility, Sartre that the meaning of life is only the freedom of choice of the individual in order to be realized, Heidegger also think that the meaning of existence is that people "planning". But in the real world, the situation is often only in a "select" and "planning." Therefore, the "freedom of choice" and "select", "planning", with planning "constitute the inescapable contradictions of life a questioning of the living circumstances of people concerned about the meaning of life is an important proposition Since the beginning of the new period novel writing, can be said that from the late 1980s throughout the 1990s genre novels, to varying degrees by the impact of existentialism.

The existentialism of Chinese Literature everywhere, critics view the role of existentialist thought in contemporary literature the most concentrated expression of in three literary trends: "reflection Literature, 1985 years ago after the" pioneer novel New Realism ". Below, we talk about these three literary and artistic trend of contemporary Chinese literature of existentialism:

A reflection Literature existential

"Introspection Literature" and "scar literature" during the same period from the rise of the literary creative thought. "Reflection" from the earliest writings of the English philosopher John Locke, his "spiritual perception of the internal activities, called" Reflection reflection Literature "Reflection" refers to contemplate the history from the perspective of management to be found deformities political, Shinianhaojie the source of calamities to bring our nation in history and natural environment expand the value of the "people" thinking in the background.

Existentialism explore human existence is a "human science" Sartre: everything there, but they are not aware of their existence, and therefore not really exist, only people can recognize their own existence, and can reveal the existence of all things, and therefore human existence is the real presence of human existence, the existence of all things lost certainty and significance. noble than matter is that people themselves create their own essence are special, only the performance of their particularity, "has become his" talent is the real existence of human nature by their own actions to create a hero to become a hero, is a coward to make yourself become a coward. "He also pointed out that the people at the beginning is a nothingness comfortable external world is chance, human action there will be a variety of possibilities, people choose what kind of action is completely free, human life set free. since each actions are freedom of choice, then he will take responsibility for their own actions. humanitarian point of view, existential reflection Literature to explore "many problems coincide, while period to reflect the rise in the literature, it is existentialism rediscovered and the period widely disseminated, therefore, we believe that, "reflection literary" by the existential, characterized mainly manifested in the following aspects:

Reflection Literature as a literary trends rediscovered "literary works".

Literary works before, people are basically collective part, the hero of all the activities are in order to the country, for the collective, just a symbol. "Reflection literary gradually in the process of" reflection "作为个体的人重新发现出来.早期的"反思文学"作品,如张一弓的<<犯人李铜钟的故事>>、高晓声的<<李顺大造屋>>、张弦的<<记忆>>等作品,从政治的层面,反思个体在大时代背景中的生存,随后的作品,如<<离离原上草>>、<<女俘>>、<<驼铃>>、<<如意>>等,开始从人际关系、母子亲情、友情和爱情等层面思考人本身.中国文学也以此为起点,将写作重心转向了"人本身",如"人性"、"人的价值"、"人的生命力量"等更深刻的问题的思考上.代表作品有:<<男人的一半是女人>>、<<活动变人形>>、<<芙蓉镇>>、<<我们这个年纪的梦> >等等.

2、"反思文学"张扬与倡导的是久违的人道主义精神.

文革十年的作品,"阶级性"几乎取代了一切的世俗的情感,如八个样板戏中甚至干脆取消了主人公的配偶设置. "反思文学"作品反其道而行之,刻意张扬的是被左倾思潮压制多年的"人道主义".例如谌容的<<人到中年>>,写的是中年知识分子的生存状态.在作品中,作者描述了中年一代"人"的基本生存境况、探讨人的价值和"人"所应该得到的权力,可谓是一篇典型的人道主义的宣言.刘心武的<<如意>>通过描写一个老校工的爱情悲剧,揭示出一个深刻的人道主义主题:应该把人当成人,理解人的感情,尊重人的选择.张笑天的<<离离原上草>>讲述了发生在不同阶级阵营里的人们的感情故事,赞颂了超越阶级和政治的人类之爱.这篇小说发表后有人认为它"在人性问题上背离了马克思主义的阶级论."但作者所要传达的文学理念是:人性、人道主义并不是资产阶级特有的东西.可以说它与当时正在流行的存在主义思潮是互相呼应的.

3、一些"反思文学"作品开始涉及人性更为复杂的层面,对环境对人的异化现象有了一定的发现与认识.

一些"反思文学"作品在揭示人性的时候,不自觉地触及到了政治和环境对人的异化的问题.例如<<我们这个年纪的梦>>,写出了人的理想如何被平庸的生活现实磨灭、人的追求如何屈从于社会环境、"物的世界"如何将人"物化"的过程,向读者展示了人生世事的复杂和不可捉摸,张贤亮的小说,率先把反思的目光由外部世界转向自己内心,他冷静地直面真实的自我,暴露出自己尴尬甚至可鄙的负面,并由点及面,进而对整个民族知识分子灵魂进行深刻的剖析,<<桑那高地的太阳>>写到了平庸却复杂的人际关系如何战胜个人的理想主义,最后逼迫主人公抛弃"自我",与环境同化的过程,揭示了环境对人的异化.

二、"先锋小说"与存在主义

存在主义对"反思文学"的影响是潜移默化的,"反思文学"中表现出来的许多与存在主义相近或者一致的特征,大多来自作家们对生活的感悟和对历史的反思,而非从存在主义的学说中直接汲取得来.国内作家真正有意识地接受存在主义的滋养,并将存在主义运用到创作实践中,基本上是80年代中后期的事情.

研究者们认为,新时期文学对存在主义的学习,在1985年达到了一个高峰,刘索拉的<<你别无选择>>、徐星的<<无主题变奏>>、陈村的<<少男少女,一共七个>>、残雪的<<苍老的浮云>>等作品,都深受存在主义的影响.其特征主要表现在:

1、1985年前后的"先锋小说"表现出来的荒诞感与孤独感深受存在主义哲学观的影响.

这些作品着力于揭示现代人的孤独感,世界的荒诞性以及对"人性"的呼唤.这与存在主义哲学的基本观点,如世界是荒谬的,现实本身是不可知的,人的存在缺乏理性,人生孤独等等,是相互对应的.如<<你别无选择>>中的主人公,陷入了生活为他们设定的怪圈中难于自拔,时常陷入"别无选择"的绝境中,人生的荒诞性,在他们的经历中得到了淋漓尽致的表现.又如<<无主题变奏>>中的"我",总在追问自己:"我是什么","我搞不清除了我现有的一切之外,我还应该要什么……","我"与现实世界格格不入,"孤独得要命",生存的荒谬性,在徐星的笔下得到了前所未有的强化.

2、1985年前后的"先锋小说"对存在本质的追问以及对人本体存在的思考是存在主义作用于中国当代文学最直接的体现.

存在主义对中国文学的影响,不仅表现在它深化了当代文学的主题上,也表现在它为中国当代文学注入了前所未有的批判力量.以刘索拉、徐星、残雪为代表的当代作家,他们的作品很明显地带有一种反主流的"存在的危机"意识.他们在作品中对人本体存在进行的形而上的思考,事实上就是一种充满存在主义色彩的思考.

三、"新写实小说"与存在主义

1989年3月,<<钟山>>杂志隆重推出了"新写实小说大联展"的专刊,意味着"新写实小说"作为一种文学思潮正式在中国文坛亮相.在这期杂志的"卷首语"中,有一个关于"新写实小说"的宽泛定义:"所谓新写实小说,简单地说,就是不同于历史上已有的现实主义,也不同于现代主义'先锋派'的文学,而是近几年小说创作低谷中出现的一种新的文学倾向,这些新写实小说的创作方法仍是以写实为主要特征,但特别注重现实生活原生形态的还原,真诚直面现实,直面人生.""不仅具有鲜明的当代意识,还分明渗透着强烈的历史意识和哲学意识.但它减褪了过去伪现实主义那种直露、急功近利的政治性色彩.而追求一种更为丰厚更为博大的文学境界."从这个定义中可以看出:新写实小说作家在创作意向上,受到了存在主义的极大影响,作家们重新关注人的生存现实,可以被看作是"萨特的存在主义又一次与作家发生共鸣".

存在主义对"新写实小说"的影响,可以从以下方面看出:

一、"新写实小说"作家们热衷于对现实生活"原生态"的刻划,通过平凡的事件揭示隐藏在生活本身的荒诞面目,从而直逼存在的本质.

"新写实小说"的作家们热衷于选取那些平庸的、丑恶的、甚至残酷的生活现象为他们的写作素材.如池莉的<<烦恼人生>>通篇以流水帐一般的形式叙述武汉的一名普通工人一天的琐碎生活:上厕所、挤公共汽车、吃早点、发奖金、接待日本人参观、给自己父亲和老丈人买生日礼物、支付昂贵的菜金、儿子就近入托、黑白换彩电等等,这些事情,都在作者的笔下呈现出一种令人十分无奈的灰色.方方的<<风景>>勾勒出"五、六十年代"这一一向被描写为"劳动人民当家作主、儿童幸福生活在红旗下"的时间段底层百姓穷困生活的"风景".小说呈现在读者眼前的生存图景是触目惊心的:在一个肮脏破旧的河南棚子中,"父亲"带着他的妻子和七男二女住在一个十三平米的板壁屋子里,火车平均七分钟一趟从屋侧呼啸而过,父亲毒打母亲的行为几乎成为夫妻之间的一种娱乐,孩子们在贫困狭窄的环境中彼此压榨斗殴,而拾破烂、捡菜叶、偷煤及父亲的打骂则构成了他们幼年时代的主要记忆……等等.这样的描写,无疑是对萨特所说的"人生存在是既痛苦而荒诞的故事"的观点的最好的诠释.

二、"新写实小说"作家刻意追求的远离社会中心价值体系的"个人化写作立场"表明他们更加关注作为个体的"人"的生存状态.他们的作品表现出来的人的异化及对世界的荒诞感很明显是受到了存在主义哲学观的影响.

"新写实小说"作家常常通过叙写凡夫俗子的日常生活,揭露人性的丑恶,探究人性丑和恶与人类生存境况之间的关系.他们的作品可以让读者透过貌似平静的生活水面,去感知隐伏于生活里的大量不合理和荒诞的漩流.例如方方的<<一波三折>>,将生活中的不合理现象放大、突出,将小人物在大灾难面前的无助与绝望展现在读者眼前,使读者可以更真切地了解到小人物是怎样地不能把握自己——不论"已遇到什么或将遇到什么","小人物"有的只是对生活的无奈与无助."新写实小说"也常常涉及人的"异化"问题.如刘震云的<<单位>>,就写到了沉重的生活现实如何使一个充满热情和理想的年轻人变得平庸的"异化"过程.

存在主义对"新写实小说"的影响,正如一些批评者所说的:"'新写实'崛起,重新关注人的生存现实,萨特的存在主义思想,又一次与作家发生共鸣,在沉重的氛围中,作家关注现实中那些愚昧的、落后的沉积,那些反人民反人道的蒺藜,有意去展露那荒诞的,令人'恶心'的生活现象."当然,"新写实小说"产生的背景与存在主义产生的背景是迥然不同的,它在对人生与世界的绝望方面,也与存在主义有着本质的区别.大多数"新写实小说",虽然基调是灰色的,但总是在作品中注入一些亮光,让读者看到生活的希望.例如<<烦恼人生>>中的主人公印家厚,虽然在生活中充满烦恼,但他并没有对生活感到绝望:他从妻子早晨目送自己的目光、傍晚递到手中的热毛巾、催促自己多吃菜的话语中感到家的温馨,从往昔知青伙伴的来信中对比出自己处境的优越,从渡船上与同事关于诗的讨论、他人对自己工作的赞许中,感到做人的自信.他的"烦恼",用作者池莉的话来说:"是一种达观而质朴的生活观,正是当今之世我们在贫穷落后之中要改善自己生活的一种民族性格."

90年代中后期,"新写实小说"逐渐偃旗息鼓,但是,存在主义对中国文学的影响却并未消失.其后的"新生代小说"或者"晚生代小说"也深受存在主义的影响,这些作品在探讨非理性的意志、情感、直觉、本能欲望等精神因素对人的作用方面,在揭示现代人的生存图景方面,取得了更加辉煌的成果.

三、魔幻现实主义:寻根之旅

中国的社会现实虽然与魔幻现实主义的发源地拉丁美洲千差万别,但是,同样源远流长的历史文化背景以及发展中国家之间相近的生活土壤却使中国作家对魔幻现实主义产生了天然的亲和力,这种亲和力最终导致魔幻现实主义在中国广为传播并在80年代中期催生出一种新的文学思潮——寻根文学.

魔幻现实主义在70年代末和其他哲学和文学思潮一起进入中国,对它的介绍与研究在1985年前后达到了高潮,进入90年代后,它也始终是中国作家们关注的热点之一.

1979年,<<外国文艺>>发表了由王央乐翻译的多篇博尔赫斯的短篇小说:<<南方>>、<<交叉小径的花园>>、<<马克福音>>、<<一个无可奈何的奇迹>>.这些作品后来成为中国作家们学习与模仿的经典范本,但由于当时的中国作家们还沉浸在"伤痕"与"反思"的氛围之中,讲究叙事结构、醉心于营造"迷宫"的博尔赫斯的作品并未引起重视.1980年,外国文学出版社出版了阿斯图里亚斯的<<总统先生>>,在这期间,<<外国文学动态>>上先后发表了<<博尔赫斯答记者问>>、<<博尔赫斯就诺贝尔奖金问题答记者问>>等博尔赫斯谈话的文章,中国作家由此开始了解魔幻现实主义文学.

随后,魔幻现实主义的作品也越来越多地被翻译和介绍进中国.1982年,魔幻现实主义作家马尔克斯的<<百年孤独>>获得了诺贝尔奖,这一事件激发了中国作家对魔幻现实主义的兴趣.同年,<<世界文学>>杂志发表了<<百年孤独>>的选译片段,上海译文出版社出版了<<加西亚·马尔克斯中短篇小说集>>,1984年,高长荣翻译的<<百年孤独>>全译本由北京十月文艺出版社出版.在这期间,<<当代拉丁美洲短篇小说集>>(中国社会科学出版社、<<拉丁美洲名作家短篇小说选>>、<<拉丁美洲短篇小说选>>(中国青年出版社也纷纷出版,中国作家对魔幻现实主义的了解渐渐深入.

1985年前后,随着中国文坛"寻根热"的掀起,魔幻现实主义作品及研究论著的出版也出现了高潮,如<<族长的没落>>(山东文艺出版社、<<霍乱时期的爱情>>(漓江出版社、<<魔幻现实主义>>(花城出版社、<<未来主义、超现实主义、魔幻现实主义>>(中国社会科学出版社、<<加西亚·马尔克斯研究资料>>(南开大学出版社、<<拉丁美洲当代文学评论>>(漓江出版社等纷纷出版.中国作家对于魔幻现实主义,开始有了一个全景式的了解.

90年代以后,对魔幻现实主义的介绍和研究并未因为"寻根热"的退潮而降温,事实上,整个90年代,魔幻现实主义一直是出版界、研究界、创作界关注的热点.在90年代出版的魔幻现实主义作品及研究论著有:<<将军和他的情妇——迷宫中的将军>>(南海出版公司、<<劫持>>(中国电影出版社、<<巴比伦抽签游戏>>(花城出版社、<<巴比伦彩票>>(云南人民出版社、<<生活的迷宫——博尔赫斯传>>(知识出版社、<<拉美四作家作品精粹>>(河北教育出版社、<<拉美作家谈创作丛书>>(云南人民出版社、<<两百年的孤独>>(云南人民出版社、<<解读博尔赫斯>>(人民文学出版社、<<拉美文学流派的嬗变与趋势>>(上海译文出版社、<<马尔克斯>>(辽海出版社、<<我们看拉美文学>>(云南人民出版社、<<陷阱里的先锋:博尔赫斯传>>(四川人民出版社、<<博尔赫斯——书镜中人>>(中央编译出版社等等.1996年,由陈众议编、海南国际新闻出版中心出版的三卷本<<博尔赫斯文集>>出版后,再次掀起国内学习和研究博尔赫斯的热潮,这套丛书,也一度成为热门的畅销图书.

魔幻现实主义思潮之所以会在80年代中期以后在中国广为流行,并对中国的"寻根文学"产生巨大影响,其原因是多方面的.

首先,吸收了西方现代思潮养分,立足于本土文化传统和现实境遇的魔幻现实主义能够发展成为世界先进文学,对中国作家是个极大的鼓舞和激励,他们由此看到了第三世界国家文学走向世界的希望.中国作家一直有着"中国文学走向世界"的情结,拉美作家的成功使他们更加坚信"越是民族的,就越是世界的"这一文学理念.为了寻找与世界对话的途径,中国作家开始了自己的"寻根"之旅.他们以魔幻现实主义作品为范本,借鉴着博尔赫斯们、马尔克斯们成功的经验及写作技巧.魔幻现实主义传统在中国的传播因此有了心理契机,

其次,在80年代中期,中国对西方各种现代思潮的达到了一个高峰,面对五花八门的各种思潮,中国作家感到了前所未有的压力:西方的东西再好,毕竟也是人家的.中国文学的位置在哪里?应当如何发展?这成为当时的作家共同寻找的问题.与此同时,80年代初王蒙等创作的"伪现代派"作品也暴露出了致命弱点:虽然借鉴了"意识流"等现代主义的手法,但是,一方面,未能更为全面广阔地反映现实生活,另一方面,也与实际的生活经验发生了极大的偏离.如何将中国文化传统与西方现代主义的优秀成果相结合,创作出既中国又现代的文学作品,成为当时作家们共同思考的一个问题.于是,魔幻现实主义在中国的传播便有了现实契机,另外,随着文学"反思"由政治向民族文化心理层面的深化,人们开始注意到中国文化的"断裂"现象.如阿城所说:"五四运动在社会变革中有着不容否定的进步意义,但它较全面地否定民族文化的虚无主义态度,加上中国社会一直动荡不安,使民族文化的断裂延续至今,'文化大革命'更加彻底,把民族文化判给阶级文化横扫一遍,我们甚至差点连遮羞布也没有了."韩少功也认为:"五四以后,中国文学向外国学习,学西洋的,东洋的,俄国的和苏联的,也曾向外国关门,夜郎自大地把一切'洋货'都封禁焚烧.结果带来民族文化的毁灭,还有民族自信心的低落."中国作家渴望通过文学来弥补这一文化的断裂.这,便是魔幻现实主义流行一时的文化契机.

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