Into the night on a long trip Pragmastylistic Analysis

Abstract: Trial language learn Grice's "cooperative principle" to interpret the deeper meaning of the long journey into Night O'Neill << >> partial fragments of character dialogue, analysis of dramatic dialogue from the microscopic point of subtext, full of multiple character of the hero, as well as torture suffered the fate of a person between the complex emotions of love and hate, and further deepen the theme of the drama to get more intuitive than macro comment more specifically dramatic stylistic effect.

Keywords: Grice "principles of cooperation" session meaning; subtext deepen the theme stylistic effect

, Griee session cooperative principles embodied in the O'Neill's autobiographical tragedy in recent years, literary stylistics use of the achievements of modern linguistics stylistic analysis, to take a more sophisticated language analysis methods, stylistic analysis tends to be more detailed and accurate, and more micro, objective reality, but also, as far as possible, to avoid the individual's subjective impression obtained more intuitive than macro comments, more specific stylistic effect, and provides a detailed and objective basis for macro comments (1) This paper attempts to use linguistics important branch - Pragmatic learn Grice "principles of cooperation" in a concrete manifestation of the dramatic stylistic dialogue detailed interpretation of the deeper meaning of the O'Neill << >> into the night on a long trip of some fragments figures dialogue, from the microscopic analysis to further strengthen the dramatic conflict, rendering a family tragedy, dig the tragic theme of the literary style: intricate love-hate relationship between the torture suffered the fate of a people, they had to yield to the fate of the passive acceptance of the darkness, never see the sun.

The U.S. philosopher Paul Griee, between speaker and hearer language communication activities in order to achieve a specific goal, there is a tacit understanding, one both sides should abide by the principle, he said this principle session cooperation principle (CooperativePrinciple, cP) this fundamental principle of cooperative principles concrete manifestation of four criteria:

1. Number of criteria (Quantity maxim)
(1) own words to reach the level of detail required by the (conversation present purposes), (2) can not make their own words is more detailed than required.

2. Quality Standards (Quality maxim)
(1) Do not say what you believe is true, (2) not to mention their own lack of sufficient evidence.

3. Related criteria (Relation maxim): speak to be appropriate

4. The ways criteria for (Manner maxim)
(1) avoid obscure words, (2) to avoid ambiguity, (3) to speak briefly (surface repeat), (4) to speak must be reasonable. ⑵ comply with all these criteria, people will be able to in the most direct way, the highest communicative efficiency. ⑶ But, in fact, these Statute is often a contravention the session meaning precisely because of the violation of these guidelines. (4) breach of guidelines is a communicative strategy, aimed at indirect expression of intention to make a word, not only have literal meaning, but also can have other meanings. ⑸ the implied deeper meaning of dialogue is particularly prominent in dramatic style.

Modern American playwright Eugene O'Neill's autobiographical tragedy into the night on a long trip << >> since the advent of more than half a century, many literary critics from multiple perspectives, commented on this great book: the use of symbolism, expressionism , existentialism, Imagism, psychoanalytic criticism, feminist criticism and theory of literary criticism to analyze and explore the ancient Greek tragedy, allusive, works on the philosophy of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, Ibsen and Strindberg O'Neill impact, rE research playwright living historical background of the era and the writer's own life experiences and encounters, deep meaning for the dramatic character dialogue detailed analysis less. ⑹ but regardless of application Which comment, the critics' interpretation of the theme of the play is basically the same: among the Tallents a husband and wife, father and son, mother and son, brother both love and hate, hates and loves, could not understand why the four people in the heart is filled with gradually towards the end of the night suffering and helpless and chaotic multiple contradictions, from the early morning of life, of love and hate intertwined constitute a the scene very sad tragedy of the modern American family.

Part in the play text fragments, as discourse information and trial language learn Grice "principles of cooperation" to explain the deeper meaning of the character dialogue from microstructure reveal the characters' inner emotions, seemingly ordinary drama session manpower analysis hidden euphemistic read between the lines, rich and delicate, thought-provoking subtext detailed interpretation of the subtle overtones and overtones of the session, to fully demonstrate the complex character of the the plump flesh "round" figures such as Taryn, Mary, Edmund, and intricate relationship of love and hate between them through dialogue with the language of the script stylistic analysis, more in-depth understanding of the tragedy of the causes, further reveals the theme of the tragedy, resulting in more intuitive than macro comment, more specific stylistic effect, macro comment provide objective and informative basis, further increase the credibility of macroeconomic comments to deepen people's understanding of the special art of literary style. posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

Second, the use of Grice "principles of cooperation" interpretation of the character dialogue deeper meaning of the night on a long trip >> << enter, in addition to the monologue outside, playwright use of language consummate awareness drives the characters from start to finish in violation of Grice's "cooperative Principles, strategic use of "non-cooperative principle", a combination of the speaker's intention and the specific context, bears very rich meaning in the seemingly ordinary drama session profound accurately portray the dramatis complex personality and deformity relationship, resulting in a the unexpected dramatic effect.

Re-drug play the focus of the conflict in the mother, Mary, and younger son Edmund suffering was considered terminally ill tuberculosis on two things. Around a family concern from my heart conversation has managed to avoid, but from time to time, and out of these two main lines, O'Neill a dramatic discourse charm through unparalleled detail description of the scene from early morning to night life of just less than twenty-four hours, concentrated hero family tragedy. the Tallents family among complain, blame, lying, cheating, after that she felt guilt, regret, then, mutual understanding and comfort this caring, considerate, they accidentally touch each other long-lost healed scars, so they blame each other, blame the vicious cycle. layers of interlocking dialogue implies The multi-layered subtext, opened the family's past, and the past unfortunately caused the tragedy now, even swallowed the future.

Were selected below the opening scenes of the play the first scene of the fourth act to use Grice "principles of cooperation" to analyze the play husband and wife, parent-child dialogue inadvertently Flaring non-compliance with the session guidelines and the resulting overtones (underlined part author To facilitate analysis plus and digital), and can be seen from almost every morpheme contains rich connotation. dramatic dialogue in the love-hate Huazhongyouhua, semantic multi-layered, complementary to each other, to show the personalities of the three-dimensional multi-level and character level are constantly enrich changing profoundly embodies the theme of love and hate. ⑺

1. Violation of the principles of cooperation dialogue between husband and wife in this drama opening precisely morning, Mary returned just drug treatment from the nursing home with her husband and two sons in the villa summertime, harmonious atmosphere of family reunion, the family of four just after breakfast, Taryn chat and Mary are side-tracked from their respective appetite cheap cigars, cigar leads the sale of real estate, in a seemingly relaxed conversation, vaguely showing Mary Taryn blame. suddenly came from the restaurant's small son Ed Mongolia coughing caused their attention, they immediately changed the subject and start talking about Edmund's condition. conversation, they showed a tense and anxious, trying to hide the fear was considered incurable tuberculosis, while Mary abnormal behavior and conversation that her condition does not really cure, she again taking morphine family atmosphere by easily getting into depression and heavy.

MARY - James, it'S Edmund you ought toscold for not eating enough. He hardly touched any-thing except coffee. (1) I keep telling him that he says he sim-ply has no appetite. Of course, there's nothing takesaway your appetite like-a bad sum-mer cold. (2)
TURONE-Yes, it's only natural. (3) SO don't let yourself get worried-(4)
MARY a (quickly) Oh, I'm not. I know he'll be all righet in a few days (5) ifhe takes care ofhimself. (As if she wanted to discuss the subject but can't) But it does seem a shame he should have to besick fight now. (6)
TYRONE - Yes, it is bad luck. (He gives her aquick, worrying look.) But you mustn't let it upsetyou, Mary. Remember, you've got to take care of yourself, too. (7)
MARY a (quickly) I'm not upset. There's nothing to be upset about. What makes you think I'm upset? (8), TURONE-why, nothing, exceptyou'ye seemed a bit high-strung ⑼ the past few days.

MARY-(forcing a smile) I have? Nonsense, dear.It 's your imagination. (With sudden tenseness) You really must not watch me all the time, James. I mean, it makes me self-conscious. ⑽
TYRONE - (putting a hand ogler one ofher nel'lloaslyplaying ones) Now, now, Mary. That'S your i-magination. If I've watched you it was to admire how fat and how beautiful you looked. (11) (His voice is suddenly moved by deep feeling.) I can't tell you the deep happiness it gives me, darling, to see you as you've been since you came back to us, your dear old self again. (12) (He leans over and kisses hercheek impulsivef-then turning back adds with a con-strained air) SO keep up the good work, (13 ) Mary. Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

MARY a (of has turned herhead away) I will, (14) dear. (She gets up restlessly and goes to thewindows at right.) Thank heavens, the fog is gone. (15) (She turns back.) I do feel out of sorts this morning. ⒃ I wasn't able to get much sleep with that awful foghorn going all night long. ⒄
TYRONE-Yes, it's like having a sick whale in the back yard. (18) It kept me awake, too.

MARY a (affectionately amused) Did it? You had a strange way of showing your restlessness. (19) You were snoring so hard I couldn't tell which was the foghorn! ⒇ (She comes to hem, laughing, and pats his cheek playfully.) Ten foghorns couldn't disturb you. (21) You haven't a nerve in you. You've never had. (22) ⑻
This couple five or six dialogue Round twenty-third violation of the principles of cooperation, including violation of the quantity, quality, relevance, and manner guidelines are four, eight, ten, a hero Mary heard Edmund coughing sound, could not wait to tell her husband the heart of the concerns she has multiple personalities, neurotic, sensitive and eccentric when her nerves normal, she loves her husband and son, once the drug seizures, she hated anyone around, including her favorite relative. fragment, she showed more normal from the surface, fed to Long Jin (1) (violation of the criteria) is redundant, because it is common sense to know any normal people quantitative criteria to measure the words of Mary beyond the information required by the dialogue. But that is it revealed her inner anxiety and unease. (2) (violation of qualitative criteria) Mary afraid to face the harsh reality of this sentence reflects the psychological, she is more willing to live in their own lies woven and white 13 dreams, likes to indulge in fantasy, only in the dreams of her soul will be a moment of peace in order to alleviate the unfortunate reality of marriage and suffering of her torment, she often had to lie. qualitative criteria in the principles of cooperation In this, the required talk "real" lose the basis for the operation. She was knowingly Edmund had tuberculosis, but trying to hide, take "tetanus is telling people off-putting, but the" self-deception, the worse is her most respected father also died of the disease, which is exacerbated by her inner concerns.

(3) (violation of qualitative criteria) Taryn insincerely go along with Mary, in fact I do not believe that the younger son is only slightly so-called "tetanus" only reason he does not expose the lies, do not want to hurt his wife. (4) (violation things associated criteria) then Taryn turn to seems to be nothing to do with the disease, care for the body of Mary, to comfort her, its true meaning is worried about his wife, to reselect the drug can not withstand the enormous pressure.

(5) (violation of qualitative criteria) sensitive Mary read the subtext of her husband, immediately denied and drug Flaring even do not believe the lies "within a few days he will be good," in order to cover up his own heart panic and anxiety. (6) (violation of the criteria) Mary on the surface with a lie to deceive ourselves, but as the love child's mother, and my heart really does not fit his son's condition, say more than the required information "happens this time students from that sick. " "This time" She just home from the nursing home only two months, is in need of a carefree resting to catch up, but why Edmund terminal illness, she Anxious hinted that she may re-morphine anesthesia his own soul, and forget about earthly suffering.

(7) (violation of the associated guidelines) Taryn first noncommittal, the bad luck that led to Edmund chosen juncture illness. Then change the subject, to console his wife again, and do not worry so much about A disease JL child, keep a good own body is the most critical, but he is still behind in this concern and care deeply concerns.


(8) (violation of qualitative criteria) Mary suddenly comprehend husband Huazhongyouhua, immediately denied that he has been worried about. As a matter of fact, the night before she Edmund diseases nervous a sleepless night, fear pressure like a mountain was her breath, but she only rely on the morphine to escapism, temporarily forget all the unfortunate but her most taboo family know about this scandal, and hated others insinuated to remind her to stop making the same mistakes in order to protect themselves, she rhetorical question: "Are you thought I worry how will you? "(9) (violation of way guidelines) Taryn reluctant to intensify contradictions, first ambiguous answer Mary's question, and then use the word" excited "instead of" worry ", in violation of Grice the way criteria: speak concise, do not use the the semantic ambiguity vocabulary. posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

(10) (violation of the associated guidelines) Mary does not admit that he is "a little skittish", that her husband cranky. Mention "Xiaxiang", she slips alertness up, 'he is not already know I drug?' She turn to complain about her husband, "You really should not as early not late total eyes on me" two layers deep meaning of this lines: A Mary love their husbands and sons, but not their understanding and help. She knew that they look down on her, hate her, hate her addiction. B Mary drug rehabilitation home, his family worried about her making the same mistakes, invariably always beware of her, she was very disgusted her most disgusted own side like a thief in the under the surveillance of the family suspected and contempt home virtually has become imprison her bird cage She tried to uphold their dignity, but could not help the temptation of morphine itself is a contradiction, and can not be around their own destiny.

(11) (violation and associated guidelines and quality) Taryn lovingly answer Mary suspicious. Followed by violation of the two criteria at the same time. Beginning of this statement is obvious insincere, only in a perfunctory wife blame, while also disguise themselves has been monitoring the every move of the behavior of his wife. She spoke, suddenly became emotional in favor of praise from the wife's health and appearance. Fact, Taryn out of love for her to monitor her behavior, hoping to prevent her from stealing to suck morphine, harm the body, although this caused Mary resentment and hate. (12) (violation of the criteria) is immersed in the heart of Mary drug high hopes Taryn look forward to a better family life: Mary is no longer a drug addict, and as before to be a wife and mother family life back on track, that would be great! (13) (violation of the associated guidelines) with a strong desire, while taking into account the face of Mary, Taryn so outright, request a wife with a strong will to overcome drug addiction, will never get rid of the demons.

(14) (violation of qualitative criteria) in the husband's plea, Mary mouth reluctantly agreed, but in fact, she would have my family's advice and simply forgotten, she could not "stick" because she has been secretly open vicious circle in the head. addict who once dependence on morphine, short stay away from the scene will bring excruciating pain, had to increase the dose, into a vicious circle, who can not put her back on track, the final will be slide into the abyss. (15) (violation of the associated criteria) in order to not let the other side see through the secrets of the heart, but also in order to conceal the inner anxiety and guilt, Mary saw the fog outside the window, and changed the subject. "fog" and later in " recurring fog "in the play, has a strong symbolic meaning consistent with the presence or absence of fog and shades and characters good or bad mood." fog finally scattered "a symbol of the family thought Mary drug treatment success, long shrouded in the hearts of everyone the haze finally dissipated, the house is full of returning to the laughter. (16) (violation of the association and qualitative criteria) Mary turned from the window to come back to reality, was "a little uncomfortable" In fact, she was not physical comfortable, but psychologically strong dependence on morphine morphine's role has diminished from last night to early morning most of the day time passed, the re-injection of a (17) (violation of the associated guidelines) Mary hear fog signal, and the opportunity to "uncomfortable" Attribution and fog signal, fights her night sleep. fog signal sounds Beibeiqieqie reminiscent of painful memories: an unhappy marriage, forced drug, which is the family try to avoid touching the hapless fog, "It is the symbol of the painful past mentality do not want to look back. Meanwhile, it symbolizes the cruel reality, suggesting that her heart panic, fear, helplessness, despair, her fragile nerves can not stand the tremendous mental stress, had to resort to morphine in exchange for a moment of peace.

(18) (violation of qualitative criteria) Taryn surface with "harm the sick whale" analogy arguing all the fog signal He is also Yiyewumian, the session appears to be in a relaxed and humorous atmosphere to expand In fact, he is alluding to Mary drug seizures and ugly, and he could not sleep because he had been spying on his wife's behavior.

(19) (20) (violation of the associated guidelines) Mary does not believe that the husband due to fog signal and insomnia, followed by side-tracked by the look of his bizarre insomnia and snoring sound. Husband insomnia certainly a novelty factor, he deliberately issued like fog signal like a big purr, pretending to sleep soundly, In fact, he at any time in secretly observing her beware of her Mary secretly accused her husband of her distrust. (21) (violation of the criteria) to do a couple years Mary well aware of the habits of the husband, Taryn has always been and fell down they sleep, absolutely impossible fog signal awakened a tacit understanding of the causes of insomnia. (22) (violation of the associated guidelines) Mary and switch topics complain Thailand Lun "perceived even have no, never" implication two: First, blame the husband, feelings dull, never understood his wife, married Mary, accompanied by her husband toured everywhere, of no fixed abode, Taryn always her throw a deserted dirty hotel, while outside alcoholism pleasure let her long endured the torment of the lonely. two despise husband, stingy by nature, can not bear to part with their money for his wife and son to build a comfortable home, but join together all the investment worthless land orgy, reluctant to spend money for the wife of childbirth doctor, low-cost the quack with morphine analgesic drug addicts, forcing Mary, unable to extricate themselves. loss of self-Mary is not only physically and mentally destruction of the spirit is extremely painful, and the family also carry a heavy cross. Mary accused Taryn: what he caused a family tragedy. ⑼ Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

Tone: this fragment is the first act of the play and laid a seemingly relaxed chat, the couple has begun secretly blame each other, blame, which mixed with each other considerate and caring warmth in the play, both because of love come together, but because of the pursuit of life, resentment, they both intimate alienate, never been able to truly understand each other.

2. Violation of the principles of cooperation dialogue between father and son second and third act is still a buck-passing. Intensified blame for Mary endless, Taryn outdone fourth act opening midnight, husband and wife, father and son the gap between the exposed and difficult to restore the First, Taryn and Edmund together counterattack Mary, then try to shift responsibility between father and son, accused each other of both torture each other and tossing his strive to each other at the same time understanding their own. fragment major violation of the associated guidelines session, space is limited here only a brief analysis With the changing of the topic, the deepening of family secrets one by one been lifted, the ultimate truth is to hang out in seemingly unrelated words actually contain ring interlocking causal relationship.

EDMUND-Yes. It'S pretty horrible to see herThe way she must be now. (With bitter misery) Thehardest thing to take is the blankwallshe builds aroundher. Or it'S more like a bank of fog in whichshe hides and loses herself. Deliberately, that's the
hell of it! You know something in her does it deliberatelytoget beyond our reach, to be rid of US, to forgetwe're alive! It'S as if, in spite of loving US, shehated us!
TYRONE - (remonstrates gently) Now, now, lad. It'S not her. It'S the damned poison.

The EDMUND an (bitterly) She takes it to get thateffect. At least, I know she did this time! (Abrupt-ly) My play, isn't it? Here. (He plays a card.)
The the TYRONE one (plays mechanically-gently re-proachful) She's been terribly frightened about yourillness, for all her pretending. Don't be too hard onher, lad. Remember she'S not responsible. Oncethat cursed poison gets a hold on anyone-
EDMUND - (His face grows hard and he staresat his father with bitter accusation.) It never shouldhave gotten a hold on her! I know damned well she's not to blame! And I know who is! You are! Yourdamned stinginess! If you 'd spent money for a de-cent doctor when she was 80 sick after 1 was born, she'd never have known morphine existed! Insteadyou put her in the hands of a hotel quack whowouldn't admit his ignorance and took the easiestway out , not giving a damn what happened to her afterwards! All because his fee was cheap! Anotherone of your bargains!

TYRONE a (stung angrily) Be quiet!-Howdare Disables you talk of something you know nothing about!

(Trying to control his temper) You must try tosee my side ofit too.lad. How was I to know he wasthat kind of a doctor? He had a good reputation

EDMUND - Among the souses in the hotel bar,

I suppose! ⑽

Terrible look after a series of violations related criteria so steadfast that the dialogue quickly from one topic to another topic: (Mary) drug _ + wall, fog unlucky a poison leaves to come up with the look of the thing one called you sick to be scared bad _ this thing should never have entangled her _ you stingy simply to the extreme _ what you do not understand the ⑾ Taryn all responsibility to the body of Mary, is her drug addiction and only then the family with people Unfortunately abyss all love her man desperate: no future husband, son, not a device. Edmund disgust mother addiction ugly attack, leaving him pain the mother deliberately drug, "Let us could not get close to her , pulling away we let her forget and we still live in the world! Although she loved us, so look was like a hate us hate incredible! "⑿ heart is still in love with wife Taryn think Edmund is too extreme too much, after all, he is the favorite son of Mary, speak up: she is over-worry about the disease that she is suffering from drug addiction Edmund While father and son are blaming Ma Links to free papers Download Center http:/ / eng.hi138.com
Korea, but Taryn does not allow Edmund extremes, after all surviving warmth between husband and wife. Heard poison Edmund severely condemned the father, it was his stingy by nature that led to the mother's misfortune, the Queen Mary personal tragedy and the family falling people into the abyss. Oedipus the Edmund the dripping fun to vent strong dissatisfaction father, both instinctive closeness between father and son, but also mutual hostility.

The drama everywhere inadvertently violate the of Grice "principles of cooperation" dialogue between husband and wife, father and son, mother and son, through the characters' dialogue analysis, the theme of the drama has been deepened: they are life's losers, yet blame their failure others, mutual accusations, but also because it is the love of each other's relatives, the best understanding each other, between the damage deepest sustains a deep love, is this love, so that everyone can not be from the distressed real life struggled to free himself, unfortunately all the past has been like ghost.I annoyed them, the cruel reality of life can not satisfy everyone's desire for love, this love has been distorted in mutual scolding, love and hate emotional torment each family members, they both love each other and hate each other, love and hate mixed together, both opposite another departure from, and has been throughout the play.


Third, Grice "principles of cooperation" to analyze the dramatic stylistic significance stylistic study focused on scientific and meticulous analysis, more and more sophisticated methods of language analysis thanks to pragmatics and stylistic study more scientific, more accurate, and the use of Grice "principles of cooperation" and violation of session guidelines detailed interpretation of dramatic texts, is to meet the needs of the modern literary stylistics, brought considerable progress to Dramatic Stylistics, and the use of language with stylistic analysis methods to explain << into the night long trip that >> the deeper meaning of the dialogue of the characters in this modern family tragedy and as a means of deepening the theme is a useful attempt to really interpret the speaker, multi-level implication, from the simple and natural, meticulous person micro-drama session and subtext to fully show the speaker's complex personality, and from digging out of the play deep the theme: "In love deepest contain the deepest eternal despair", in order to achieve the effect of further rendering a family tragedy of the more prominent of the drama stylistic theme tragedy, to deepen people's understanding and appreciation of the text of the play, get more intuitive than macro comment, more specific dramatic stylistic effect, to provide an objective and informative basis for macro comments macro comment useful supplement more increase the credibility of the macroeconomic comments, which is the macro comments irreplaceable.

Note:
Editor Zuoliang, small to Road: <English Stylistics Introduction, "Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1987, Page 503.
He Zhaoxiong editor: A New Pragmatic School Summary >> Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, (102, page 154,155,156.
[5] Wang Hong: Dramatic Stylistics a discourse analysis method >> Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2006, page 108.
[6] Liao against the editor: <Eugene - the O'Neill Research Papers >> Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1998, Longwen wear knitting: <Eugene O'Neill commentaries >> Shanghai: Shanghai Oxford University Press, 1988, Wang Yi Qun: (O'Neal Research, Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2006, Michael Manheim, THECAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO EUGENE O'NEILL, Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2000.

[7] Liu Haiping, Wang Shou-ren editor, Yang before the main essays: the << New American literary history >> Volume III, Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2004, p. 436.

[8] [10] Eugene O'Neill, COMPLETEPLAYS 1932-1943, THE LIBRARY OF AMERICA, PP. 720-721, PP. 801-802.

[9] {11} [12] Chinese translation in the double quotes from the (U.S.) Eugene • O'Neal forward, Long Wen Pei Selected: foreign contemporary plays of 1 >> Beijing: Chinese Drama Publishing, 1988 , page 242-243,357,358.

Pingyuan: <narrative narrative mode transition >> Beijing: Peking University Press, 2003, (the starting point of the modern novel in China >> Beijing: Peking University Press, 2003 for Yang Lianfen: <late Qing Dynasty to the May 4th : Chinese contemporary literature occurred, Beijing: Peking University Press, 2003.

See Guo Yanli: <>> modern Chinese translation Introduction to Literature, Wuhan: Hubei Education Press, 1998, Wang Kefei: << >> translation Cultural History On Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 1997; Wangbing Qin: << Chinese translation The intellectual history >> Tianjin: Nankai University Press, 2004.

[5] Chen Fukang: translation theory Historical Manuscript >> Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 1992, 31.
[6] [21] Xue Sui's Zhang Jun was compiled <Lin Shu research data >>, Fuzhou: Fujian People's Publishing House, 1982, page 161, 162. Posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

[The 7] xingyao translation: <the hero Alvin load >>, Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1996, page 19.
[8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] Scott, Walter. luranhoe, New York: Bantam Books, Bantam Classic Edition, 1988, PP. 14,9,9-10,16,16,232-23,65.

[15] Lin Shu: << Daughters resistant children pass> sequence >> quoted Chen Pingyuan, Xia Xiaohong (- 20th-century Chinese novel theory Information >> Beijing: Peking University Press, 1997, 293 .

[16] Lin Shu: <the Hong Han girl Chuan • Postscripts >> quoted Chen Pingyuan, Xia Xiaohong, (- 20th-century Chinese novel theory Information >> Beijing: Peking University Press, 1997, page 181 .

[17] Survey: Comparative Literature language Comparative Culture 10 stresses >> Shanghai: Fudan University Press, 2004, page 185.
[18 children 23] [24] Secretary Scott (Scott, W): <Saxon Hero of slightly >> Lin Shu, Wei Yi translation, Beijing: Commercial Press, 1981, page 1,41,64.

[19] Shizhecun: Modern Chinese Literature Series • set of translated literature >> Shanghai: Shanghai Bookstore, 1990, page 3.
[20] Chen Pingyuan: narrative narrative mode transition >> Beijing: Peking University Press, 2003, page 168.
[21] Qian Zhongshu: <Old Man four >> Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1979, 81.
[25] Guo: <boyhood >> Beijing: People's Literature Publishing House, 1997, page 114.

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