Further understanding of the urban form of the ancient legacy

[Summary] since the Han Dynasty to and ends at the castle for counties Zhisuo built the policies of the Ming and Qing dynasties emphasis calendar change, the counties Zhisuo city wall of the actual Hing built, maintenance also vary and can not simply assume that the historical period city ​​wall surround most of the counties where the rule most of the period are to form within the walls of the city, built a considerable part of the city wall of the legacy of the city, are generally formed a scale ranging from the city to the next neighborhood, an area of ​​some urban city under blocks resident population, commercial scale over the city. therefore, should not be "within the walls of the city," summarizes the morphological characteristics of China ancient Zhisuo city.

[Keywords] Zhisuo the City, city walls, city under neighborhoods, the problem of the proposed
Generally believed that most of the major cities of the ancient Chinese city walls around chapter of Health Road, said: "for the concept of the city on the Chinese people, the walls have been extremely important, so that the city and the walls of the traditional wording is unity, 'City' Chinese characters both on behalf of the city, but also on behalf of the city wall in the imperial era, most of China's urban population is concentrated in the walled city without walls for the city center in a sense, at least not orthodox city. "[1]. Masayoshi said: "City the (walled ¢ town ¢ or ¢ walled ¢ city) is a special product of Chinese culture, the prominent sign, constitute the human geography of the unique landscape of the Chinese Cultural Circle" [2] Therefore, in many studies by the pen, the ancient Chinese city is generally described as surrounded by tall walls of Ben Zhu or brick surround (some cities also built two to three walls), the walls of the Quartet of open three, four to seven, eight City door (less the city less than three or more than eight and even up to twelve gates), usually outside the walls of the moat (not necessarily around the walls, often by means of a natural river as moats, patron of the part or not dig trenches) the shape of the castle is usually irregular square or rectangular individual was round, the size of the city (usually administrative levels of the city to measure the perimeter of the wall), but generally higher, "the city land reach twelve square kilometers in size is a very common thing, "much higher than in Europe and Japan, the castle is a large" city includes not only the various government offices, houses, shops, there are large tracts of open space (including the garden, the mountains, Chuan Quan , even farmland). The pattern of the city by its administrative functions and the Shing Mun number of constraints: government offices and other public authority buildings generally located in the city's north-central, Lou Qiao often located in the middle of the number and arrangement of the gates of the city largely determine street layout [3].

Needless to say, the above understanding is built on a large number of historical documents, field observation and research foundation, reveals important aspects of the historical facts. However, careful analysis of the above understanding, we note that it is based on the literature there are two main aspects: (1) the center of the local history of the Ming and Qing official literature. Almost every farming Chronicles has documented this city the PCO shrine homes, temples, bridges as well as the city Jiequ We recognize the legacy of urban spatial form the main basis of the internal structure., However, out of the authority attention to, and these powers and beliefs facilities has obvious symbolic meaning, these historical documents, the city, Corruption and power facilities, status, role, and even its spatial form are obviously exaggerated. On this point, as long as we pay attention to the completely disproportionate spatial location the various Ming and Qing local history in the city in the map attached to the public opinion on a map as well as the official shrine Government Office in the city on the map occupied, it will leave a deep impression [4]. Such written with ancient map with exaggerated emphasis on city's reinforced walls surround the characteristics of the ancient Chinese city of its use as the function of the political control of the military and administrative center, will guide people to overlook some details, such as the presence of outside the walls of blocks, and city ​​commercial economic function. (2) account of early missionaries and other Westerners about Chinese cities, which is the main basis for Western scholars to understand and describe the ancient Chinese city. these are derived mainly from the eyewitness account of perceptual color everywhere visible: When Westerners came to a prosperous city, apparently easier magnificent city wall and spacious tall shrine Scotia attracted bustling European cities in the same market and crowded neighborhoods are more neglect [5]. exaggerated description without quote Marco Polo controversial, even if it is the most direct and reliable Western eyewitness records left, also of the city wall, roads and description of the shrine homes occupy a prominent advantage position. confirm each other with the traditional Chinese literature to the attention of the city, government offices, mainly of the ancient Chinese city provides strong evidence for this view within the walls of the city. "

Also be pointed out: the understanding of the morphology and structure of the ancient Chinese city space so far are mainly derived from the some total probability description of case studies and typical city, the former based on observed data, which are mainly concentrated in some of the history of important cities (especially capital). fact, Chinese urban history and the history of urban geography have been more susceptible to the academic attention, but relevant local urban spatial form and structure is relatively weak. Research important reason for the weak is also basically stay in the perceptual stage of our understanding of the morphology and structure of the ancient Chinese city space.

Therefore, we believe that one of the main features of the so-called Chinese ancient city but within the walls of the city, this argument has not been a practical and comprehensive empirical proof, just based on some intuitive understanding with typical case studies which there are a number of doubts: (1) in ancient China, in particular, from the Qin and Han until the Qing Dynasty, most of the legacy of the city by the city walls around the time how long that is, whether the most-inch segment most of the legacy of the city were built city wall and the city wall does play a role? (2) at different stages of history, built the Chengyuan the legacy of the city whether occupied legacy of the city's most? (3) Ancient Governance the city's neighborhoods and residents whether all or most of walls around within, in other words, whether all or most of the city by the city walls surrounded? Obviously, to effectively answer these questions, the most reliable way is more detailed case studies, Shiba Yoshinobu once pointed out: "the study of the history of Chinese cities by the accumulation of a large number of case studies, and gradually form the overall understanding of the morphology and spatial structure of the ancient city and its evolution. usually always in Chang'an and Luoyang like Beijing or mode, waking summarizes China's cities, but also to meet thinking very deeply rooted in this research, it is difficult to make, such as general and informal urban theory, urban form theory or urban ecological theory class. "He believes that only through the study and comparison of many individual cities to identify the universality and particularity, in order to extract the correct exposition of the history of urban development in China [6]. follow this Research Way to the castle of the ancient Han the flow Zhisuo city in the formation and evolution of the spatial structure of the outer edge of the shape and the inner city, to carry out a detailed study possible this article, combined with the other parts of the city cases and related research explore to make some of these issues.

Second, the presence or absence of the Walls

In the history of ancient Chinese dynasties has been pursuing a policy of construction of the city wall? If the dynasty pursued this policy, then, if it around the universal implementation of that fact is common for the local urban construction from the city walls? In this regard, in recent years some scholars questioned and draw some preliminary recognize, that "at least in the Chinese dynasty late Song and Yuan dynasties, Ming and mid up to five years time, many local cities in China long decadent city wall destroyed, even without walls for the state "[7]. combined with the study of the ancient Han River basin cities as well as the understanding of the other parts of the city, on this basis, we believe that the city walls of the ancient legacy can be built, the abolition of the case, roughly divided into four periods:

(1 Han and Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties, Dynasty prevailing fortification policy, in fact, all over the city are generally Hing build the city wall.

<< Han Ji Gotti under Hutchison emperor six years (201 BC) Winter in October, "make everyone Counties City." Analysis of the Functions Note says: "County eup, Jieling fortification." Commentators multi concluded that the Han Dynasty pursue fortification policy see from this historical look, indeed more common implementation of this policy, most counties legacy built a castle (which a considerable portion is follow the pre-Qin the Warring States Period built the Old City), and often get the maintenance, repair [8] in the Hanjiang River, Nanyang Gunji Wan (Nanyang, Henan), Hanzhong Gunji Xicheng (Western Han Dynasty in Shaanxi Ankang) and Nanzheng (Han), Jiangxia Gunji Xiling (in this Hubei Yunmeng county towns) and Yicheng, champion, Bo Wang, Yu Yang, West Hubei, spine Yang, than the sun, blocking the sun, Hu Yang, Li, safety and the public, the new capital, Deng, Xiang Township Chung Ling, Chaoyang, Pro, ju County built a castle and archaeological exploration or excavation has been proved [9], which further illustrate the Han Dynasty counties legacy than generally built a city wall, no city wall the county governance when not too more than [10].

The Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties can be described as the history of ancient Chinese city ranking era: on the one hand, since the Three Kingdoms until in the Sui and Tang, the Central Plains and instability, turmoil and frequent, "people in exile, where the massed" [11] - " native moved away from home who can not stay away from, you probably gathered clan Xiangdang, Fort Tunju dock According the insurance automorphic to avoid Rongdi Koudao to difficult "[12], moved westward to North migration, immigrants from the south, also mostly, according to the city wall to protect themselves, to form the center of the cities, dock fort, garrison barrier populated state. dock Fort on the other hand, the regime for local rule, or by powerful families built their places standing gun County, occasioned dock Fort became State and County Zhisuo, or by the Fang Changli "Convergence of the people Paul castle" to choose strategically located at a separate city walls, thought guarding the capital. Thus, this period was widely Hing built many fortresses It Shu-Fen Liu statistics, this period fortification Guo Wei and Jin Dynasties are found in the records by a total of 137 [13], Chapter Health said statistics showed that since the Western Jin Dynasty to and ends at the Sui reunification (265-289), the North and South Xinzhu castle a total of 169, which is located south of Qinling Huaihe region 121. Obviously, the northern region of the southern region of this period the newly built castle than a lot more [14] Therefore, although this period is difficult to estimate Guo of the total number of fortification, but throughout this period were generally Hing building various types of city wall dock fort, with membership accounts and more living in the door of which or attached to the city, when the big mistake.

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(2) during the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Dynasty Although advocates fortification, but around often adapted to local conditions, or to use the old city wall, or a new building, by building the city wall, or there is no city wall.

Next >> << the Sui Shu and Yang Tai Chi in mind the great cause of in February Gengwu eleven years (615 years), Chao said: "today under Heiichi home and Yan, should it is learned that the city ranks field with nearly to, so that the strength of compatibility, labor service and economic, wear a hole in a wall nothing resting its Jian Gui, Huan Po shall poly its fugitive. "So," county township eup, noted severance fortification, fat men and women, no less long are Battle. "[15] the Emperor taste pursue fortification policy. however, its chaos of the situation has become, For "it is noted that the city ranks" to strengthen its rule is no possible, so although of world counties Xijie fortification, made by Zeshen fresh .

Early, at least in the northern side, have been widely advocated fortification. High Zuwu De 2007 (624) June sent edge state of repair Castello, police fung climate, and to prepare for Hu. "[16] Takenori nine spring and the first month << repair rim barrier plug Chao >> said: states were North Road home Walled City, Thick Zhoubian, failed to note ....... its Citadel town Shu, and shall be repaired trial amount of distance, details count skill, where soldiers and civilians, and the co-operators, the Division with Article , Works for success. "[17] Zhao Ming," the Secretary has the strip, fortification, or has become a system. << Laws in Tang Dynasty >> Volume 8 << Methodist ban >> the "more 州镇 garrison city wall bar cloud : "all the more states, the town, the garrison city and arsenal Sadakazu Acts year, the county seat, stick ninety (formerly Note: Access by all that.) [sparse] meeting, saying: states were and the town of Shu by each city. the Yuecheng, and arsenal Ogaki, each co Acts Vietnam county, stick ninety vertical no city wall, trellis "[18] in accordance with the system requirements, the states were the town garrison County are when each city "," vertical city wall, the fence is also. "

However, these systems and regulations does not mean that the Tang Dynasty, the state (government) County Zhisuo that are generally built castle. The listed Atago $ << Tang Dynasty counties castle Glance "table, a total of 164 counties indicate fortification era castle , of which 90 were built in the Tang Tianbao (excluding Tianbao years), accounting for 55% of the county fortification era State all known [19]. specify fortification era before Tang Tianbao (including Tianbao years) 74 counties in town, marked the fortification's real rather suspicious in the Qin Dynasty who apocryphal [20] Some Notes on the castle built by the late Han or Three Sunwu require thorough test set [21]. Tang Tianbao after the fortification Guo proportion of all counties known fortification era castle, only bigger, let alone does not indicate the fortification era those counties castle, a considerable part of the Tempo after the building in other words , the castle square built after these Tempo counties Zhisuo, Tempo previously, that is, Tang and mid 100 years, has not built wall, mid-Before the Tang Dynasty, there may be more than half of the counties legacy has not built the city wall.

Of course, the literature records no fortification does not illustrate the counties Zhisuo itself that no city wall, and is likely to follow the Han, Wei and since the old city walls, just before the mid-term in the Tang not add maintenance only. Studies have shown that, in the Tang before the mid- 58 counties legacy of the city of the Han River basin, Sui and Early newly built or rebuilt castle only two, accounting for 3.4% of the city's legacy of: follow the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties old city wall 40 total Governance 69% of the city's Early Tang Dynasty, remaining l6 seat counties where the rule is likely no city wall, accounting for 27.6% of the city's legacy. Clearly, state county follow the old city with basic it can be concluded that there is no castle, occupied all governance The vast majority of the city's Han River basin. Tang Dynasty 58 states county, although weak Tang Empire more than 1,500 of the state (government) county accounted for only 4%, the presence or absence of the castle-established with the construction of the case may not be representative , and then combined with love dang $ 331 detailed study of the Tang Dynasty counties castle can be concluded: Sui and the Tang before the mid-term, the vast majority of counties legacy to follow the legacy of the previous generation of the city wall, or there is no city walls, only a very small some counties Zhisuo new building or change to build a city wall.

So, just to "Rebellion", around the only common Hing building, upgrading or expanding and maintenance of the city wall, especially many state capital Zhisuo city, generally built in Rochester, which is love dang yuan full argument "Tang end of the Five Dynasties counties castle-scale expansion "[22]. later literature and archaeological findings seen in the Tang Dynasty castle, mostly Late Tang and Five Hing building, expanding and maintenance or rehabilitation of other words, only in the Late Tang and Five most of the counties Zhisuo before gradually build the castle.

(3) during the Song and Yuan Dynasties, Dynasty basically do not advocate fortification, the mainland counties also generally not fortification, only in the frontier city and some important cities, Hing building or attention to safeguarding the city wall.

Early Song, Correctional Services in the Late Tang and Five the disparate administrative regions of the disadvantages Zeng JAC Zhu Jun ruined waste city wall, therefore of the Huainan, Jingxiang, Jiangnan things, Liangzhe, Fujian, Quang Nam, Sichuan and other southern regions, forced or spontaneous destroyed city wall the phenomenon is more common, leading to many House the counties Zhisuo city a long city walls, although the old city and for many years without repair its natural waste in the Mainland counties do not advocate fortification policy, basically a continuation of the whole Song Dynasty, in fact, the Song Dynasty era Mainland (Northern and Southern Song between the meaning of the "Mainland" is not the same) The counties Zhisuo also largely complete city walls, basically in the free city state [23]. research Song Han River basin the County legacy of the 49 states (Prefecture), the North Song Dynasty can determine there is still the city walls, only 11, accounting for 22% of the city's legacy slightly stronger repair can be determined in the Southern Song Dynasty, rebuilt or new repair the city wall, only seven, accounting for 14% of the city's legacy is confirmed by the still city wall only Xiangzhou, Ying Zhou and both state yuan in late 3 In other words, since the Northern Song to until the Yuan Han River basin built a castle the counties Zhisuo city showing a tendency to gradually reduce our view, this should be the Mainland Jin times trend.

In stark contrast not advocate fortification in the Mainland, the Mainland counties indeed also generally fortification Guo, Song more emphasis on the borderland of fortification, the many frontier counties Zhisuo indeed electricity and build a city wall. Early Northern Song, in north with northwest edge of Hebei, Hedong, Shaanxi Zhu Lu fortification [24], in the late Northern Song Dynasty until the Southern Song Dynasty, mainly in the southwest Road, the Jinghu South rim zone and Fujian, the coastal areas of Guangdong Road fortification [25] but the universality of the frontier counties of fortification should not overestimate the Xining decade (1077), in the book Ha said at the memorial to the throne Reply Shenzong Chao asked: "look at the detailed world city wall, in addition to the five-State The the military fortresses unsolicited Que completing, you can at Defense, the points of Rd counties and states were county wall never repair their own damage, also castle at. "Even the border of Hebei East, West and Hedong , the Qin Feng Yongxin Military Rd only state, military city regularly repair and how long it does not repair the five-county and other areas of the state, county and natural waste destroy some counties Zhisuo of and "castle" [26]

Generally, Mongolia, during the reign of the Yuan Dynasty in around the universal implementation of the ruined city and to prohibit repair the city's policy, especially in the number of Mongolian troops have been setbacks, Sichuan, Xiang Han, Jinghu, the Huaihe River, flat ruined a lot of castle [27]. The Yuan Dynasty, the law also prohibits the Han Chinese areas, especially the old haunt of the Southern Song Dynasty built the castle [28]. Therefore, Although Motosue in some places had spontaneous Hing building a lot of city wall, but in general, Mongolia, the reign of the Yuan Dynasty, basically may be regarded as a "ruined city" era.

(4) of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Dynasty compare advocated fortification, but there is a big stage with regional differences in the implementation of this policy, in fact, most of the counties Zhisuo city just to the middle of Ming generally built from the castle, Qing Dynasty is the maintenance of the old city of the Ming Dynasty, just built in the late Qing Xing minority Metro.

Generally speaking, the Ming and Qing dynasties pursued a policy advocated fortification, one of the duties of the magistrate is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the city wall Melco pool, if any negligence, to be held accountable [29] However, this policy in specific implementation process, because when varies from place to place. summary of the Ming dynasty two fortification height of: Hongwu, Yongle reign (1368-1424), not only in Shandong, South Zhili, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and other coastal areas and some mainland construction of a large number of guard the city [30], and most of the government, state (including scattered state) legacy in this period Hing built or re-built castle [31 ], in the late Ming, Jingtai to a Wanli early (1450-1573), more than 100 years, not only rebuilt most of the prefectures in the city walls (mainly Zhou brick, stone), and Hing built, changed builded Most of the county, to the late Ming, it is estimated that more than two-thirds of the county built a city wall [32]. Obviously, the correspondence between the Ming Dynasty of Government counties Zhisuo fortification of has its military, administrative status associated.

Unrest in the Ming and Qing dynasties, most of the government (state) county Guo are subject to varying degrees of damage, so Shunzhi, Kangxi, Yongzheng period, were generally around the repair mutilation pour Wherever Guo. Repair the city in the early Qing Dynasty, the Old City, in the Ming Dynasty, the old city on the basis of earth, ceramic tile, heightening and repair buildings battlements, pay special attention to the maintenance of the gates, towers, but less Formulating rarely Hing building Metro until the Jiaqing later, in response to social unrest intensified and lead to law and order, defense issues, as well as the use of firearms is increasingly common for city offensive and defensive impact before and the rise of the climax of a Shuji castle: reinforcement city wall, increased horse-faced Tim set fort, dredging, Melco pool, etc., in the process, the original has not been some mountain counties governance of the city walls Hing building the city wall to the Qing Dynasty, the late rare, most of the prefecture (state) County legacy built a castle, and to varying degrees maintenance. Around this deposit castle remnants, mostly of the Qing Dynasty castle remains.

To sum up: since the Han Dynasty to till in the Ming and Qing dynasties for counties Zhisuo built the castle of policy with emphasis both calendar changes over the implementation of policy is often due to land even due to (local officials) and different, Emerging therefore the counties Zhisuo city wall building, maintenance of the same historical period, most of the counties where the rule for most of the period both city wall surrounded the formation of the so-called "within the walls of the city can not simply assume that we think : at least more than half of the state (county) County legacy built a castle, and these castle system requires at least get regular maintenance side during this period can be called "fortification era. Whereas, in a nutshell two Northern and Southern and Northern Dynasties (206 BC - AD 589), in the Late Tang and Five (755 years is 60 years), three periods of the mid-Ming to the Qing Dynasty (1450 -1911), or can be referred to as "fortification era ", the rest of the Sui and Tang dynasties before the mid-term (589 -755), Song to Early Ming Dynasty (960 -1450), the base can be asserted, built a castle to the state (county) county cities in all counties legacy does not exceed 50%, or can be referred to as "non-fortification era." fortification era occupy more than 1,500 years, while the non-fortification era only 600 years, but this is sufficient to show: "within the walls of the city "summarized the characteristics of China's ancient legacy of the city, at least not entirely accurate, it can neither apply to all historical periods, can not be applicable to all the legacy of the city.

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